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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Nargis Kaisar Boles Makhaiel and Michael Leslie Joseph Sherer

This paper aims to study the influence of political-economic reform and especially privatisation on the quality of financial reporting of the Egyptian companies.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the influence of political-economic reform and especially privatisation on the quality of financial reporting of the Egyptian companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses data from official documents and 34 interviews with company executives, financial analysts, external auditors and Stock Exchange regulators to inform our understanding of the relationship between changes in the Egyptian environment and the quality of financial reporting.

Findings

The findings of the research suggest that the recent Egyptian political-economic reform, resulting in privatisation has significant influence on negative accounting practices and hence on lowering the quality of financial reporting through its effect on: departure from uniform accounting system and public accounting regulations; issuing new stock exchange regulative rules; reviving the role of Stock Exchange; and increasing competition within Stock Exchange regarding raising funds.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by identifying the effect of socio-cultural factors on motivating executives to 7 exercise negative accounting practices and hence producing low-quality financial reports (FRs) and by highlighting the fact that accounting practices cannot be generalised worldwide due to the absence of universal socio-cultural factors which shape these practices. This paper employs new institutional sociology theory and contributes to that theory by acknowledging the active interplay between institutional context and economic environment.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2021

Amani Hussein and Ghadir Nounou

This study aims to examine the impact of internet financial reporting (IFR) on companies’ performances as measured by three performance indicators, namely, stock price…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of internet financial reporting (IFR) on companies’ performances as measured by three performance indicators, namely, stock price, stock returns and company value.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 139 non-financial companies listed in the Egyptian stock exchange is used and classified as 108 IFR companies and 31 non-IFR companies. To test the research hypotheses, an independent t-test and multiple linear regression analyses are used.

Findings

The results indicate that there are no significant differences between IFR companies and non-IFR companies for both stock price and stock return variables. Conversely, there is a significant difference between IFR companies and non-IFR companies in the company value variable. These results imply rejecting hypotheses H1 and H4 and accepting the hypothesis of H7 that the presence of IFR has an impact on company value. The multiple regression analyses results indicate a significant relation between the scope of IFR and stock price. Likewise, between the degree of IFR and company value. Both degree and scope of IFR have an insignificant impact on stock return, which infer that applying different performance measures can reveal different conclusions.

Research limitations/implications

This research is a snapshot of IFR limited to a cross-sectional study and could not study the longitudinal data of internet reporting. Second, Marston and Polei (2004) contend that “weights contain an element of subjectivity, which cannot be completely avoided in the composition of such a score” (p. 297) and a variation in the disclosure index can lead to a modification in the results (Kaur and Kaur, 2020). This research applied a weighted index to measure the degree of IFR, which may affect the results and may change it if other indexes are applied. Moreover, the scores of the degree and scope of information disclosure are assumed to be similar every year due to the lack of information regarding the variations in content and presentation in the companies’ websites. Finally, the absence of a complete data set and stock prices for some companies in the sample.

Practical implications

To enhance the quantity and quality of IFR could be implemented through setting regulations and standards to govern IFR practices companies in Egypt. Moreover, the trade-off of the requirement of the Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority for Egyptian companies make information available online and the secrecy culture profound in the Egyptian society (Ahmed et al., 2015) involve assigning a regulatory body for monitoring the IFR practices to ensure disseminating timely and accurate information that helps investors make rational decisions.

Social implications

The researchers recommend the suggestion to have an external assurance conducted by external auditors to enhance the accuracy and credibility of the IFR information.

Originality/value

Based on prior literature, no studies in Egypt compare between IFR companies and non-IFR companies concerning stock price and company value as measured by Tobin’s Q. Moreover, few research studies in Egypt covered the degree of IFR disclosure whilst not addressing the impact on the stock price. In addition, no prior study examined the scope of IFR disclosure in Egypt. Therefore, the research findings attribute to literature.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2019

Nargis Kaisar Boles Makhaiel

This paper aims at studying earnings management phenomenon in its wider social and economic context to get better understanding for the following points: whether there is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims at studying earnings management phenomenon in its wider social and economic context to get better understanding for the following points: whether there is “one-size-fits-all” earning management approach which can be widespread applied among nations and whether the Egyptian context affects managers’ trade-off between three different earnings management approaches: accounting, operational and investment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts interpretive approach and analyses data from official documents and 34 interviews with company executives; financial analysts; external auditors; and Stock Exchange regulators to inform our understanding of the influence of the Egyptian context on the trade-off between earnings management approaches.

