The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how some of the information and communication practices of the Tech Media and specifically of Facebook, constitute media…
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how some of the information and communication practices of the Tech Media and specifically of Facebook, constitute media corruption. The paper will examine what the professional role of Facebook is regarding its information/communication practices and then demonstrate that Facebook is essentially a media company and not merely a “platform,” therefore liable to the same normative responsibilities as other media companies.
Applying the dual obligation information theory (DOIT), a normative information and communication theory that applies generally to all media companies that disseminate and share information, the paper demonstrates that Facebook’s role of mediating and curating the information of its users places upon it a normative editing responsibility, to ensure both the preventive detection and corrective editing of fake news, as well as other forms of misinformation disseminated on its platform. Finally, applying a philosophical model of media corruption the paper will demonstrate that Facebook’s role in the Cambridge Analytica case was not only unethical but moreover, constituted media corruption.
The paper concludes that Facebook’s media corruption illustrated in the Cambridge Analytica case is not a one-off case but the result of a systemic and inherent conflict of interest between its business model of selling users’ information to advertisers and its normative media role rendering the conflict of interest between those two roles conducive to media corruption.
The paper's originality is twofold. It demonstrates that Facebook is a media company normatively accountable on the basis of an original theory the DOIT and moreover, on the basis of an original media corruption theory its actions in the Cambridge Analytica case constituted media corruption.
Beginning with the initial premise that the internet has a global character, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the normative evaluation of digital information on…
Beginning with the initial premise that the internet has a global character, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the normative evaluation of digital information on the internet necessitates an evaluative model that is itself universal and global in character. To this end, the paper aims to demonstrate and support a universal model for the normative evaluation of information on the internet.
The design and application of a dual normative model of information show how such a model commits all disseminators of information to universal epistemological and ethical norms.
Based on the dual normative characterization of information, the paper demonstrates that information and internet information specifically, have an inherent normative structure that commits its disseminators to certain mandatory epistemological and ethical commitments; and that the negligent or purposeful abuse of information in violation of those commitments is also a violation of universal rights to freedom and wellbeing to which all agents are entitled by virtue of being agents, and in particular informational agents.
Owing to space constraints it is impractical to provide in this paper a detailed account of how the argument for informational universal rights can deal with other competing moral obligations.
The findings based on an innovative dual normative model of information demonstrate and support the initial thesis of the paper, namely, that the dissemination of internet information due to its global nature commits all informational agents to universal epistemological and ethical principles.
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether banks are needed as partners for internationalising small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) and, if so, in what ways…
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether banks are needed as partners for internationalising small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) and, if so, in what ways they affect SMEs. The purpose can, in a wider sense, shed light on institutions' intermediating functions for transactions in the economy, both locally and internationally.
A questionnaire was distributed to Swedish SMEs involved in international activities. A sample of 318 SMEs was used. The results are presented as descriptive statistics and by using t‐tests.
The findings show that banks are the least used source of information for internationalising SMEs. The results also show that banks do not participate in SME business networks when SMEs are internationalising. SMEs that have been dependent on banks when developing their international business relationships, however, tend to have previously depended on the bank when conducting business.
It is believed there is much to be gained, both for SMEs and banks, in developing their business exchange and reciprocal understanding. The bank can make SME international operations and financial situations flow more efficiently. This in turn may improve SME growth, thus creating more business opportunities between banks and SMEs.
The study fills a gap in the literature and knowledge concerning banks' effects on SMEs' internationalisation.