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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2022

Edgar Nave and Ricardo Gouveia Rodrigues

Entrepreneurship is a phenomenon strongly associated with economic growth, development and employability, leading countries to compete and often produce reforms to ensure…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is a phenomenon strongly associated with economic growth, development and employability, leading countries to compete and often produce reforms to ensure good levels of entrepreneurship. In this sequence, this study aims to know which types of economies present favourable institutional environments for entrepreneurs, exploring the link between the ease of doing business and the three levels of economic development (innovation-driven, efficiency-driven and factor-driven) of 137 economies.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative methodology through an analysis of variances was adopted, gathering data from the ten pillars proposed by the World Bank in the Doing Business 2019 – training for reforms report, and economic development levels, provided by Global Competitiveness Report (2017–2018).

Findings

In the light of institutional theory, the results showed that innovation-driven economies are more competitive, presenting more robust institutional environments for entrepreneurs than factor-driven and efficiency-driven. There is only one exception in the Getting Credit pillar.

Originality/value

This study clarifies some assumptions in the previous literature that developed economies have better business environments, being the first one to establish this relationship directly. Some practical implications, especially for international entrepreneurs in the decision-making phase on which type of economies to carry out their investments and policymakers and researchers, were provided in this study.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Jenny Hillemann and Alain Verbeke

– This paper aims to apply internalization theory in the context of economic efficiency-driven institutions interacting with societal institutions that pursue broader goals.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to apply internalization theory in the context of economic efficiency-driven institutions interacting with societal institutions that pursue broader goals.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis builds upon Buckley and Boddewyn’s (2015, this issue) recent work on the perceived need for multinational enterprises (MNEs) to supply public goods outside of their sphere of technical competences. This paper proposes a more restrictive approach: external markets will only be internalized if, on balance, the efficiency benefits of internalization outweigh its costs at the firm level, in line with orthodox internalization theory.

Findings

MNEs replacing the activities of failing (or even absent) public sector institutions is a business phenomenon commonly observed in less developed economies. However, positive distributional effects and societal externalities without the required efficiency benefits at the firm level are insufficient for MNEs’ supply to occur.

Practical implications

Managerial decisions in the internalization sphere will be guided by the transactional characteristics of the MNEs’ firm-specific advantages (FSAs) and the requisite complementary resources held by host country economic actors. Internalization theory thinking suggests applying various, specific principles to assess in a comparative institutional fashion whether “diversification” into supplying public goods will serve the MNEs’ efficiency goals, namely, the “cost of entry” test, the “better-off” test and the “value capture” test.

Originality/value

Internalization theory provides a solid, efficiency-driven rationale to guide MNE choices on which activities the firm will conduct internally. The nature of the MNEs FSAs and the most efficient, feasible option to bundle firm-level resources and locally held resources in host environments are critical to these choices.

Details

The Multinational Business Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2022

Amirali Kani, Duncan K.H. Fong and Wayne S. DeSarbo

This paper aims to examine the evolution of a competitive market structure over time through the lens of competitive group membership dynamics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the evolution of a competitive market structure over time through the lens of competitive group membership dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

A new hidden Markov modeling approach is devised that accounts for the three sources of competitive heterogeneity involving managerial strategy, corporate performance and the impact of strategy on performance. In addition, some observed “entry” and “exit” states are considered to model firms’ entry into and exit from the market. The proposed model is illustrated with an investigation of the US banking industry based on a data set created from the COMPUSTAT database. This paper estimated the model within the Bayesian framework and devised a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation procedure to determine the number of latent competitive groups and uncover the characteristics of each group.

Findings

This paper shows that the US banking industry, contrary to the prior findings of having a relatively stable structure, has, in fact, gone through dramatic changes in the past number of decades.

