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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2020

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study has two purposes. Firstly, it aims to investigate whether self-efficacy constitutes one of the mechanisms by which transformational leadership impacts on employee positivity in reacting to change. Secondly, it aims to investigate whether the extent of change moderates the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy and reactions to change. This study also explores the possibility that when the extent of change is higher, the effectiveness of transformational leadership may be lower.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of employees where the organization was going through significant change. Employee ratings on specific scales were used to measure transformational leadership, self-efficacy, affective commitment to organizational change, and intention to support change. A cumulative change index was used to assess the number of changes employees had experienced during the change process.

Findings

The results confirmed hypothesis 1 that transformational leadership was related to affective commitment and intention to support change and this was to a high level of statistical significance. Testing hypothesis 2 that self-efficacy mediated the effect of transformational leadership on commitment and intention to support change indicated that self-efficacy did mediate in this relationship confirming both hypothesis 2a and 2 b. The results did not support hypothesis 3a, with no significant interaction effect showing that the interaction between transformational leadership and self-efficacy did not differ between low versus high extent of change. However, the results did support hypothesis 3 b with the strength of the positive relationship between self-efficacy and reactions to change differing across high versus low extent of change. For both affective commitment and intention to support change, the interaction of self-efficacy and change index was significant.

Research limitations/implications

Current weaknesses in the transformational leadership research include: a bias towards heroic leadership and away from collective and shared process of leadership, the underlying processes have not been clearly identified, lack of precision about situational variables that may impact on these processes. This paper does not address the first weakness.

Practical implications

Self-efficacy gains importance when the extent of change is high. The results suggest that change managers should adopt a transformational style of leadership to enhance recipients’ self-efficacy to generate positive attitudes and behaviours during change. They also suggest the selection and training of managers in transformational leadership attributes and also the inclusion of this in the monitoring of managers’ behaviours in post. The research outlined in this paper makes a significant contribution to an organization’s capacity to achieve change, particularly when the extent of change is high.

Social implications

This research provides ways in which organizations can better achieve change through positive processes.

Originality/value

Transformational leadership can create a vision of the future and inspire followers to work to achieve it and to build hope and confidence for the future. This can prevent or overcome resistance to or reluctance about change. Lack of alignment of values between employees and the organization can result in change failure. This paper provides original insight into how change can be achieved by transformational leadership building self-efficacy.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Dena Hale, Ramendra Thakur, John Riggs and Suzanne Altobello

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a scale to determine the consumer’s level of decision-making self-efficacy for a high-involved service purchase, specifically the purchase of medical insurance. One question to ask is how service providers can help consumers purchase the services that best meet their needs? Before interventions can occur, it is necessary to benchmark consumers’ perceptions of their own decision-making control and abilities.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale that measures consumers’ service decision-making self-efficacy was developed using the principles established for scale development validation. A four-study approach was used to reach the research objective.

Findings

The research consisted of four studies designed to: generate items to measure consumer service decision-making self-efficacy (CSDMSE); purify the scale and assess its dimensionality (second-order structure); establish the reliability and validity of the scale; and establish norms to provide details on its usefulness for aiding consumers with service purchases. The scale was found to be a higher-order construct, comprising three lower-order constructs.

Originality/value

Research suggests that consumer self-efficacy may affect their decision-making. The greater the consumer’s self-efficacy for decision-making tasks, the more efficient the decision-making process strategies are expected to be. This is the purpose for which the CSDMSE scale measure was created: to understand how, where and when service professionals can assist consumers with making appropriate service-related decisions and purchases.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Fayez Ahmad and Francisco Guzmán

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite skepticism, consumers rely on online reviews for their purchase decisions. However, academics mostly argue that skepticism has an inverse relationship with consumer decision-making. This study aims to investigate the relationship among skepticism, reliance and consumer purchase decisions in an online review context. It also investigates the moderating role of review self-efficacy and regulatory focus in the relationship between skepticism and reliance on online reviews.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey with a nationally representative sample and two experimental studies are conducted.

Findings

Skepticism negatively affects consumers’ reliance on online reviews and reliance on online reviews mediates the relationship between skepticism and review-based purchase decisions. High review self-efficacy participants tend to rely more on online reviews than low review self-efficacy participants. Promotion-focused people rely more on online reviews than prevention-focused people, despite similar levels of skepticism.

Research limitations/implications

The findings contribute to the skepticism, self-efficacy and regulatory focus literature. The general framework of the relationship among skepticism, reliance and purchase decision is also applicable in an online review context.

Originality/value

The results provide evidence of a stronger reliance on online reviews of high review self-efficacy and promotion-oriented consumers compared to low review self-efficacy and prevention-oriented consumers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Xiaofan Tang and Shaobo Wei

Based on leadership and self-efficacy theories, this study investigates how team-level ambidextrous leadership influences employees' enterprise system (ES) use via their…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on leadership and self-efficacy theories, this study investigates how team-level ambidextrous leadership influences employees' enterprise system (ES) use via their self-efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected data from a cross-sectional survey including 218 employees working in 56 workgroups in a Chinese financial institution. The authors used a cross-level mediation analysis to test the research model.