Findings

The results show that there is no application for “one-size-fits-all” earning management approach; unlike the developed cultures, where R&D expenses and overproduction are extensively used for boosting profits, in Egyptian context they are not valid tools. The findings indicate that the Egyptian political and economic context remarkably affect managers trade-off earnings management approaches, leading executives to prefer operational manipulation compared with others.

Originality/value

This paper extends but adds to the literature by shedding light on the different implications of earning management theories based on the variation in the political, economic and operational contexts of firms; identifying that operational cash flows matter more to managers than accounting profits; focusing on the fact that managers differentiate and compare between three various earning management approaches: accounting techniques, investment activities and operational activities; and showing that changes in political and economic Egyptian context makes operational manipulation favorable to be adopted compared with others. It also overcomes the criticism of New Institutional Sociology Theory.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Nargis Makhaiel and Michael Sherer

Previous literature on earnings management (EM) indicates that managers are motivated to adjust reported income to serve their own self-interests, and to try and influence…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous literature on earnings management (EM) indicates that managers are motivated to adjust reported income to serve their own self-interests, and to try and influence capital markets. However, previous research has failed to provide an appropriate theoretical underpinning for EM and has ignored the effect of cultural and environmental factors on shaping managers’ motivations. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to draw on interpretive methodology and new institutional sociology (NIS) theory to identify the external factors that motivate managers of Egyptian companies to use EM to modify financial statements.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopted an interpretative methodology and interview methods. Interviewees were conducted with 34 participants, who were divided into four different categories; executives, financial analysts, auditors and stock exchanges’ authorities.

Findings

This paper provides empirical evidence on the range of external factors that motivate Egyptian corporate executives to adjust the earnings number in financial statements. These external factors include the expectations of investors, lenders and employees, the impact of stock exchange listing rules, beating an earnings target, and the privatisation of key state-owned companies.

Research limitations/implications

The authors recognise that the paper has a number of limitations. The research is concerned solely with EM in Egypt and, therefore, it would not be safe to generalise the results to other contexts, even in the Middle East. Further research on the behaviour of managers towards EM in other countries would be useful to test validity of the results reported in this paper.

Originality/value

The principal contribution of this paper is to build on the previous EM literature to include external factors within the Egyptian context which motivate Egyptian managers to manage the earnings of companies in an upward direction. It adds additional EM motives to available literature including: employees, stock exchange’s rules, privatisation and meeting industrial norms. Also, the paper provides evidence of the effect of concentrated share ownership on managers’ likelihood to engage in EM behaviour. The paper also extends NIS theory to recognise the importance of the interplay between institutional and economic environment by including economic reform, and non-financial providers as factors that can explain the EM behaviour.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Wael Mostafa

Motivated by the lack of research on the value relevance of accounting information in the emerging markets of Middle Eastern countries, and the unique institutional and…

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1776

Abstract

Purpose

Motivated by the lack of research on the value relevance of accounting information in the emerging markets of Middle Eastern countries, and the unique institutional and accounting setting in Egypt, this paper aims to investigate the relation between capital market and accounting information in the emerging market of Egypt. Specifically, based on Egyptian data, this study examines the value relevance of earnings, cash flows from operations and book values.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the value relevance of the above accounting measures, this study uses statistical associations between accounting information and capital market values: the association between earnings and annual returns; the association between cash flows and accruals, and annual returns; and the association between earnings and book values of equity, and stock prices.

Findings

The results show that, first, earnings have value relevance. However, earnings changes are significantly more successful than earnings levels in explaining security returns. These results suggest that changes in earnings are largely permanent; hence, earnings follow (close to) a random walk model. Second, contrary to what is stated in the literature, cash flows from operations are not successful in explaining stock returns. This result suggests that cash flows are less important and not value relevant in Egypt compared to the USA or the UK. A possible explanation is that cash flows in Egypt are very volatile (high variance) and not persistent, so the market does not rely on them. Third, individually, both earnings and book values significantly explain stock prices; however, jointly, earnings have incremental explanatory power beyond book values for stock prices whereas book values do not. These results suggest that in Egypt the income statement is much more important than the balance sheet for valuation purposes. Overall, these results are interesting because they do not completely replicate the results from other countries.

