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Article

Yue Lu, Zhanqing Wang, Defeng Yang and Nakaya Kakuda

Brands are increasingly reflecting social values, and many brands have begun to embrace equality and inclusivity as a marketing strategy. Accordingly, consumers are…

Abstract

Purpose

Brands are increasingly reflecting social values, and many brands have begun to embrace equality and inclusivity as a marketing strategy. Accordingly, consumers are increasingly being exposed to brands associated with different social groups. This paper aims to examine how consumers who have experienced pride respond to brands associated with dissociative out-groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Four studies were conducted. Study 1 tested the basic effect of how the experience of different facets of pride affects consumers’ brand attitudes toward a brand associated with a dissociative out-group. Studies 2 and 3 examined the underlying mechanism of consumers’ psychological endorsement of egalitarianism using both mediation and moderation approaches. Study 4 derived implications of our findings for marketers.

Findings

The results show that consumers respond differently to a brand associated with a dissociative out-group based on the facets of pride they experience. When consumers experience authentic (vs hubristic) pride, they exhibit a more favorable attitude toward the brand associated with the dissociative out-group. This is because authentic (vs hubristic) pride increases consumers’ psychological endorsement of egalitarianism, which enhances consumers’ brand attitudes toward the brand associated with the dissociative out-group.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that brand managers should think about ways to elicit consumers’ authentic pride to minimize the potential backlash from consumers when promoting equality and inclusivity in their brand communications, particularly when such communications contain cues of dissociative out-groups.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the branding literature by identifying pride as an important determinant that can help brands overcome the negative impact of dissociative out-groups on consumers’ brand reactions, enriches the literature on pride by documenting a novel effect of the two facets of pride on consumer behavior and extends the literature of egalitarianism by demonstrating pride as a driver of consumers’ psychological endorsement of egalitarianism.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article

Ruchi Sinha and Christina Stothard

This paper aims to clarify under which conditions, and via what mechanisms, power asymmetry is likely to affect team learning. This work is part of a two-paper series…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify under which conditions, and via what mechanisms, power asymmetry is likely to affect team learning. This work is part of a two-paper series. Part I presents the theoretical arguments linking power asymmetry to team learning via egalitarianism and the moderating role of environmental hardship. In Part II, the authors provide an empirical evaluation of the conceptual model presented in Part I.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was gathered on 4,637 military personnel nested in 143 ongoing teams. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the proposed moderated mediation model. The results show that under higher levels of environmental hardship, teams with higher power asymmetry (greater hierarchy) show greater team egalitarianism and higher team learning.

Findings

The results show that under higher levels of environmental hardship, teams with higher power asymmetry (greater hierarchy) show greater team egalitarianism and higher team learning.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical examination of the proposed relationships is based on a large sample of military teams in the real world. Future research would benefit from testing the model on different samples across industries and adopting different operationalizations for environmental hardship relevant to each industry.

Originality/value

This work provides insights to help practitioners to preserve the coordination benefits of hierarchy, while still promoting more egalitarianism and team learning in hierarchical teams.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article

Ruchi Sinha and Christina Stothard

This paper aims to understand the effects of team power asymmetry (hierarchy) on team learning.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the effects of team power asymmetry (hierarchy) on team learning.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature suggests that power asymmetry can hurt team learning due to unequal interactions. The authors integrate the situated focus theory of power and the theory of adversarial growth to propose that environmental hardship can moderate this relationship. Such that, under environmental hardship there is a shift in power relations within hierarchical teams, such that power asymmetry positively relates to team learning via increased team egalitarianism (interactional equality).

Findings

The study is presented in two parts. Part 1 reviews the literature and builds the theoretical arguments for the conceptual model, while Part 2 empirically examines the model on a sample of military teams. In Part 1, the authors propose a theoretically derived model and directions for future research in team power, dynamics and learning.

Research limitations/implications

It provides directions to empirically validate a contingency-based model to resolve the dilemma of creating equality and high levels of team learning in hierarchical teams.

Originality/value

The conceptual model and hypotheses contribute to the team learning literature by theoretically clarifying the conditions under which power asymmetry is likely to improve team learning.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

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Article

Vassilis Dalakas and Aviv Shoham

The paper intends to enrich the set of national contexts used so far in studies about gift‐giving. It also intends to test the unique explanatory power of the dimensions…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper intends to enrich the set of national contexts used so far in studies about gift‐giving. It also intends to test the unique explanatory power of the dimensions of egalitarianism.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a survey methodology with an Israeli sample.