Findings

The authors find that ambidextrous leadership influences employees' creative self-efficacy and performance self-efficacy and further improves employees' ES use. Moreover, creative self-efficacy mediates the relationship between ambidextrous leadership and explorative use, whereas performance self-efficacy mediates the relationship between ambidextrous leadership and both explorative and exploitative use.

Originality/value

This study first examines the relationships among ambidextrous leadership, self-efficacy and employees' ES use by developing a cross-level model. Furthermore, by considering ambidextrous leadership as an important team-level factor, this study extends a deeper understanding of ambidexterity theory of leadership in the ES context. In addition, our study extends self-efficacy theory by examining the mediating roles of the two types of self-efficacy (i.e. performance self-efficacy and creative self-efficacy) on ambidextrous leadership–ES use relationship.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Arnab Kundu and Tripti Bej

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led education institutions to move all face-to-face (F2F) courses online. The situation is unique in that teachers and students can…

Abstract

Purpose

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led education institutions to move all face-to-face (F2F) courses online. The situation is unique in that teachers and students can make a direct comparison of their courses before (F2F) and after COVID-19 (online). This study aims to analyze teachers’ viewpoints for this unprecedented change.

Design/methodology/approach

The study followed a mixed-method approach within an ex post facto survey research design. Research tools were distributed among 200 Indian secondary school teachers following a heterogeneous purposive sampling technique. As the study was conducted during the pandemic backdrop researchers used Google forms and telephonic interviews to collect data.

Findings

Teachers viewed positively to this shift from F2F to online teaching-learning (OTL). They were found to have an overall moderate level of online teaching efficacy and where good efficacy prevails there found minimal concern for infrastructure, an attitude showing least concern for “what is not” and more concerned with “what they can do with what is having.” A statistically significant effect of teacher efficacy was found on their perception of OTL infrastructure that supports this strong conviction among few teachers. Statistical analysis revealed for every 1 standard unit increase in self-efficacy, the perceived OTL infrastructure was to be increased by 0.997 standard units which support the strong correlation between the two chosen cognitive variables (r = 0.8). Besides, teachers were not found as a homogeneous group concerning their reported readiness for online teaching yet, different subgroups of teachers exist which may require different approaches for support and counseling.

Originality/value

The paper reports an original empirical survey conducted in India and the write-up is based strictly on the survey findings only. An exclusive analysis of teachers’ views of their efficacy and perceived OTL infrastructure. At the same time, path-breaking in analyzing the chemistry between the two variables which will help improving apposite culture, practice and understanding of the digital pedagogy securing quality OTL in the long run.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Fred Luthans and Suzanne J. Peterson

Although technology still dominates, human resources and how they are managed is receiving increased attention in the analysis of gaining competitive advantage. Yet, many…

Abstract

Although technology still dominates, human resources and how they are managed is receiving increased attention in the analysis of gaining competitive advantage. Yet, many complex questions remain. This study first examines the theoretical understanding of employee engagement. Then an empirical investigation is made of the role that a wide variety of managers’ (n = 170) psychological state of self‐efficacy plays in the relationship between their employees’ (average of about 16 per manager) measured engagement and a multiple measure (self, subordinates and peers) of the managers’ effectiveness. Results of the statistical analysis indicate that the manager’s self‐efficacy is a partial mediator of the relationship between his or her employees’ engagement and the manager’s rated effectiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that both employee engagement and manager self‐efficacy are important antecedents that together may more positively influence manager effectiveness than either predictor by itself. Implications for effective management development and practice are discussed.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Chen Schechter and Megan Tschannen‐Moran

This study explores the notion of collective teacher efficacy, a characteristic of schools that has emerged as a significant factor in school productivity. More…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the notion of collective teacher efficacy, a characteristic of schools that has emerged as a significant factor in school productivity. More specifically, this paper examines the construct validity and reliability of the Israeli Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale and explores variables that may influence teachers' sense of collective efficacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of teacher respondents from 66 elementary schools (876 teachers) in Israel's central school district was used.

Findings

A comparison of the English (USA) version and the Hebrew (Israel) version of the Collective Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale revealed marked similarities, supporting the constitutive meaning of this construct and the construct validity of its subscales. In the Israeli sample, urban school teachers tended to have a higher sense of collective efficacy than suburban school teachers. Teachers' collective sense of efficacy was unrelated to the demographic variables examined, including the workload of teachers, the longevity of teachers in that particular school setting, and the average number of years of teaching experience of a faculty.

Research limitations/implications

The focus of this study was elementary schools, and it may be that a larger study across school levels would have revealed difference across them that play a significant role in shaping teachers' sense of collective efficacy.