Originality/value

Contrary to prior work that has primarily focused on managerial strategy to study market evolutions, the competitive groups perspective accounts for all three sources of intra-industry competitive heterogeneity. In addition, unlike prior research, the analysis is not limited to firms remaining in the panel of study for the entire observation period. Such limitation results in missing the various changes that occur in the competitive market structure because of the new entrants or the struggling firms that do not survive in the market.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

László Szerb and William N. Trumbull

Using various macro-level measures of economic and political performance Shleifer and Treisman (2005) and Treisman (2014) call Russia a “normal country” implying that…

Abstract

Purpose

Using various macro-level measures of economic and political performance Shleifer and Treisman (2005) and Treisman (2014) call Russia a “normal country” implying that Russia’s economic and political development is not deviating from the other middle-income or transition countries significantly. The purpose of this paper is to challenge this proposition and investigate whether Russia is a normal country in terms of entrepreneurship by comparing Russia with other post-socialist and similarly developed countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Many studies have examined Russia’s institutional setup to explain its deficiencies in entrepreneurial activity. However, there is a lack of comprehensive research taking into account both the individual and institutional dimensions of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. The authors use the Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI) methodology to analyze Russia’s quality-related individual as well as institutional features from a system perspective in a single model.

Findings

Russia’s performance has been poor relative to the post-socialist countries and to most of the former republics of the Soviet Union. Russia’s entrepreneurial profile is different from other transition and similarly developed non-transition countries, as well. Russia’s scores are less than the scores of other post-socialist countries in six out of the nine pillars of entrepreneurial attitudes and abilities. In sum, conditions supporting entrepreneurship in Russia lag seriously behind other post-socialist countries. Moreover, Russia’s individual scores are even lower than the institutional ones. Hence, improving the hostile environment alone would not be sufficient for entrepreneurship development.

Originality/value

Although, there have been numerous studies analyzing Russia’s macroeconomic conditions, institutional development, and entrepreneurship, there is lack of comprehensive studies. Besides common macro-level measures, the authors use a unique, GEI data set that combines institutional factors relating to entrepreneurship or new business creation with measures of individual capabilities, motivations, and attitudes about entrepreneurship. The single-model framework reveals that individual factors are even greater obstacles to entrepreneurship development in Russia than the institutional factors that most studies focus on.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2017

Heiko Gebauer, Mirella Haldimann and Caroline Jennings Saul

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of management innovations.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology of management innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply a multiple-case (embedded) design, with each organization representing a case, which entails a few embedded units of analysis. Case studies are about the base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) initiatives, during which all organizations are interested in management innovations which support them in coming up with and implementing between two and four new management practices.

Findings

The findings suggest four types of management innovations: efficiency-driven, externally recommended, problem-oriented, and opportunity-oriented management innovation.

Research limitations/implications

This paper explores and analyses management innovations, rather than testing them. As with most qualitative research, the transferability of the findings is limited.

Practical implications

Managers should vigorously pursue management innovations, not only in BoP markets, but also in all markets. Practitioners must, however, ensure that they are not fully absorbed by a single type of management innovation, and recognize the importance of pursing multiple ones.

Social implications

For academics, the authors revitalize the concept of engaged scholarship.

Originality/value

Surprisingly, previous research looks either into generic or specific management innovations. The typology is original, since the typology offers a more fine-grained view on management innovations.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Ilan Bijaoui

Purpose: This chapter uses the different models developed in international business and the international experience of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter uses the different models developed in international business and the international experience of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to propose efficient ways of confronting globalization.

Design/methodology/approach: The positive experience of SMEs in countries driven by the pursuit of efficiency and innovation was analyzed, taking into account the stages of the development of the country. Uniqueness, cooperation, coalition, and integration are the key to success in the global market, as illustrated by case studies.

Findings: Factor-driven SMEs have the choice of contract marketing based on specialization or of increasing efficiency and establishing various kinds of coalition or cooperation. Efficiency- and innovation-driven SMEs can improve their global position by offering some unique value, by participating in or initiating a coalition, or by establishing strategic alliances with a multinational corporation.

Practical implications: Analysis of case studies illustrating each model of globalization helps the SMEs in selecting a relevant international business strategy over time.

Originality/value: Each model of globalization is illustrated by SMEs that have successfully implemented it.

Details

The Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives of Management: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-249-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Kongkiti Phusavat, Narongsak Comepa, Agnieszka Sitko‐Lutek and Keng‐Boon Ooi

The paper is based on a project with the Department of Industrial Work (DIW) in Thailand for promoting intellectual capital (IC), which aims to boost the country's…

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Abstract

Purpose

The paper is based on a project with the Department of Industrial Work (DIW) in Thailand for promoting intellectual capital (IC), which aims to boost the country's long‐term industrial competitiveness. The purpose of this paper is to focus on examining the interrelationships between IC and economic development (i.e. GDP per capita) in Thailand and other neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. The second objective is to identify the IC targets to help enable the DIW to propose future policy initiatives relating to IC.

