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I evaluate the accuracy with which respondents report egocentered network data. I find that 72% of the time ego’s assessment of the tie between a pair of alters…
I evaluate the accuracy with which respondents report egocentered network data. I find that 72% of the time ego’s assessment of the tie between a pair of alters corresponded with both alters’ report of the tie between themselves, and 87% of the time, ego’s report of the tie between a pair of alters is in agreement with at least one of the alters. I discuss the implications of the findings for the debate over the merits of egocentered network data.
This paper aims first to identify the patterns and governance modes of strategic alliances between microfirms and second, to show that alliances between microfirms have…
This paper aims first to identify the patterns and governance modes of strategic alliances between microfirms and second, to show that alliances between microfirms have specific characteristics.
The research adopts a qualitative approach, based on a survey of 20 alliances. It uses semi‐directive interviews with entrepreneurs of multi‐activity sector firms and discourse analysis.
The paper proposes a typology of microfirm alliances, and highlights the importance of a coherent vision on the part of the partners: egocentered or co‐development logic. First, it explains alliance motivations, and presents the different alliance configurations: patterns, purposes, and entrepreneurs' relationships. Then, it analyses these configurations and governance modes, and shows several specificities: lack of formalisation, absence of contractual relationships, trust, and constrained trust. Finally, the paper questions the impact of strategic alliances on the development of microfirms.
The research contributes to the knowledge of microfirms' strategic behaviours by showing new results about the functioning of strategic alliances. It shows that informal relationships predominate, and it confirms the research into the role of trust for construction and success of interorganisational collaboration.
Social networks are not just patterns of interaction and sentiment in the real world; they are also cognitive (re)constructions of social relations, some real, some…
Social networks are not just patterns of interaction and sentiment in the real world; they are also cognitive (re)constructions of social relations, some real, some imagined. Focusing on networks as mental entities, our essay describes a new method that relies on stylized network images to gather quantitative data on how people “see” specific aspects of their social worlds. We discuss the logic of our approach, present several examples of “visual network scales,” discuss some preliminary findings, and identify some of the problems and prospects in this nascent line of work on the phenomenology of social networks.
Is social network analysis just measures and methods with no theory? We attempt to clarify some confusions, address some previous critiques and controversies surrounding…
Is social network analysis just measures and methods with no theory? We attempt to clarify some confusions, address some previous critiques and controversies surrounding the issues of structure, human agency, endogeneity, tie content, network change, and context, and add a few critiques of our own. We use these issues as an opportunity to discuss the fundamental characteristics of network theory and to provide our thoughts on opportunities for future research in social network analysis.
The prevalent literature considers interlocking directorates as a mechanisms of cooperation among companies, but if the same director seats on the boards of two companies…
The prevalent literature considers interlocking directorates as a mechanisms of cooperation among companies, but if the same director seats on the boards of two companies that are in competition, interlocking directorates, matching cooperation with competition, become a coopetition mechanism. This article aims to argue that the analysis of both the structure and the evolution of interlocking directorates provides some relevant insights on the driving forces behind the coopetition among firms.
Through a longitudinal study the authors analyzed relations among Italian listed firms belonging to financial or manufacturing sectors and traced the evolution networks of interlocking directorates among them. They then analyzed the coopetitive nature of interlocking directorates among firms acting in the same sector that are in direct competition and their impact on M&A processes.
It was evidenced that interlocking directorates among firms belonged to the same industry could be considered a coopetitive mechanism if they facilitate formation of deeper relations among competitors such as their integration through M&A.
This article offers a new perspective of analysis in interlocking directorates' field of research.
The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why…
The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why female and male entrepreneurs experience different growth returns from their social networks across different national cultures.
This research uses a survey of 637 (278 female and 359 male) entrepreneurs across four nations varying on relational culture (importance of social relationships) and gender egalitarianism (importance of gender equality or neutrality in social and economic roles).
The authors find evidence that male entrepreneurs in high relational cultures benefit the most in terms of growth in revenues from larger network size while women in low relational cultures benefit the least. In cultures with low gender egalitarianism, male entrepreneurs benefit more from their larger social networks than did the female entrepreneurs.
The study presents implications for female entrepreneurs’ behaviors to gain more benefits from their social networks, especially in cultural contexts where relationships are important or where there is equality in gender roles. In these contexts, they may need to develop other strategies and rely less on social networks to grow their ventures.
This research suggests that female entrepreneurs still are disadvantaged in some societies. National policy may focus on developing more opportunities and providing more support to women entrepreneurs as a valuable contributor to economic growth of the nations.
The authors disentangle the effects of gender differences, norm-based gender stereotypes and networks on entrepreneurial outcomes.