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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Eva-Ellen Weiß and Stefan Süß

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and effort-reward imbalance as well as the moderating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and effort-reward imbalance as well as the moderating role of overcommitment and subjective well-being. In particular, the study focuses on the transformational leadership component individualized consideration and its relationship with effort-reward imbalance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using linear hierarchical regression analyses, the authors tested four hypotheses on a broad sample of 229 German employees.

Findings

The results confirm the expected relationship between transformational leadership and effort-reward imbalance and that the strongest relationship exists with individualized consideration. However, there is no support for the hypothesized moderating effects.

Research limitations/implications

First, the recruitment of the sample via fora and periodicals may bias the results. Second, the dependent and the independent variables were assessed with the same method, thus facilitating a common method bias. Third, the study underlies a cross-sectional design which does not allow drawing conclusions on causality.

Practical implications

The findings provide implications for leaders by showing that the most effective leadership behaviours are those encompassed by the transformational leadership component individualized consideration when it comes to reducing negative health effects of adverse working conditions. Furthermore, the results suggest that overcommitment plays a major role for employees’ effort-reward imbalance and should thus be addressed by specific training measures.

Originality/value

Researchers have devoted little attention to revealing how effort-reward imbalance can be avoided or reduced by leaders. The study attempts to fill this gap by exploring the relationship between effort-reward imbalance and transformational leadership.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2020

Jonas W.B. Lang, Sander Van Hoeck and J. Malte Runge

Research on effort-rewardimbalance” (ERI) has gained popularity in the occupational health literature, and authors typically use effort-reward ratios (ERRs) to study…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on effort-rewardimbalance” (ERI) has gained popularity in the occupational health literature, and authors typically use effort-reward ratios (ERRs) to study this phenomenon. This article provides a methodological and theoretical critique of this literature and suggestions on how future research can better study joint effects of efforts and reward.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a simulation study, analyzed panel data and surveyed the literature on the theoretical and methodological basis of the “imbalance” concept.

Findings

The simulation study indicates that under many conditions the ERR captures main effects of effort and reward and that effects also depend on the scaling of the variables. The panel data showed that when main effects and the interactions of effort and reward are entered simultaneously in a regression predicting mental and physical health, the significant effect of the ERRs disappears. The literature review reveals that psychological theories include more elaborate theoretical ideas on joint effects of effort and reward.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that moderated multiple regression analyses are better suited to detect a misfit between effort and reward than ERRs. The authors also suggest to use the term effort-reward fit in future research.

Originality/value

Methodologically and conceptually the authors showed that the ERR is not an appropriate approach because it confuses main effects with interaction effects. Furthermore, the concept of ERI is better substituted by a broader conceptualization of effort-reward fit that can be integrated with the existing literature on person-environment fit. Recommendations for future research are provided.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Gail Kinman and Fiona Jones

Although the effort‐reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress has gained support in predicting employee health, it has rarely been examined in the context of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the effort‐reward imbalance (ERI) model of job stress has gained support in predicting employee health, it has rarely been examined in the context of the work‐home interface. This study aims to test an expanded ERI model in predicting work‐life conflict (WLC) in university employees. Three hypotheses relating to the ERI are tested. It is also predicted that lower organisational support for work‐life balance, less schedule flexibility and lower levels of separation between work and home life will lead to increased work‐life conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

In this cross‐sectional study, 1,108 employees working in UK universities completed questionnaires assessing ERI, WLC, schedule flexibility, employer support and work‐life separation/integration.

Findings

Strong main effects of job‐related efforts, rewards and over‐commitment on WLC are found. A significant two‐way interaction (effort×reward) and some evidence for a three‐way interaction effort×reward×over‐commitment) are observed. Perceived schedule flexibility and work‐life integration also make significant contributions to the variance in WLC. The final model explains 66 per cent of criterion variance.

Research limitations/implications

As the study is cross‐sectional, causal relationships cannot be established.

Practical implications

This study extends knowledge of the ERI model as a predictor of WLC. More research is required into ways in which effort‐reward inequity and over‐commitment might threaten work‐life balance, together with the working practices and organisational factors which might modify this threat.

