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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Mark Anthony Farrell, Edward Oczkowski and Radwan Kharabsheh

Despite failure rates of around 30 per cent, international joint ventures (IJVs) continue to grow. It is argued that IJVs provide a platform for organisational learning…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite failure rates of around 30 per cent, international joint ventures (IJVs) continue to grow. It is argued that IJVs provide a platform for organisational learning, which facilitates organisational performance. Intuitively, IJVs that are learning oriented should have a positive impact upon organisational performance. However, it is unclear as to whether a firm in an IJV should focus more on being learning oriented, or market oriented. The paper aims to address this question.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 168 senior managers involved in IJVs in Malaysia. Data were analysed using two‐stage least squares estimators for latent variable models.

Findings

Results suggest that for IJVs, a market orientation has a more positive impact on organisational performance than a learning orientation. The non‐linear relationship between market orientation and performance suggest that larger gains in performance are achieved by firms who have low initial levels of market orientation. Thus, in the absence of one or the other, it is preferable for a firm in an IJV to have a strong market orientation.

Practical implications

For managers of IJVs, the study would suggest that firms should concentrate on improving their organisations' overall level of market orientation if they are to improve the level of business performance.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to examine the relative effects of a market orientation and a learning orientation in the context of IJVs.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Ying Zhang and Edward Oczkowski

The expansion of the phenomenon of two-way flow expatriation due to the accelerated process of globalization has resulted in an increasing need for a better understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

The expansion of the phenomenon of two-way flow expatriation due to the accelerated process of globalization has resulted in an increasing need for a better understanding of cross-cultural transitions. Given the absence of convincing a priori theoretical explanations, as part of an inductive discovery process, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between cultural intelligence (CQ), job position, and cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) for expatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

Explicit consideration is given to uncovering the potential importance of cultural distance asymmetry (CDA) effects. Structural equation modelling techniques are employed to analyse survey data from a two-flow sample of expatriates between Australia and China.

Findings

Results indicate that motivational CQ has a statistically significant effect on CCA. CDA is found to moderate the relationship between job positions and expatriate adjustment, such that the relationship depends on the direction of cultural flow between more and less authoritarian cultural contexts.

Originality/value

These findings discover and highlight the potential importance of identifying the direction of cultural flows of expatriation in understanding successful expatriates’ CCA.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

Sarra Berraies

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral dimensions of the middle managers’ cultural intelligence…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral dimensions of the middle managers’ cultural intelligence (CQ) on firms’ innovation performance in a context of cultural diversity and the mediating role of knowledge sharing in this relationship. The author deepens the analysis by exploring the moderating role of collaborative climate (CC) on the link between CQ and KS.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted on 186 foreign middle managers working in Tunisian firms. The data analysis was performed via the partial least square method.

Findings

The results revealed that middle managers’ metacognitive CQ has a positive effect on KS, which in turn enhances firms’ innovation performance. In this line, KS partially mediates the relationship between metacogntive CQ and innovation performance. Findings also indicate that CC moderates the link between three dimensions of CQ, namely metacognitive, behavioral and motivational CQs and KS.

Originality/value

The paper sheds lights on the contribution of middle managers’ CQ and the CC within firms to the KS and innovation performance in a context of cultural diversity. At the best of the author’s knowledge, the links among these variables had not been empirically examined, especially involving samples of middle managers. This study offers important insights for managers by providing them with tools to improve KS and firms’ innovation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Jeremy Galbreath

This paper aims to explore the nature of the cooperation–competition nexus in regional clusters by examining how wine firms in Australia engage in knowledge exchanges…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the nature of the cooperation–competition nexus in regional clusters by examining how wine firms in Australia engage in knowledge exchanges about a “common” strategic issue: climate change. Further, it determines if differences in climate change innovations exist based on sub-regional position.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey, data were collected from 557 firms across three wine-producing regions in Australia. Respondents were drawn from a leading wine industry database.

