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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2021

Edwin Jones

This paper aims to present a conceptual viewpoint highlighting the utility of active support in implementing capable environments and to extend this by presenting a three-tiered…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a conceptual viewpoint highlighting the utility of active support in implementing capable environments and to extend this by presenting a three-tiered preventative model of positive behavioural support (PBS) in UK health and social care.

Design/methodology/approach

Provision of a commentary on “Building capable environments using practice leadership” by Linda Hume, Nadia Khan and Martin Reilly.

Findings

Capable environments and active support should be key, universal and essential PBS tier one supports in UK health and social care. Training staff in Active Support and developing practice leadership help implement capable environments.

Originality/value

The three-tiered PBS model was recently proposed by Leitch et al. (2020) and is worthy of further debate and refinement with the involvement of stakeholders. It has several practical implications including refocussing efforts on early intervention to get tier one supports implemented effectively in recognition that PBS is much wider than intense tier three supports. It could reinforce and motivate existing providers of quality support and indicate where and how other providers can commence the process of implementing PBS. Future research could consider the effectiveness of applying implementation science to the field of learning disabilities and PBS in particular.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Louise D. Denne, Nick J. Gore, J. Carl Hughes, Sandy Toogood, Edwin Jones and Freddy Jackson Brown

There is an apparent disconnect between the understanding of best practice and service delivery in the support of people with learning disabilities at risk of behaviours that…

1293

Abstract

Purpose

There is an apparent disconnect between the understanding of best practice and service delivery in the support of people with learning disabilities at risk of behaviours that challenge. We suggest, is a problem of implementation. The purpose of this paper is to explore reasons why this might be the case: a failure to recognise the collective works of successive generations of research and practice; and a failure to address the macro-systems involved and systems changes needed to support implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the consensus that exists in respect of best practice. Drawing upon ideas from implementation science the paper highlights the complexities involved in the implementation of all evidence-based practices and uses this as a framework to propose ways in which an infrastructure that facilitates the delivery of services in the learning disabilities field might be built.

Findings

This paper highlights core recommended practices that have been consistent over time and across sources and identifies the systems involved in the implementation process. This paper demonstrates that many of the necessary building blocks of implementation already exist and suggests areas that are yet to be addressed. Critically, the paper highlights the importance of, and the part that all systems need to play in the process.

Originality/value

In the absence of any generalised implementation frameworks of evidence-based practice in the learning disabilities field, the paper suggests that the findings may provide the basis for understanding how the gap that exists between best practice and service delivery in the support of people with a learning disability at risk of behaviours that challenge might be closed.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1945

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has released an account of the preparation of emergency rations in the form of dehydrated foodstuffs. These rations were…