Findings

The results suggest that egalitarianism affects gift‐giving behaviors only for females and anniversary presents.

Research limitations/implications

The research is not cross‐cultural per se. Thus, further research is needed in nations that are maximally different from the USA and Israel on their cultural dimensions.

Practical implications

Strong social norms about gift‐giving “protocol” may override the effect of egalitarianism attitudes on gift‐giving behavior. Thus, marketers can benefit greatly from creating, nurturing, and promoting ritualistic and structured gift‐giving situations.

Originality/value

The paper examines gift‐giving in Israel, a culturally different setting than the USA and other developed nations. It also extends the use of gender‐role attitudes, especially egalitarianism, as a predictor of gift‐giving behaviors.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Bat Batjargal, Justin W. Webb, Anne Tsui, Jean-Luc Arregle, Michael A. Hitt and Toyah Miller

The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to disentangle individual-level gender differences and norm-based gender roles and stereotypes to provide a finer-grained understanding of why female and male entrepreneurs experience different growth returns from their social networks across different national cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a survey of 637 (278 female and 359 male) entrepreneurs across four nations varying on relational culture (importance of social relationships) and gender egalitarianism (importance of gender equality or neutrality in social and economic roles).

Findings

The authors find evidence that male entrepreneurs in high relational cultures benefit the most in terms of growth in revenues from larger network size while women in low relational cultures benefit the least. In cultures with low gender egalitarianism, male entrepreneurs benefit more from their larger social networks than did the female entrepreneurs.

Practical implications

The study presents implications for female entrepreneurs’ behaviors to gain more benefits from their social networks, especially in cultural contexts where relationships are important or where there is equality in gender roles. In these contexts, they may need to develop other strategies and rely less on social networks to grow their ventures.

Social implications

This research suggests that female entrepreneurs still are disadvantaged in some societies. National policy may focus on developing more opportunities and providing more support to women entrepreneurs as a valuable contributor to economic growth of the nations.

Originality/value

The authors disentangle the effects of gender differences, norm-based gender stereotypes and networks on entrepreneurial outcomes.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article

Gil Aloni and Helena Syna Desivilya

The current study aims to examine couples' conjoint negotiation with a third party, testing the effects of asymmetrical contextual ambiguity, gender stereotypes' priming…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study aims to examine couples' conjoint negotiation with a third party, testing the effects of asymmetrical contextual ambiguity, gender stereotypes' priming and egalitarianism. It predicted differences in the processes of decision making between egalitarian and traditional couples, reflected in choices of female or male negotiator.

Design/methodology/approach

Egalitarianism levels were measured by the Altrocchi and Crosby Marriage Questionnaire. The asymmetrical contextual ambiguity was manipulated through two newly constructed negotiation cases – one feminine‐stereotyped and the other masculine‐stereotyped, based on Miles and LaSalle. Priming of gender stereotypes was manipulated using two passages inducing explicit or implicit priming, based on Kray, Galinsky and Thompson. Primary statistical analysis was χ2 test for equal proportions.

Findings

The hypotheses were by and large supported: as expected in all four experimental conditions, traditional couples chose men as their negotiator. By contrast, egalitarian couples tended to nominate their negotiator depending on the situation (feminine, masculine, and under implicit priming). In addition, under explicit priming their selection was in the predicted direction but not significant.

Practical implications

This study provides insights with respect to effective ways to conduct conjoint negotiations. In addition, it indicates the need to enhance women's negotiation self‐efficacy, so that they can become more active in negotiation processes.

Originality/value

The current study explored real‐life couples' conjoint negotiation with a third party, rather than examining couples' internal negotiation processes or individuals' dyadic negotiation, which prevailed in extant research. Future research should adopt the focus on genuine couples' conjoint negotiation, employed in this study.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

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Article

Hamid Rizal and Hanudin Amin

The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model explicating Muslims intention towards charitable giving of cash waqf. Drawing from altruism theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model explicating Muslims intention towards charitable giving of cash waqf. Drawing from altruism theoretical paradigm, the present study investigates the role of perceived ihsan, Islamic egalitarian and Islamic religiosity on cash waqf contribution.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey method using Islamic banking respondents were exploited for data collection. A total sample of 264 completed questionnaires were analysed.