Findings

The findings suggest that, after accounting for all knowledge exchanges, firms across the regions appear to be generally engaging in knowledge exchanges about climate change within their own geographic sub-regions. However, paradoxically, firms in “elite” sub-regions appear to be demonstrating more of a cooperative posture via a greater level of external knowledge exchanges. The results also suggest that implementation rates differ for adaptive climate change innovations only (as opposed to mitigative innovations) to the apparent advantage of firms in elite sub-regions.

Research limitations/implications

The study represents Australian wine regions and should not be taken as a general population sample. The impacts of climate change in other wine-producing regions around the world may vary, leading to different results than those found in this study.

Practical implications

Wine producers face many challenges with respect to climate change. To respond effectively to this issue, the sharing of knowledge is important to innovate around mitigative and adaptive practices. This research suggests that greater stimulation of open knowledge exchanges is likely needed so that all producers can benefit from industry-wide learning.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights to wine scholars, industry practitioners and peak industry bodies seeking to understand and enhance the wine industry’s response to climate change. The paper also points to areas of future research opportunity and provides policy recommendations.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Luca A. Panzone

Eastern European countries have an important history of quality and tradition in winemaking. The radical economic modification that the wine sector had to face during…

Abstract

Purpose

Eastern European countries have an important history of quality and tradition in winemaking. The radical economic modification that the wine sector had to face during communism exposed these countries to various problems during transition, when their market share in Western European markets shrunk. This paper aims to argue that an important cause of the decline is the inability of price to convey information about the quality level of the wine, as from the theory of asymmetric information.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the econometric theory of hedonic pricing to explore the research question, relating price to the characteristics of the wine, including a quality rating from a respected British wine expert for the year 2006. Results are presented for a sample of 134 wines coming from different Eastern European countries (EEC) sold in the UK. The analysis also tackles the issue of understanding which parameters contributed to the quality level of Eastern European wines, modelling the qualitative description in order to identify the keywords that explains the change in quality level.

Findings

The results show evidence of no correlation between ratings and price in the considered segment of the UK wine market, suggesting an imperfect communication of quality via the price information. Moreover, Romania, which is a very important producing country, has a weak brand value, suggesting the need for restructuring the industry and improving quality management schemes to compete in their newly enlarged destination market. The quality model shows that fruity flavours are those playing a most important role in defining the quality level; hence a more targeted product supply should be encouraged.

Originality/value

No previous research has used hedonic modelling to the case of Eastern European wines. Furthermore, the context used here is to understand the weaknesses of the specific segment, and the tool is used to investigate the loss of competitive advantage of Eastern European products in the UK markets, focusing on the quality/price relation.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 113 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2014

Timo Tammi, Jani Saastamoinen and Helen Reijonen

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have been found to be under-represented in the awarding of public sector procurement contracts. Currently, very little is known about…

Abstract

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have been found to be under-represented in the awarding of public sector procurement contracts. Currently, very little is known about the strategic and behavioral aspects associated with SMEsʼ participation in public sector procurement. To take a step in filling the gap, we used a conceptual construct known as market orientation (MO). The construct comprises a firmʼs orientation in gathering information on competitors and customers, and using the information to gain competitive advantage. This research found that MO has a positive effect on how active SMEs are in searching information on available requests for tenders and how actively they participate in bidding contests. This work strongly suggests that MO should be taken into account when designing procurement contracts, and MO should be fostered among SMEs.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2009

Mika Ruokonen and Sami Saarenketo

This paper addresses the strategic orientations (entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and market orientation) of rapidly internationalizing small software companies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper addresses the strategic orientations (entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and market orientation) of rapidly internationalizing small software companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is based on an intensive investigation of ten small Finnish software companies that have exhibited rapid and proactive internationalization behavior.

Findings

It is argued that the manifestations of the orientations evolve as the small company develops, and these concepts are thus strongly related to the internationalization process. Further, an entrepreneurial orientation, especially a strong desire to seek growth in international markets, must be embedded in the mindset of the rapidly internationalizing small company. However, It is argued that it does not have an effect on the success of the international venture if it is not combined with strong learning and market orientations.

