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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Edward J. Timmons

Abstract

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Darwyyn Deyo, Blake Hoarty, Conor Norris and Edward Timmons

This study aims to analyze the trends for crime and STDs after the passage of massage therapist licensing. In 1977, Texas passed a law permitting county-level licensing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the trends for crime and STDs after the passage of massage therapist licensing. In 1977, Texas passed a law permitting county-level licensing laws for massage therapists, which was soon followed by a statewide licensing requirement in 1985. This early massage therapy law was upheld by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. Massage therapy licensing is commonly associated with preventing crime, specifically prostitution. However, massage parlors also represent an opportunity for entrepreneurs starting businesses, who face significant barriers to entry across the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze the effect of state- and city-level licensing of massage therapists on crime and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases using data from the FBI Uniform Crime Reports from 1985–2013 and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1993-2015.

Findings

The authors find that state- and city-level licensing of massage therapists was not associated with preventing crimes related to prostitution or reducing sexually transmitted diseases. This analysis is consistent with the hypothesis that relaxing the stringency of massage therapist licensing would not lead to increases in crime or additional spread of disease while likely encouraging entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the effects of city-level licensing on health and safety of consumers.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Edward Timmons, Brian Meehan, Andrew Meehan and John Hazenstab

The purpose of this paper is to document the changes in low- and moderate-income occupational licensing over time.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the changes in low- and moderate-income occupational licensing over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Using US state level data, the authors document the rise in occupational licensing for low- and moderate-income occupations over the 1993-2012 period.

Findings

States averaged 32 additional low- and moderate-income occupations licensed over this period. Louisiana added the most licenses with 59 new licenses for these occupations, while Oklahoma and Kentucky only added 15 licenses for these low- and moderate-income occupations.

Originality/value

These data have not been documented before and should provide useful for future research into occupational licensing.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Alicia Morgan Plemmons

The purpose of this study is to analyze how occupational licensing costs within a state affect the performance of self-employed firms, as measured through annual sales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze how occupational licensing costs within a state affect the performance of self-employed firms, as measured through annual sales.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes an empirical approach to determine if there are additional effects on the annual sales for firms that are self-employed in high-cost states that are not explained through the individual estimations. Since the choice of self-employment is plausibly nonrandom, this study also uses a propensity score matching method to develop a matched subsample of self-employed and employee-maintaining firms. This selection methodology ensures that the set of self-employed and employee-maintaining firm observations are similar in all measurable attributes besides their regulatory environment and firm structure. Using this representative subsample, the empirical framework is repeated to reevaluate the effects of high occupational licensing fees on the sales of self-employed firms.

Findings

In both the unmatched and matched samples, there are significant, large, negative interactions representing a reduction in annual sales per employee within self-employed firms relative to employee-maintaining firms when located in states with above-average occupational licensing costs. The results using the matched subsamples are noticeably smaller in magnitude, which indicates that future policy assessments would benefit from ensuring that the sample pool, when dealing with self-employment, is limited only to firms under a common convex hull in order to not skew the size of results.

Originality/value

This study contributes new understanding of the financial relationship of self-employed firms and occupational licensing costs using firm-level observations of sales and firm structure. This has important policy implications for the development and evaluation of occupational licensing policies when considering effects on the self-employed.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Dick Carpenter, Kyle Sweetland, Emily Vargo and Ethan Bayne

The purpose of this paper is to discuss new findings on municipal-level occupational licensing and other forms of regulation and introduce a new data set available for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss new findings on municipal-level occupational licensing and other forms of regulation and introduce a new data set available for researchers to study this largely unexplored area.

Design/methodology/approach

Municipal occupational regulatory data were gathered in 2017 and 2018 from the 50 largest cities in the USA. Data available in the data set include city and state IDs, occupational IDs, requirements associated with the regulations (e.g. education, experience and fees), penalties for practicing without meeting the requirements, regulatory type and NAICS category. Descriptive statistics are used to present information about the number and types of occupations regulated and the number and types of regulations present in the cities.

Findings

The median number of occupations regulated by a city is 24.5, but the numbers per city vary substantially. The 1,832 occupations in the data set are distributed across every NAICS category. The most prevalent form of regulation is registration; certification is least used. Cities are quite diverse in the types of regulations applied to occupations, and the type of regulation varies substantially by industry type.

Originality/value

Research on licensing is dominated by state-level analyses. Largely absent are systematic analyses of licensing and other regulation at the municipal level, likely due to a lack of data. This means the current licensing literature underestimates – perhaps severely so – the prevalence, burdens and effects of licensing. The data introduced and discussed in this paper can help remedy this dearth of municipal licensing analyses.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2019

Samuel J. Ingram and Aaron Yelowitz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the labor market entry of real estate agents in the USA and the potential effect of occupational licensing on entry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the labor market entry of real estate agents in the USA and the potential effect of occupational licensing on entry.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the 2012 to 2017 American Community Survey are linked to local housing price fluctuations from the Federal Housing Finance Agency for 100 large metro areas. The cost of entry associated with occupational licensing for new real estate agents is carefully measured for each market and interacted with housing fluctuations to investigate the role for barriers to entry.

