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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Christopher J. Shipley and Brian H. Kleiner

The purpose of this article is to recognise the different types of compensation programmes for commissioned sales employees and to establish ways to manage these…

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to recognise the different types of compensation programmes for commissioned sales employees and to establish ways to manage these programmes in an ever changing business environment. This article will identify companies who use compensation programmes for their commissioned sales employees. This article will also compare and contrast the differences between the company’s different compensation plans. Compensation management is becoming increasingly more difficult for or ganisations to control because sales employees are wanting more and more. Managers need to find out what sales employees want and give it to them in a way that is fair and specific. Being specific in compensation and incentive plans is becoming the new method for managers to follow, while at the same time promoting a team atmosphere among sales employees. Results for compensation management of commissioned sales employees do not point to one best method, but managers are encouraging sales employees to work as a group and not against each other. This would create camaraderie among employees, thus enhancing the work environment and increasing quality and quantity of sales.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 28 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2003

Paul W. Farris, Mark E. Haskins and Gerry Yemen

Executive education (EE) programs are an important part of many business schools’ mission. For many such providers, the 1990s was a robust time of growth and increased…

Abstract

Executive education (EE) programs are an important part of many business schools’ mission. For many such providers, the 1990s was a robust time of growth and increased reliance on the fruits of those programs. In less time than takes to build a new EE facility, the EE environment changed. What factors influence the desirability of an EE program experience for the executives who attend them? Do executives want more EE opportunities or less? Are online program offerings an attractive alternative to traditional classroom venues? These and other related questions were answered, via a survey, by over 80 executives who frequently attend EE programs. Among other findings, the results indicate a desire for: more EE program experiences; the criticality of a host institution's and instructor's reputation in attracting executives; and a willingness to tradeoff some learning potential for convenience with online alternatives.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 22 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Jonathan Mukiza Kansheba and Andreas Erich Wald

This study examines the mediation effects of entrepreneurial attitudes (EAs) on the nexus of the entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) quality and productive entrepreneurship for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the mediation effects of entrepreneurial attitudes (EAs) on the nexus of the entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) quality and productive entrepreneurship for early-stage and high-growth entrepreneurial activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) panel data of 137 economies from 2014 to 2018. Random effect panel regressions and relative effect size estimations were used for data analysis.

Findings

The study’s findings show complementary mediation effects suggesting that EE quality steers entrepreneurial activities via the EA. However, such mediation is much more vivid towards high growth than early-stage activities. Vibrant EEs provide necessary resources that boost the attitude of potential and nascent entrepreneurs to engage in early stage and high-growth entrepreneurial activities.

Research limitations/implications

The study utilizes GEM data to explain the EEs and EA dynamics and their related effects on entrepreneurship at the macro level. Future research may study the phenomena by using micro level data.

Originality/value

The paper explores a less empirically researched question on how EEs steer entrepreneurship growth and development. It reveals a need for new perspectives/logics (e.g. mediation/moderation) for improving the explanations on the extant EEs framework. It further informs policymakers and practitioners to design entrepreneur-centred EE policies and programs.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Pedro Mauricio Acosta Castellanos and Araceli Queiruga-Dios

In education concerning environmental issues, there are two predominant currents in the world, environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development…

Abstract

Purpose

In education concerning environmental issues, there are two predominant currents in the world, environmental education (EE) and education for sustainable development (ESD). ESD is the formal commitment and therefore promoted by the United Nations, to ensure that countries achieve sustainable development. In contrast, EE was the first educational trend with an environmental protection approach. The purpose of this systematic review that seeks to show whether the migration from EE to ESD is being effective and welcomed by researchers and especially by universities is presented. With the above, a global panorama can be provided, where the regions that choose each model can be identified. In the same sense, it was sought to determine which of the two currents is more accepted within engineering education.

Design/methodology/approach

The review followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyzes parameters for systematic reviews. In total, 198 papers indexed in Scopus, Science Direct, ERIC and Scielo were analyzed. With the results, the advancement of ESD and the state of the EE by regions in the world were identified.