Originality/value

The ERI model has rarely been examined in the context of the work‐home interface. The importance of effort‐reward imbalance and over‐commitment to WLC has been highlighted.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Amanda Allisey, John Rodwell and Andrew Noblet

Frequent absences from work can be highly disruptive, whilst also potentially indicating problematic working conditions that can lead to increased withdrawal behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

Frequent absences from work can be highly disruptive, whilst also potentially indicating problematic working conditions that can lead to increased withdrawal behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to test the predictive capability of an expanded effort-reward imbalance model on employee absenteeism within the context of policing.

Design/methodology/approach

Three separate reward systems are identified by the effort-reward imbalance model. In this study, the authors assessed these individual components for their contribution to officer withdrawal behaviour in the form of absenteeism frequency. Data were gathered from a sample of operational officers (n=553) within a large Australian police agency.

Findings

Findings indicate that there was a strong influence of social rewards such as social support and recognition in the workplace on officer absenteeism rates. Low workload was associated with a higher frequency of absenteeism suggesting a potential underloading effect. There were a number of significant interactions providing support for the effort-reward imbalance mechanism and the separation of the reward construct. Security rewards were particularly influential and significantly moderated the relationship between effort and absenteeism.

Research limitations/implications

Differential effects of occupational rewards were identified in the study, indicating that there are significant opportunities for expansion of the effort-reward imbalance model along with opportunities for HRM practitioners in terms of employee recognition and remuneration programmes. This research was focused on a specific sample of operational officers, therefore should be expanded to include multiple occupational groups.

Originality/value

This paper considers and expanded model of worker strain and contributes a longitudinal assessment of the association between perceived effort and reward systems and worker absenteeism.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Dwayne Devonish

The purpose of this study is to examine gender as a key moderator in the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and burnout among employees in Caribbean workplaces.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine gender as a key moderator in the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and burnout among employees in Caribbean workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey sample of 323 employees in a small developing country in the Caribbean, this study tested the hypothesis that the stressor–strain relationship (captured by ERI and burnout) is stronger for women than for men.

Findings

The results revealed that the effect of high effort-low rewards (i.e. ERI) on burnout among females was significantly larger than its effect on burnout for males. In contrast, high effort-high rewards were significantly associated with higher burnout levels for males.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a cross-sectional approach using self-report measures of burnout, effort and rewards.

Practical implications

Management in organisations should ensure that male and female employees’ efforts and contributions at work are appropriately and fairly rewarded as a means of reducing negative effects of ERIs.

Originality/value

The study examined how gender moderated the adverse effects of a popular work-stress model on employee health in a developing country context.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Brian Beal

Frequent absences from work can be highly disruptive, while also potentially indicating problematic working conditions that can lead to increased withdrawal behavior. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Frequent absences from work can be highly disruptive, while also potentially indicating problematic working conditions that can lead to increased withdrawal behavior. The purpose of this paper is to test the predictive capability of an expanded effort-reward imbalance model on employee absenteeism within the context of policing.

Design/methodology/approach

Three separate reward systems are identified by the effort-reward imbalance model. In this study, the authors assessed these individual components for their contribution to officer withdrawal behavior in the form of absenteeism frequency. Data were gathered from officers within a large Australian police agency.

Findings

Findings indicate that there was a strong influence of social rewards, such as social support and recognition in the workplace on officer absenteeism rates. Low workload was associated with a higher frequency of absenteeism, suggesting a potential underloading effect. There were a number of significant interactions providing support for the effort-reward imbalance mechanism and the separation of the reward construct. Security rewards were particularly influential and significantly moderated the relationship between effort and absenteeism.

Originality/value

This paper considers an expanded model of worker strain and contributes a longitudinal assessment of the association between perceived effort and reward systems and worker absenteeism.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Dwayne Devonish

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and burnout, turnover intentions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and burnout, turnover intentions, and mental health.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 323 full-time employees in the small developing country in the Caribbean, this survey study tested a mediation model with job satisfaction depicting the relationship between ERI and various outcome variables. The model was compared to a partial mediation model.