Abstract

The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research has released an account of the preparation of emergency rations in the form of dehydrated foodstuffs. These rations were designed and made when the result of a forced landing of an aircraft flying over polar regions may have to be faced. Having regard to the special circumstances for which the method described by the Department was designed it is perhaps not too much to say that it introduces as great a change in feeding the crews of airships as did Appert in feeding the crews of sailing ships a hundred and thirty‐five years ago. Appert's method did much to eliminate scurvy. This to prevent starvation and loss of life which the accounts of Polar expeditions have too often recorded. Dried fruits and dried vegetables have long been known and used. Milk powder and egg powder are now as well known. If these and tinned foods be regarded as ordinary rations they are too heavy and too bulky to be of use in an emergency such as may arise when a Polar flight ends in an unpremeditated grounding and the crew are left in a Polar desert to make the best they can of the conditions. It will be remembered that in May last the “Aries,” a British Lancaster airship, made a trip of some 17,000 miles. Much of this trip was in the Polar regions. The g eographical North Pole was visited and in the return journey the true position of the magnetic North Pole was ascertained in a 4,000 mile non‐stop return journey from White Horse, Yukon, to Shrewsbury. In view of possibilities an emergency ration had to be designed in which most of the food was in the form of hydrostatically compressed blocks of compounded and dehydrated foods. The compression reducing bulk; dehydration, weight; compounding ensuring variety. The rations so prepared had to be sufficient to feed nine men for twenty‐eight days. An account of the rations so prepared forms the subject of the report issued by the Department. These blocks consist of mixtures of dehydrated foods with added sweetening and flavouring materials where appropriate, so that each is a ready‐made meal requiring only the addition of water. They are fabricated into tablets of standard size (usually 2in. by 2in. by 0·9in.). They need only to be wrapped in high grade waxed films or papers and their standard size facilitates the assembly of mixed rations whilst very little space is wasted as compared for instance with circular cans. They are made by one of two processes—those containing dried foods of large particle size such as dehydrated meat or vegetables are made by compressing the mixture in a hydraulic press. The pressed block can be broken down easily in the hand. Where the particle size of the material is much finer, as with spray dried powders such as milk or egg, such compressed blocks would be very difficult to crumble, and furthermore lumps escaping crumbling would remain as unreconstituted lumps and mar the smoothness of the product. Thus they are prepared by casting the mixture hot into moulds with added molten fat. The block can be dissolved by boiling water. Many of the blocks containing milk powder may be eaten as sweets. Four kinds of menus from these blocks were prepared to relieve monotony of diet. Details of these are given in the report for four days. The total number of calories for each day ranges from 3,550 to 3,380. The weight of food per man in grammes from 715 to 704. Fat in grammes 213 to 177. Percentage of fat 30 to 25. The computed total nett weight was 393 lbs. Rations for two days can be packed in a standard four‐gallon can—gas packed if necessary—as a master container. Fourteen such cans would be necessary. These, together with immediate wrappings, would make a gross weight of 435 lbs. A most important consideration is weight. It is pointed out that the water extracted during the dehydration process would fill another seventeen cans! If light metal alloys instead of tin plate were used for the master cans a reduction of weight would be possible, but even a total weight of 435 lbs. is “very modest” compared with the weight of most emergency rations, even when the weight of master containers is excluded for the rations as drawn up provide for each man three normal meals per day. The Department refers to the theoretical aspect of the provision of a calorific level of 3,400 per day, with a total weight of 704 gms. per man. If the diet were made up of pure carbohydrate, pure fat and pure protein alone, then, using the factors 4·9 and 4 respectively as the number of calories derived from each gramme of food, a diet containing 25 per cent. fat would have an overall calorific value of 5·25 Cals/gm. a diet giving 3,400 calories, as in Day 3, would therefore weigh 647 gms. This is an absolute minimum below which it would be impossible to go. This figure takes no account of the residual water content of dehydrated foods of salt or minerals or roughage. The weight of 715 gms. achieved in practice includes, in addition to water and roughage, some 8 gms. of salt and 13 gms. of tea. It is therefore considered that, for a ration which gives three normal meals a day, it would be virtually impossible with the materials available at present to reduce the weight of the ration further. It may be added that a stove has been designed to burn motor spirit should it be possible to salvage any after a forced landing. It is considered that this type of food may be of great value for future polar expeditions. This is undoubtedly true whether aeroplanes be used as part of the equipment or not. It may be permissible to suggest that rations such as these would prove useful in land expeditions at a pinch. While in the case of a ship having to be abandoned in mid ocean the crew's chance of survival would obviously be bettered by having a supply of such concentrated rations in the ship's boats.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Abstract

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2005

Patricia H. Thornton, Candace Jones and Kenneth Kury

We contribute to the literature on institutional and organizational change by integrating two related areas of study: the theory and methods of analysis informed by the research…

Abstract

We contribute to the literature on institutional and organizational change by integrating two related areas of study: the theory and methods of analysis informed by the research on institutional logics and historical-event sequencing. Institutional logics provide the theory to understand how the content of culture influences organizational change; historical-event sequencing reveals the underlying patterns of cultural transformation. We apply this dual perspective to the cases of institutional stability and change in organizational governance in three industries: accounting, architecture, and higher-education publishing. Research on governance has focused on changes in organizational design between markets, hierarchies, and networks. Missing from this research is an understanding of how institutions at the wider societal level motivate organizations to adopt one of these governance forms over another. We examine how the governance of firms in these industries has been influenced by the institutional logics of the professions, the market, the state, and the corporation by focusing on three mechanisms – institutional entrepreneurs, structural overlap, and historical-event sequencing. Overall, our findings reveal how accounting was influenced by state regulation producing a punctuated equilibrium model, architecture by professional duality producing a cyclical model, and publishing by market rationalization producing an evolutionary model of institutional change in organizational governance.