Findings

It was possible to categorize the geographical regions that host either of the two EE or ESD currents. It is important to note that ESD has gained more strength from the decade of ESD proposed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. For its part, EE has greater historical roots in some regions of the planet. In turn, there is evidence of a limited number of publications on the design and revision of study plans in engineering.

Originality/value

Through this systematic literature review, the regions of the world that are clinging to EE and those that have taken the path of ESD could be distinguished. Moreover, specific cases in engineering where ESD has been involved were noted.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2021

Claudia Benavides-Salazar, Cristina Iturrioz-Landart, Cristina Aragón-Amonarriz and Asunción Ibañez-Romero

This paper aims to investigate how entrepreneurial families (EFs) influence the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs) by using the family social capital (FSC) approach.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how entrepreneurial families (EFs) influence the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs) by using the family social capital (FSC) approach.

Design/methodology/approach

For this paper, the authors analyzed the Manizales EE as a case study. The authors used a variety of data collection procedures, including in-depth interviews with 26 entrepreneurs and mentors.

Findings

The authors established how EFs affect EE development, identifying how the FSC bridging mechanisms impact the EE’s social and cultural attributes, boosting entrepreneurial dynamics.

Originality/value

The results indicated the relevance of EFs’ embeddedness and the degree of the FSC institutionalization in promoting of entrepreneurship within the EEs.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Sakari Sipola

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurship culture affects start-up and venture capital co-evolution during the early evolution of an entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurship culture affects start-up and venture capital co-evolution during the early evolution of an entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) and its ability to foster the emergence of ambitious entrepreneurship as an outcome of its activity. Unlike studies that capture entrepreneurship culture at the national level, this study focusses specifically on the culture of venture capital-financed entrepreneurship and understanding its implications to the development of venture capital markets and successful firm-level outcomes within ecosystems.

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on EE and organisational imprinting theory, this study specifies characteristics of venture capital-financed entrepreneurship of Silicon Valley to illustrate the American way of building start-ups and examine whether they have as imprints affected to the entrepreneurship culture and start-up and venture capital co-evolution in Finland during the early evolution of its EE between 1980 and 1997.

Findings

The results illustrate venture capital-financed entrepreneurship culture as a specific example of entrepreneurship culture beneath the national level that can vary across geographies like the findings concerning Finland demonstrate. The findings show that this specific culture matters through having an impact on the structural evolution and performance of EEs and on the ways how they deliver or fail to deliver benefits to entrepreneurs.

Originality/value

The results show that venture capital-financed entrepreneurship and the emergence of success stories as outcomes of start-up and venture capital co-evolution within an EE are connected to a specific type of entrepreneurship culture. This paper also contributes to the literature by connecting the fundamentals of organisational imprinting to EE research.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2021

Esteban Lafuente, Suyen Alonso-Ubieta, Juan Carlos Leiva and Ronald Mora-Esquivel

This study evaluates the relationship between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and business competitiveness in four different contexts (i.e. France, Spain, Hungary and Costa Rica).

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluates the relationship between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and business competitiveness in four different contexts (i.e. France, Spain, Hungary and Costa Rica).

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a sample of 348 manufacturing and knowledge-intensive business service firms operating in four countries with different entrepreneurial ecosystems (France, Spain, Costa Rica and Hungary) for 2019. Firm competitiveness is computed via the “benefit-of-the-doubt” (BOD) method, and a multilevel model is employed to assess the connection between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and firm competitiveness.

Findings

The results of the multilevel model indicate that the entrepreneurial ecosystem is related to firm competitiveness, while the BOD results suggest that firms operating in settings with a more consolidated entrepreneurial ecosystem are better able to realize the outcomes of strategic choices linked to the exploitation of key resources and capabilities. Country-specific results suggest that “human capital” is the most relevant competitive pillar prioritized by all sampled businesses.