Originality/value

The study strengthens the construct validity of the teachers' sense of collective efficacy scale and adds an international perspective to the small but growing body of research on teachers' collective sense of efficacy, which has been found to be significantly related to student achievement.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Fengxiu Zhang and Eric W. Welch

This study extends the concept of managerial efficacy to include managerial means efficacy (MME) attributed to the utility and quality of means external to managers for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study extends the concept of managerial efficacy to include managerial means efficacy (MME) attributed to the utility and quality of means external to managers for performing a task. Focusing on its antecedents, the authors theorize and empirically test MME sourced from the organization (MMEO) and situate the examination under extreme events.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a 2016 national survey of 892 top managers in 273 US largest transit agencies covering 82% of the entire population. Participants report their confidence for their organization to perform effectively under various extreme events. The survey data are matched with data from various institutional data sources to capture organizational characteristics, operations and experience with extreme events.

Findings

Findings suggest that organizational-level factors influence MMEO. Specifically, organizational slack and relationship management of key jurisdictional stakeholders positively predict MMEO, whereas political fragmentation is negatively associated with MMEO.

Practical implications

Organizations can bolster MMEO, hence, managerial efficacy through developing organizational slack and engaging in relationships building with jurisdictional stakeholders. Those initiatives have particular importance for those with boundary-spanning service areas.

Originality/value

The study advances understanding of managerial efficacy by directing attention to means external to managers' self. It also brings clarity to the notion of “confident managers” or “managerial confidence” broadly applied in previous studies. Findings provide insights about capacity-building interventions to build managerial efficacy through improving external means, circumventing the need to alter self-efficacy that is typically stable and resistant to change.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Adie Irwan Kusumah, Haryadi, Adi Indrayanto and Iwan Setiawan

This study aims to determine the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy, gender, intrinsic motivation and employee performance in mediating and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the relationship between transformational leadership, self-efficacy, gender, intrinsic motivation and employee performance in mediating and moderating roles.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents in this study were 531 hotel employees (human resources development staff, financial, relationship) in Yogyakarta who were led by women. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypotheses using AMOS 22.0.

Findings

The results show that transformational leadership has a positive and significant effect on employee performance, self-efficacy acts as a mediating variable on the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance. The results also indicate that gender acts as a moderating variable by strengthening the relationship between transformational leadership and employee performance and intrinsic motivation acts as a moderating variable by strengthening the relationship between self-efficacy and employee performance.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two limitations. First, the research results cannot conclude the company in general because the sampling of this study is limited to the hotel business which is led by women only. Future research is needed to explore more deeply to compare the performance of employees in companies led by women and those led by men. Second, this study uses only one independent variable. Future research needs to be done to explore the effect of other variables on company performance, such as work culture, work environment and job satisfaction.

Practical implications

The main managerial contribution of this study is directed to companies that are interested in developing employee performance. First, self-efficacy is able to mediate transformational leadership in achieving employee performance. Besides this research offers a clear strategy for companies to stimulate their employees to strengthen leadership individually so as to improve the quality of their work. Thus, companies can carry out leadership training that is focused on being able to recognize employees who have low self-efficacy. If this is done, the company can reduce expenses that are not small but can make a significant contribution.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the mediating and moderating role of transformational leadership, employee performance, self-efficacy, gender and intrinsic motivation, especially in a hotel business led by women in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Adeola Samuel Adebusuyi, Samson Olowo Kolawole, Hassan Salawu Abu, Olubusayo Foluso Adebusuyi and Adesina Adewale Ajulo

This study aims to investigate how new graduates in Nigeria can simultaneously pursue entrepreneurial and professional careers. Specifically, this study tested the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate how new graduates in Nigeria can simultaneously pursue entrepreneurial and professional careers. Specifically, this study tested the contextual (socioeconomic status [SES]), person-based (an open personality) and cognitive-person (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) predictors of entrepreneurship, professionalism and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The study design is cross-sectional. Data were collected from 363 new graduates from Nigerian tertiary institutions. Hypotheses were generated from social cognitive career self-management (CSM) variables. Research instruments were also revalidated for the Nigerian context, and regression path analysis was used to analyze the data.

Findings

This study’s key findings showed that SES and an open personality are predictors of entrepreneurship, professionalism and leadership (EPL) self-efficacy and intentions, entrepreneurial and job outcome expectations. Second, EPL self-efficacy predicted both entrepreneurial and job outcome expectations and served as a mediating variable for SES and an open personality. Third, entrepreneurial outcome expectations related to EPL intentions, whereas job outcome expectations did not. These results suggest that SES and openness personality trait are crucial for developing a versatile career mindset.

Research limitations/implications

This study demonstrated that individuals’ characteristics (i.e. cognitive and personality) and economic resources are crucial determinants of CSM. As this study is cross-sectional, future research could use a longitudinal approach to determine the cause-effect relationship.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first research to examine how new graduates can simultaneously explore entrepreneurial and professional careers in a developing country like Nigeria using the CSM theory.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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