Practical implications

The existence of value relevance for earnings despite the apparent lack of value relevance for cash flows can be interpreted as indicating that accruals are designed to offset and smooth cash flows’ volatility and low value relevance, so that earnings are relatively more persistent and relevant. These results show that earnings potentially are a much more important and informative measure of a firm’s value than cash flows from operations in Egypt. However, we certainly need the cash flows information as an ex-post validation of the prior earnings. Overall, it appears that the investors in Egypt are looking at the accounting data when evaluating the value of the firm, which is a good sign. However, the empirical findings of this paper are discussed.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited research on value relevance of accounting information in the emerging market of Egypt.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Ahmed Aboud and Ahmed Diab

This study aims to examine the combined impact of environmental, social and governance (ESG) ratings on the market and financial performance of Egyptian companies during…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the combined impact of environmental, social and governance (ESG) ratings on the market and financial performance of Egyptian companies during the period from 2007 to 2016 and, thereby, determines the influence of the recent political revolutions –that broke out in the MENA region in early 2011 – on the association between ESG practices and corporate performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work uses data from the S&P/EGX ESG index, which is the first of its kind in the MENA region. The ESG index is designed to increase the profile of companies listed on the Egyptian Exchange and is expected to boost the level and quality of ESG practices in the Egyptian context. The sample includes the 100 most active Egyptian companies in the Egyptian Stock Exchange as measured by the EGX 100 index in the financial year that ended in 2016. The sample begins in 2007, concurrent with the start of the ESG index, and ends in 2016. The period from 2007 to 2010 represents the pre-revolution period, and the period from 2012 to 2016 is the post-revolution period.

Findings

Firms with high ESG ratings are found to enjoy a better financial and market performance. The authors found some evidence that the influence of ESG ratings on financial performance is more obvious after the revolutions than before the revolutions.

Practical implications

This study provides insights regarding the impact of political events on the market in the Middle East region. Despite its increasing economic and political importance, this region still suffers from inadequate attention in the literature. The present work investigates the variances that evolved out of the events that started in early 2011 and the implications of these events on the market. The results of this study have implications for regulators and investors in the Egyptian stock market. The authors believe that the relatively new S&P/EGX ESG index provides a way to enhance ESG ratings in Egypt.

Social implications

The results of the present study provide insights for policymakers regarding the usefulness of the sustainability indices.

Originality/value

The present results contribute to the growing literature on the economic consequences of ESG ratings, especially in relation to a context characterized by intense political/revolutionary changes. In particular, this study contributes to the few works that have addressed the economic implications of ESG ratings in emerging markets.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Abdelmohsen M. Desoky and Gehan A. Mousa

The paper aims to empirically investigate the influence of ownership concentration and identity on firm performance using a sample of 99 of the most active publicly listed…

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1157

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to empirically investigate the influence of ownership concentration and identity on firm performance using a sample of 99 of the most active publicly listed companies on the Egyptian Exchange (EGX).

Design/methodology/approach

Firm performance of the sampled companies was measured by two different accounting measures, namely return on assets “ROA”, return on equity “ROE”, then the ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis and the two‐stage least square (2SLS) regression analysis were employed.

Findings

OLS and 2SLS regression analyses show that ownership concentration has significant impact on firm performance when measuring by ROE. Regarding ownership identity, OLS regression analyses by both ROA and ROE show that the overall ownership identity has a significant impact on firm performance, as well as particular types of investors such as funds. Further, ownership identity and firm performance (when measured by ROA) had a significant endogeneity problem supporting the use of 2SLS as an effective analysis tool for such investigation.

Research limitations/implications

Findings of such research may not be generalizable to different countries at different stages of development, or with different business environments and cultures. Also, the sampled companies, 99 Egyptian companies, may be a small number which needs to be extended in a future research.

Originality/value

This paper provides an empirical investigation on the association between ownership structure and firm performance in the Egyptian context. It examines the role played by two aspects of ownership structure: the fraction of shares owned by the three largest shareholding interests (ownership concentration) and the fraction of shares owned by different type of shareholders (ownership identity) including seven separate groups of owners.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Hany Kamel and Emad Awadallah

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current level of voluntary corporate disclosure in the Egyptian Stock Exchange. In addition, it explores the factors…

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1080

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current level of voluntary corporate disclosure in the Egyptian Stock Exchange. In addition, it explores the factors influencing the extensiveness of voluntary disclosure and examines the potential consequences of such disclosure in regards to the phenomenon of earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

A relevant disclosure index to the Egyptian context was adopted to assess the level of voluntary disclosure in the 2010 annual reports of the most actively traded companies listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange. The relationship between the extent of voluntary disclosure and each specific-related factor was examined using unranked and ranked OLS regression models. Meanwhile, a system of simultaneous equations was performed using a two-stage least squares regression model in order to investigate whether companies with higher levels of voluntary disclosure exhibit lower levels of earnings management practices.

