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The purpose of this paper is to establish the association between smallholder farmer perceptions toward climate change and adaptation strategies at the household level in…
The purpose of this paper is to establish the association between smallholder farmer perceptions toward climate change and adaptation strategies at the household level in Chimanimani District of Zimbabwe.
Data were collected from 284 households mainly using a structured questionnaire. The Heckman probit selection model was used to first identify the underlying socio-economic factors that affect households’ recognition of climate change in the past 10 years, and the second model the factors that influence adaptation to the climate change phenomenon.
The majority of farmers (85 percent) perceived that climate change, characterized by rising temperatures and variability in rainfall patterns, has been occurring in the past ten years. As a response, farmers adapted using methods such as manuring and staggering of planting dates. Indigenous knowledge systems and non-governmental organizations increased the likelihood farmers’ recognition of climate change (p<0.05). The probability of adopting multiple adaptation strategies was influenced by household head’s education level, land tenure and access to public extension services.
Integrative extension methods that take into account socio-cultural values could be helpful in building resilience as farmers are better able to understand the climate change construct. There is a need to guarantee land tenure rights in resettlement areas to stimulate investment on farms.
This study showed that there is a link between farmers’ prior knowledge of climate change and the number of adaptive investments. The analysis proposed an educational and extension approach that is embedded in the socio-cultural and traditional setting of farmers.
This study aims to uncover the determinants of Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia.
This study uses the analytic network process (ANP) to gather expert opinions and responses from academics, regulators and practitioners.
The ANP analysis discovered that the level of Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia is influenced by two main drivers: the supply and the demand. The demand factors for Islamic financial inclusion, ranked based on their level of significance, are as follows: financial literacy (0.27), religious commitment (0.22), socioeconomic factor (0.19) and social influence (0.17), respectively. From the supply side, primary catalysts for Islamic financial inclusion based on their level of importance are human capital (0.32), product and services (0.24), infrastructure (0.18) and policies and regulation (0.17), respectively.
The present study does not include the Islamic insurance sector in its determinant framework of Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia.
This study serves as a reference for regulators in formulating appropriate policy strategies to strengthen the Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia.
This study is a pioneer attempt to identify distinctive factors that influence the level of Islamic financial inclusion in Indonesia by analyzing expert opinions from diverse groups of Islamic finance stakeholders.