Design/methodology/approach

The key steps include a selection of IC indicator(s) to assess IC impacts on the country's economic development. There are five countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) to be examined for the IC impacts due to their economy sizes. The methodology involves statistical analysis for understanding the interrelationships and identifying the IC targets for Thailand and the future policy initiatives are derived through the review discussion with DIW administrators.

Findings

Initially, two IC indicators were selected. However, only National Intellectual Capital Indicator (NICI) was statistically significant to the GDP per capita. A further examination revealed that the NICI target for Thailand and a remaining three countries needs to reach 5.0, in order to move from the efficiency‐driven to the innovation‐driven stage. The economic development stages are outlined by the Global Competitiveness Report (published by World Economic Forum) which indicates a GDP per capita over $US 17,000.

Originality/value

The paper underlines the need for the DIW to continue a development of the IC‐related performance indicators for local firms, in both manufacturing and service sectors. In the past, the DIW has encouraged them to primarily measure quality and productivity (including Economic Value Added) as their key non‐financial area. The IC‐related indicators may emerge as one of several alternatives for productivity and quality measurement.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 112 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Luciano Fratocchi, Alessandro Ancarani, Paolo Barbieri, Carmela Di Mauro, Guido Nassimbeni, Marco Sartor, Matteo Vignoli and Andrea Zanoni

The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for the analysis of reshoring. The framework is then applied to analyze motivations for reshoring, as they emerge from…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for the analysis of reshoring. The framework is then applied to analyze motivations for reshoring, as they emerge from extant literature and from new evidence collected.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors start by formulating a literature-grounded definition of reshoring and reviewing some key theoretical approaches for international manufacturing location. In light of these theories, the authors then propose an interpretative framework for the analysis of reshoring motivations. Finally, the authors provide new evidence on this phenomenon, by presenting the findings of an extensive data collection of reshoring cases built on secondary data.

Findings

The authors show that a vast array of single drivers of reshoring can be extracted from extant literature; however, the interpretative framework eventually highlights four main typologies of reshoring motivations, thus allowing for a more sound comprehension of why the phenomenon happens. The empirical investigation proves also useful in comparing the relative importance of these motivations, as it reveals that value-driven and country-specific motivations prevail over efficiency-driven and firm-specific ones, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on the analyses of secondary data extracted from newspapers and magazine sources. Some motivations (and especially those that configure a “correction of a previous erroneous decision”) could have been underestimated. In addition, certain industries (e.g. clothing and footwear), certain countries (USA and China), and certain firms (large companies and MNCs) could have more visibility to the media. Another possible limitation is due to the fact that the classification work inherently implied some discretion and individual judgment. The authors however spent considerable efforts in cross-validating the assessments through extensive discussion within the research team.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that summarizes the motivations of the rising reshoring phenomenon and interprets them based on an original theory-derived classification framework.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Denada Lica, Eleonora Di Maria and Valentina De Marchi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how important is co-location of R&D and production for firms originated from high-cost countries and to provide evidence of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how important is co-location of R&D and production for firms originated from high-cost countries and to provide evidence of the relationship between the different strategies of location choices and co-location.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to investigate the relationship between R&D/design-production co-location and strategies of location choices for production, this paper uses a cluster analysis of 37 Italian firms that operate in fashion industry.

Findings

This article finds that co-location results in a dominant strategy for firms under the following conditions: high level of product customization, coordination difficulties between R&D and production, rapid change in production process technologies and product complexity difficult to be coded.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents some limitations in that it focuses only on fashion industry without considering other sectors.

Practical implications

This paper has some managerial implication in that offers some insight on decision making in organization. In particular offers some insights of how important is having an internal R&D/design function rather than collaborating with external designers in order to achieve competitive advantage in terms of product quality, product design and also brand name reputation.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that the co-location of R&D and production may improve the firms' performance considering the need for constant interaction between the two units. Moreover, it suggests that the co-location of R&D and production both within and external (within the firms' region and/or within the country) to the firms might be important. Furthermore, larger firms in terms of turnover have a greater preference to locate the R&D function close to the production function.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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