Findings

The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate strong constructs nomological validity. The structural equation modelling using path analysis was also performed to estimate the proposed research framework. The result of model testing shows significant relationship between perceived ihsan, Islamic egalitarian and Islamic religiosity on cash waqf contribution.

Practical implications

The results suggest that perception of ihsan and notion of equality significantly influences Muslims’ sense of religiosity, which subsequently encourages the generosity giving behaviour of waqf. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are also discussed.

Originality/value

The study introduces two new dimensions of perceived ihsan and Islamic egalitarian. Specifically, the present study offers fresh new insights of charitable giving of cash waqf behaviours from Islamic perspective.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Yang Xia, Zafar U. Ahmed, Morry Ghingold, Ng Kuan Hwa, Tan Wan Li and Wendy Teo Chai Ying

Although considerable consumer research has focused on family purchase decision‐making in families in Western countries, only limited attention has been paid to family…

Abstract

Purpose

Although considerable consumer research has focused on family purchase decision‐making in families in Western countries, only limited attention has been paid to family purchase decision‐making within Eastern cultures. This study was designed to explore for the possible differences and similarities in spousal influences in different cultural environments by comparing Singaporean family purchase decision‐making process to that of US families.

Design/methodology/approach

Quota sampling was adopted to generate primary data for the examination of Singaporean spousal influence in family purchase decision‐making; data previously reported on US spousal families was used to compare with the primary data collected in Singapore.

Findings

Differences in marital values between Singaporean husbands and wives were found to be associated with differences in perceived patterns of influence throughout the family decision‐making process. The findings indicate that family purchase decision‐making is a culture‐specific phenomenon. The study found that the level of egalitarianism, which usually indicates a more syncratic or cooperative family purchase decision‐making, was associated positively with higher levels of education and income.

Research limitations/implications

This study revealed a positive relationship between joint decisions and the level of egalitarianism, however, such evidence is still limited. To depend the understanding of spousal influences in family purchase decision‐making in different cultural environments, future research may need to go beyond demographics to include more cognitive, psychological as well as social environmental factors, such as the involvement level, the time a spouse spent alone for shopping, the love, affection, trust and confidence a spouse would have for or earned from another spouse, the importance a spouse would attach to his or her marriage and family, etc.

Originality/value

The paper offers insight into family purchase decision‐making within Easlern countries.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Book part

Raymond Sin-Kwok Wong

This study examines educational inequalities under socialism in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Russia to assess the extent to which egalitarianism was…

Abstract

This study examines educational inequalities under socialism in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Russia to assess the extent to which egalitarianism was achieved and whether there was restratification after the common retreat from egalitarian ideology and practices since the 1970s. Exploring the extent of parental influences in three key educational outcomes and their changes in four birth cohorts, the study finds remarkable stability across cohorts and across transitions. Contrary to expectation, the net effect of parental social capital (communist party membership status) is prominent only in the former Soviet Russia and Bulgaria, moderate in Czechoslovakia, and negligible in Hungary and Poland. On the other hand, the effect of parental cultural capital is consistently strong but its influence is somewhat weaker at higher transitions. Its inclusion also dramatically reduces the effect of parental education and father’s occupation, suggesting that a significant extent of intergenerational transmission of educational inequality is mediated through parental cultural capital rather than human capital per se.

Details

Inequality Across Societies: Familes, Schools and Persisting Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-061-6

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Book part

Lisa Troyer

Teamwork represents a democratic logic that may contradict the bureaucratic logic characterizing many organizations. I develop arguments based on new institutional theory…

Abstract

Teamwork represents a democratic logic that may contradict the bureaucratic logic characterizing many organizations. I develop arguments based on new institutional theory suggesting that such a contradiction threatens a team’s legitimacy. My study of 71 teams lends support for two claims that capture a legitimacy paradox confronting teams: (1) Egalitarian work processes do correspond to more effective interactions within teams, however (2) To the extent that egalitarianism is uncommon in the organization in which a team is embedded, external evaluations of team effectiveness are less favorable. I discuss the implications of these arguments for subsequent research on organizational teamwork.

Details

Legitimacy Processes in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-008-1

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