Details

Transformation in Cultural Industries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-365-5

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

Helen Sanderson, Edwin Jones and Kathy Brown

Valuing People (DoH, 2001) proposes person‐centred planning (PCP) as a way for service users to exercise more power and control. Active support (AS) is also an approach designed…

235

Abstract

Valuing People (DoH, 2001) proposes person‐centred planning (PCP) as a way for service users to exercise more power and control. Active support (AS) is also an approach designed to improve the quality of life of people with severe disabilities by enabling them to participate as fully as possible in daily activities. PCP and some of the components of AS are complementary rather than mutually exclusive. While PCP can generate ideas, AS can help implement them, and used together PCP and AS can provide a way to facilitate user participation and improve users' quality of life. This paper uses a case history to illustrate this potential, and describes how a particular form of PCP, essential lifestyle planning (ELP), was used in conjunction with some of the planning and programming components of AS.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2010

Kathy Lowe, Edwin Jones, Shelley Horwood, Diane Gray, Wendy James, Jock Andrew and David Allen

A system of evidence‐based periodic service review (PSR) was implemented in specialist health services for people with challenging behaviour, to support the adoption of a positive…

1060

Abstract

A system of evidence‐based periodic service review (PSR) was implemented in specialist health services for people with challenging behaviour, to support the adoption of a positive behavioural approach. The extent and accuracy of PSR implementation, its impact on staff knowledge and attitudes, and its value as a practice leadership tool were assessed. The results indicated that PSR was implemented regularly, scoring was based accurately on tangible evidence, and increased scores over time indicated service improvement in line with PSR principles. Staff generally welcomed PSR as a quality monitoring tool, and greater knowledge of the rationale and process for PSR was associated with more positive attitudes. Managers regarded PSR as a valuable aid to practice leadership and had used innovative implementation methods to maximise its acceptance by staff teams. The style of management and need for support from the wider organisational structure are discussed as critical factors in successful implementation.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

David Allen, Edwin Jones, Dee Davies, Kathy Lowe and Gloria Jarman

Improving the competence of frontline services to support people who challenge has long been recognised as a key service objective. Exactly how this objective should be achieved…

Abstract

Improving the competence of frontline services to support people who challenge has long been recognised as a key service objective. Exactly how this objective should be achieved has been unclear, however. This article describes how web‐based e‐learning technology is being used to achieve widespread dissemination of knowledge and skill about positive behavioural support. The drivers for this development are described, together with an account of the historical development of the programme. The advantages of using this medium are outlined, and the benefits of a whole‐organisation approach to learning are identified.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Edwin Jones

The purpose of this paper is to provide a viewpoint on what needs to be done to develop competent residential services for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a viewpoint on what needs to be done to develop competent residential services for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This article draws on previous accounts of the actions required. Whilst these have been available for decades and are still valid, they have not been fully implemented, hence the theme of “Back to the future”.

Findings

The need to continue developing small‐scale, community‐based services that have a clear value base and are committed to taking person‐centred action is highlighted. The paper focuses on the need to enhance service quality through the dissemination and implementation of Positive Behavioural Support and discusses some key issues regarding this with reference to recent work in Wales.

Originality/value

This paper makes a timely contribution to the current debate and highlights some practical actions and tools developed in Wales that may be of wider interest.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Brian Jones and Mark Tadajewski

The purpose of this paper is to document contributions to the early study and teaching of marketing at one of the first universities in Britain to do so and, in that way, to…

1247

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document contributions to the early study and teaching of marketing at one of the first universities in Britain to do so and, in that way, to contribute to the literature about the history of marketing thought. Given that the first university business program in Britain was started in 1902, at about the same time as the earliest business programs in America, the more specific purpose of this paper was to explore whether or not the same influences were shared by pioneer marketing educators on both sides of the Atlantic.

Design/methodology/approach

An historical method is used including a biographical approach. Primary source materials included unpublished correspondence (letterbooks), lecture notes, seminar minute-books, course syllabi and exams, minutes of senate and faculty meetings, university calendars and other unpublished documents in the William James Ashley Papers at the University of Birmingham.

Findings

The contributions of William James Ashley and the Commerce Program at the University of Birmingham to the early twentieth-century study and teaching of marketing are documented. Drawing from influences similar to those on pioneer American marketing scholars, Ashley used an historical, inductive, descriptive approach to study and teach marketing as part of what he called “business economics”. Beginning in 1902, Ashley taught his students about a relatively wide range of marketing strategy decisions focusing mostly on channels of distribution and the functions performed by channel intermediaries. His teaching and the research of his students share much with the early twentieth-century commodity, institutional and functional approaches that dominated American marketing thought.

Research limitations/implications

William James Ashley was only one scholar and the Commerce Program at the University of Birmingham was only one, although widely acknowledged as the first, of a few early twentieth-century British university programs in business. This justifies future research into the possible contributions to marketing knowledge made by other programs such as those at the University of Manchester (1903), University of Liverpool (1910) and University of London (1919).

Originality/value

This paper adds an important chapter to the history of marketing thought which has been dominated by American pioneer scholars, courses, literature and ideas.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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