Findings

A 10 percent increase in housing prices is associated with a 4 percent increase in the number of agents. However, increased license stringency reduces the labor market response by 30 percent. The impact of licensing is stronger for women and younger workers.

Originality/value

This work contributes to the growing literature investigating the impact of occupational licensing on labor supply and entry in the USA, as well as potential impacts of regulation on dynamism and entrepreneurship. To the authors’ knowledge, this study is also the first to quantify the cost of occupational licensing in the real estate industry.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Case study
Publication date: 31 July 2013

Ravichandran Ramamoorthy

The case illustrates an entrepreneurial voyage and venture creation and through it helps in identifying the reasons and causes for that venture's failure. It also enables…

Abstract

The case illustrates an entrepreneurial voyage and venture creation and through it helps in identifying the reasons and causes for that venture's failure. It also enables discussion on the importance of planning a venture, more importantly; financing, managing, growing, and ending a venture and on how to avoid the pitfalls that befall such enterprises. This case can be used in Entrepreneurship courses as well as MBA, PGP and Executive Education programmes on Entrepreneurship.

Details

Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2633-3260
Published by: Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Cina van Zyl

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter deals with the process perspective of entrepreneurship, that is, what prospective entrepreneurs should do and how they do it (the processes they use) to launch a new venture in the tourism field. The main purpose of this chapter is to explain what the entrepreneurial process is, the steps/phases to transit from idea to enterprise and the risks involved.

Methodology/approach

General review was conducted on conceptual issues and managerial aspects of the entrepreneurial process and legal issues.

Findings

This chapter highlights that the entrepreneurial process undergone by entrepreneurs is dual in nature, both in terms of action and thinking process. Given that the failure rate of new ventures is high, there is a need to focus on the importance of understanding the dynamics of entrepreneurship, the action process of the prospective entrepreneur and the potential risk impact.

Research limitations/implications

This chapter is explorative in nature because the discussion is based on a general review.

Practical implications

Prospective entrepreneurs should follow specific steps, a rational process to establish their business venture and to protect its operations against any event. Thus, any new business should manage risks appropriately, as well as record insurance to cover for unforeseen events.

Originality/value

This chapter provides an overview of the entrepreneurial process and legal risk issues that may affect the success of a new venture. The hands-on approach is particularly useful in dealing with the entrepreneurial mind when exploring new business ventures in the tourism field.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Travel and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-529-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Kirsi Snellman and Gabriella Cacciotti

The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how angel investors’ emotions unfold in the investment opportunity evaluation process as they interact with the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to explore whether and how angel investors’ emotions unfold in the investment opportunity evaluation process as they interact with the social environment. Complementing recent research that has emphasized the financial calculations, we add angel investors’ own emotional arousal to the list of tools that may help them to rate investment opportunities.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Drawing on semi-structured qualitative interviews, we develop a phenomenological analysis of the investment opportunity evaluation process at the level of angel investors’ lived experience.

Findings

Our findings indicate that when angel investors use their emotional arousal in evaluating investment criteria, they engage in a developmental process characterized by three elements: subjective validation, social validation, and investment decision.

Research Limitations/Implications

We illuminate how discrete emotions can complement rational considerations in the opportunity evaluation journey. Capturing the nature of emotion as action oriented, embodied, socially situated, and distributed, we embrace its adaptive socially situated dynamics.

Practical Implications

Taking a step toward better understanding of the soft aspects in the relationship development that leads to investments, we hope this study will help not only those entrepreneurs who need funding but also those policymakers who design new incentives that improve the flow of investment into promising new ventures.

Originality/Value

We demonstrate how angel investors’ emotions can complement their rational considerations in the investment opportunity evaluation process as they interact with the social environment. Identifying boundary values for the conditions that are necessary and sufficient to advance in the process, we have demonstrated how emotion can serve as a driving or restraining force not only during subjective validation but also during social validation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Ricky Szeto, Philip C. Wright and Edward Cheng

Business ethics has become a controversial topic as China integrates more closely into the world economy and there are signs of convergence within global professions. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

Business ethics has become a controversial topic as China integrates more closely into the world economy and there are signs of convergence within global professions. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to study guanxi and business ethics in China within the context of social capital development, with a view to creating a more balanced interpretation that provides insights for Westerners wishing to conduct business in China.

Design/methodology/approach

In terms of methodology, the work is based on the results of a recent survey conducted among Chinese executives in southern China.

Findings

The major findings suggest that the processes of developing social capital and the nurturing of company‐to‐company relationships need to be planned carefully. Thus, no one individual should be responsible for the China connection, although the appointment of a team leader is essential, otherwise the Chinese side would become confused. Negotiations always are to be conducted on a team basis and always approved at the highest levels in the corporate structure.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this paper include the difficulties of obtaining any research sample in China. Thus, we refer to the work of Weiss, (Learning From Strangers, Free Press, New York.) and use a snowball sample.

Originality/value

The practical implications of the paper are that guanxi (a type of social capital), can be managed and that corruption does not have to result from the use of guanxi‐based relationships. Thus, the originality arises out of the practical implications, in that for the first time, Western concepts of social capital and Asian concepts of guanxi have been compared, leading to practical recommendations for Western managers.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

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