Originality/value

The proposed analysis of the connection between the entrepreneurial ecosystem and business competitiveness in different contexts contributes to the development of the entrepreneurial ecosystem frame by offering insights into how the properties of the entrepreneurial ecosystem (i.e. interactions among individuals, organizations and institutions) can produce economically meaningful effects on business performance.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Xavier Martin and Cha Li

In this paper, we conduct a conceptual and bibliographic analysis of the literature that deals with the international strategy of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), with…

Abstract

In this paper, we conduct a conceptual and bibliographic analysis of the literature that deals with the international strategy of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), with particular attention to SOEs from emerging economies (EEs). We first review the state of the art in defining the concepts of EEs and SOEs. We then conduct a detailed bibliographic analysis of the literature pertaining to SOEs’ involvement in international activities, whether as outward foreign investors or as potential local partners of inward-investing multinational enterprises. The analysis covers general trends in the literature, prominent research questions and outcome variables, use of theories, and choices pertaining to methodology (type of research and effects, empirical contexts). We document a literature that is fast-growing and well balanced in some respects. In other respects, we advance recommendations pertaining to (a) consistency and precision in the use of the concepts of “state-owned enterprise” and “emerging economy”; (b) search for specific evidence on the outward activities of EE SOEs in less-developed economies and even in other EEs, and on their performance; (c) understanding of relative propensities of local SOEs and inward investors to collaborate, and what happens when SOEs encounter each other across borders; (d) opportunities to strengthen the theoretical foundations and contributions of this research; and (e) minding the mix of home and host countries in studies and avoiding undue generalization from what has become a predominantly China-centric literature.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Philip T. Roundy

Scholars are increasingly adopting an ecosystems perspective focused on the complex systems of factors that influence organizations. A type of ecosystem that is receiving…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars are increasingly adopting an ecosystems perspective focused on the complex systems of factors that influence organizations. A type of ecosystem that is receiving significant academic and practitioner attention is the entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE): the interconnected system of actors and forces that supports or hinders entrepreneurship in a geographic area. However, the role that leaders play in ecosystem development, particularly in unmunificent contexts, has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate EE leadership and development and induce a theory explaining how it unfolds.

Design/methodology/approach

An inductive research design was combined with the case study methodology to analyze the leadership of an entrepreneurial support organization (an incubator) and its role in developing an entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Findings

The findings revealed that incubator leaders constructed a dynamic leadership model that evolved as the EE developed and was tailored to the region's strengths and weaknesses.

Originality/value

The study contributes to research at the nexus of leadership and entrepreneurship by introducing a new level of analysis (the meta-organization), focusing on an underexamined leader type (the support organization) and emphasizing the interplay between leadership and regional characteristics.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Stéphane Foliard, Sandrine Le Pontois, Alain Fayolle and Isabell Diermann

Entrepreneurship teachers (ETs) evolve in an environment where different categories of people interact: students, teachers and stakeholders. Assuming one or more…

Abstract

Entrepreneurship teachers (ETs) evolve in an environment where different categories of people interact: students, teachers and stakeholders. Assuming one or more identities or roles, teachers, practitioners, ex-entrepreneurs and/or researchers are the ‘transmitters’1 of entrepreneurship education (EE). The question of recognition of teachers’ professional status is not always addressed (Hargreaves, 2000). Scientific research in EE shows certain weaknesses (Byrne, Fayolle, & Toutain, 2014; Fayolle, 2013), notably, a lack of interest in questions of (i) the perceived legitimacy of ETs and (ii) the support they receive in carrying out their work (particularly professional development). Taking a decidedly multidisciplinary perspective, this chapter aims to deal with the question of the perceived legitimacy of ETs using a literature review that covers all disciplines having shown an interest in the notion of teacher legitimacy.

The legitimacy of EE depends on the interactions between legitimate instructors and legitimate students in a given context, which respects certain collectively accepted norms. It also depends on the context and the objective of EE. Following the example of a university hospital worker (doctor), ETs can be practitioners, teachers and researchers. Their degree of expertise, position in the institution, positioning in relation to other actors – students, peers, colleagues, institutional and professional stakeholders – and the discourse they use are the elements that constitute their legitimacy.

Details

Creating Entrepreneurial Space: Talking Through Multi-Voices, Reflections on Emerging Debates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-372-8

Keywords

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