Research limitations/implications

This paper brings an evolutionary viewpoint to the existing academic debate of strategic orientations of companies. It is suggested that the current conceptualization of entrepreneurial orientation should be developed to include also measures of market orientation.

Practical implications

It is suggested that the members of the management team of a small and global software company should not only possess a highly entrepreneurial mindset and previous experience of international operations, they should also show strong commitment to considering the customers the most important stakeholders of the company, and a willingness and ability to learn rapidly from all available information about global markets.

Originality/value

This is the first qualitative investigation of the strategic orientations during the internationalization process of small companies.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Vanessa Ratten

This paper aims to explore the role of eco-innovation in the competitiveness of the Barossa Valley wine region, which is one of the premier wine areas in Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role of eco-innovation in the competitiveness of the Barossa Valley wine region, which is one of the premier wine areas in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach using qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews was utilised to gather data from respondents in the wine regional cluster.

Findings

The findings suggest that eco-innovation and regional wine clusters contribute to better international performance of wine firms. In addition, environmental issues are important for the wine industry because of the role they play in the global economy.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights the growing importance of climate change and sustainability on the willingness of wine firms to be involved in eco-innovation. This is crucial for wine firms in the Barossa Valley being globally competitive leaders based on environmental innovations.

Practical implications

Due to the large amount of natural resources that wine firms use, clusters can be used to encourage eco-innovation, which can facilitate further expansion into new international markets. This is important because of consumers increasing emphasis on environmentally friendly food products and the government priority given to eco-innovations.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights into the eco-innovation process that can help wine firms, industry practitioners and regional planners develop better environmental strategies that lead to increased global competitiveness.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Lloyd C. Harris

Although there has been much academic discussion of employee behaviours as potential barriers to market orientation, comparatively little attention has been focused on…

Abstract

Although there has been much academic discussion of employee behaviours as potential barriers to market orientation, comparatively little attention has been focused on organizational barriers to market orientation. No single study has undertaken a holistic review of structural, strategic and systems impediments. The aim of this paper is to extend and synthesize existing research into the obstacles to market orientation by performing a holistic analysis of the organizational characteristics which influence the extent of market orientation in an organization. This paper begins with a brief review of existing research into the barriers to developing market orientation. After a discussion of research design and methodology, the summary findings of three in‐depth case studies are presented and eight hypotheses are forwarded. Thereafter, the results of a survey of organizational barriers to market orientation are presented and the findings are discussed. The paper concludes with a number of implications for both strategic marketing and management theory and practice.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Rizwan Tahir and David Egleston

The purpose of this study is to validate Ozdemir and Cizel’s (2007) model of expatriate management. The researchers tested the framework developed initially by Ozdemir and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to validate Ozdemir and Cizel’s (2007) model of expatriate management. The researchers tested the framework developed initially by Ozdemir and Cizel (2007) by relating the four stages of the expatriation process with the performance and commitment of expatriate managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The research population consists of expatriate managers from five Anglo-Saxon countries. A total of 110 surveys were collected. However, due to missing data and internal inconsistencies (i.e. random answering), six surveys (5.5%) were deleted resulting in a sample size of 104.

Findings

Ozdemir and Cizel’s four-stage process model (2007) has been established as a valid, useful model for creating an expatriation management system. Few expats interviewed indicated their selection was systematized or that they received training in advance of the assignment. Families of these expats received even less consideration despite the fact that many expat failures result from family failure to adapt to the new culture. Very few companies managed the repatriation process at all. Given the substantial correlations between components of Ozdemir and Cizel’s model and performance and commitment, these finding are no less than troubling.

Originality/value

As companies are becoming increasingly international, the number of expatriates working around the world is growing. While the management of expatriates has been studied extensively in North America and Europe, research into the expatriate process in the UAE is still in its infancy. The present study endeavors to begin to fill this research gap.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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