Findings

The results indicate that the level of voluntary disclosure is positively responsive to specific corporate attributes, namely, the type of auditing firm and the two industries of Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals, and Chemicals. However, no significant indications were found that firm size, leverage, profitability and liquidity are important determinants of corporate disclosure. Also, the results show no evidence to support the prior anticipation that a higher level of voluntary disclosure reduces the ability of managers to make use of earnings management. On the contrary, it was found that leverage and the tendency of firms to avoid reporting declines in earnings are the main drivers of the phenomenon of earnings management in Egypt.

Practical implications

This paper has important implications for both domestic and overseas investors in Egypt as well as the regulatory authorities in the developing economies.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is its focus on the extent of voluntary disclosure in a developing country such as Egypt, which has a high potential for economic growth in the near future. Besides, this paper is the first to examine the relationship between the level of voluntary disclosure and the phenomenon of earnings management in the Egyptian context.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2018

Noura Metawa, M. Kabir Hassan, Saad Metawa and M. Faisal Safa

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between investors’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level and experience) and their investment decisions…

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3745

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between investors’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level and experience) and their investment decisions through behavioral factors (sentiment, overconfidence, overreaction and underreaction and herd behavior) as mediator variables in the Egyptian stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper collects data from a structured questionnaire survey carried out among 384 local Egyptian, foreign, institutional and individual investors. This paper used a partial multiple regression method to analyze the effect of investors’ demographic characteristics on investment decisions through behavioral factors as the mediator variable.

Findings

Investor sentiment, overreaction and underreaction, overconfidence and herd behavior significantly affect investment decisions. Also, age, gender and the level of education have significant positive effects on investment decisions by investors. Experience does not play a significant role in investment decisions, but as investors gain experience, they tend to overlook the emotional factors.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper would help to understand common behavioral patterns of investors and indicate a path toward the growth of the Egyptian stock market.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research in behavioral finance covering Middle East and North African markets. This paper attempts to fulfill the gap by analyzing behavioral factors in the Egyptian market.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

Ahmed Kholeif

Purpose – This article examines a detailed case study of the symbolic use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) in an Egyptian state-owned company (AQF…

Abstract

Purpose – This article examines a detailed case study of the symbolic use of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) in an Egyptian state-owned company (AQF Co.) that is partially privatized by drawing on new institutional sociology (NIS) and its extensions. It explains how the ceremonial use of IFRSs is shaped by the interplay between institutionalized accounting practices, conflicting institutions, power relations, and the role of information technology (IT) in institutionalizing accounting rules and routines.

Methodology/approach – The research methodology is based on an intensive case study informed by NIS, especially the interplay between conflicting institutions, power relations, and IT role in institutionalizing accounting practice. Data were collected from multiple sources, including interviews, discussions, and documentary analysis.

Findings – The findings revealed that the company faced conflicting institutional demands from outside. The Central Agency for Accountability required the company to use the Uniform Accounting System (as a state-owned enterprise) and the Egyptian Capital Market Authority (CMA) required the company to use IFRSs (as a partially private sector company registered in the stock exchange). To meet these conflicting institutional demands, the company adopted loosely coupled accounting rules and routines and IT was used in institutionalizing existing Uniform Accounting System and preserving the status quo.

Research limitations – This study has limitations associated with its use of the case study method, including the inability to generalize from the findings of a single case study and the subjective interpretation by the researcher of the empirical data.

Practical implications – This article identifies that the interplay between institutional pressures, institutionalized accounting practices, intra-organizational power relations, and the role of IT in institutionalizing accounting routines contributed to the ceremonial use of IFRSs in an Egyptian state-owned enterprise. Understanding such relationships can help other organizations to become more aware of the factors affecting successful implementation and internalization of IFRSs and provide a better basis for planning the introduction of IFRSs into other organizations worldwide.

Originality/value of article – This article draws on recent research and thinking in sociology, especially the development and application of NIS. In addition, this article is concerned with the symbolic use of IFRSs in a transitional developing economy, Egypt, and hence contributes to debate about exporting Western accounting practices and other technologies to countries with different cultures and different stages of economic and political development.

Details

Research in Accounting in Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-452-9

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1 – 10 of over 1000