Findings

The structural equation modelling (SEM) results revealed that the partial mediating model was superior to the full mediation model, suggesting that job satisfaction plays only a partial role in mediating the relationships between ERI and burnout, turnover intentions, and mental health.

Research limitations/implications

The study presents a cross-sectional approach to model testing but the study controlled for CMV statistically using the common latent factor approach within latent SEM procedures.

Practical implications

Organisations should ensure that employees’ efforts are appropriately and fairly rewarded as a means of reducing negative ERIs which can have adverse consequences on the physical and mental health of employees.

Originality/value

Using latent SEM procedures and statistical controls for CMV, the study examined job satisfaction as a potential mediator in a popular stressor-strain model.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2019

Dominic Dankwah Agyei, Faustina Aryeetey, Adaora Chigozie Obuezie and Sixolile Nkonyeni

The purpose of this paper is to focus on describing the experience of occupational psychosocial stress among librarians in Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. It further…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on describing the experience of occupational psychosocial stress among librarians in Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. It further seeks to identify the various psychosocial stress components and how they interact to determine the stress level of librarians.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale, this descriptive study employed a web-based data collection tool (Google Form) to design and solicit data from respondents. Convenient sampling technique was used to employ 153 librarians from Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa with at least a diploma in any library-related programme, who work in either academic, public or special libraries.

Findings

This study established the prevalence of occupational psychosocial stress among librarians from Ghana, Nigeria and South Africa. It was realised that gender, country of residence of respondents, age, work experience, workers with children under 13 years of age and work roles were the main factors that influenced the occupational stress among the respondents.

Research limitations/implications

The response rate for this study was low. As a result, undertaking any inferential statistics to explain relationships was not possible.

Originality/value

The value of this study lies in the depth of narrative data collected and the insight it affords with regards to contemporary work within libraries in Africa and beyond. The results presented may provide both a starting point for further discussion and may also promote an increased openness about issues of employee safety in the library environment.

Details

Library Management, vol. 40 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2002

Johannes Siegrist

All major contracts in social life, including the work contract, are based on the principle of reciprocity. A fair balance between the costs invested in cooperative…

Abstract

All major contracts in social life, including the work contract, are based on the principle of reciprocity. A fair balance between the costs invested in cooperative activities and the gains received in turn is a prerequisite of a trustful social exchange and individual well being. Conversely, failed reciprocity in terms of high cost and low gain elicits strong negative emotions and associated stress responses. The model of effort-reward imbalance has been developed to identify conditions of failed reciprocity in social contracts, with a particular focus on work, and to predict reduced well being and increased illness susceptibility as a consequence of this exposure. This chapter describes the theoretical foundation of this model and its measurement. Moreover it summarizes empirical evidence on adverse effects on health derived from epidemiological and laboratory investigations. Finally, some policy implications of this new evidence are discussed.

Details

Historical and Current Perspectives on Stress and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-970-2

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Jorge Tiago Martins and Miguel Baptista Nunes

This paper aims to examine how academics enact trust in e-learning through an inductive identification of perceived risks and enablers involved in e-learning adoption, in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how academics enact trust in e-learning through an inductive identification of perceived risks and enablers involved in e-learning adoption, in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs).

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded Theory was the methodology used to systematically analyse data collected in semi-structured interviews with 62 academics. Data analysis followed the constant comparative method and its three-staged coding approach: open, axial and selective coding.

Findings

The resulting trajectory of trust factors is presented in a Grounded Theory narrative where individual change and integration through shared collective understanding and institutionalisation are discussed as stages leading to the overcoming of e-learning adoption barriers.

Originality/value

The paper proposes that the interplay between institutionalism and individualism has implications in the success or failure of strategies for the adoption of e-learning in HEIs, as perceived by academics. In practical terms, this points to the need for close attention to contextually sensitive trust-building mechanisms that promote the balance between academics’ commitments, values and sense of self-worth and centrally planned policy, rules, resources and exhortations that enable action.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

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