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This study aims to develop an educational tourism demand model, particularly in respect to dynamic effects, university quality (QU) and competitor countries. Educational…
This study aims to develop an educational tourism demand model, particularly in respect to dynamic effects, university quality (QU) and competitor countries. Educational tourism has been identified as a new tourism sub-sector with high potential, and is thus expected to boost economic growth and sustainability.
This study reviews the literature on the determinants of educational tourism demand. Even though the existing literature is intensively discussed, mostly focusing on the educational tourism demand from an individual consumer's perspective, this study makes an innovation in line with the aggregate demand view. The study uses data that consist of the enrolment of international students from 47 home countries who studied in Malaysia from 2008 to 2017. The study utilised the dynamic panel method of analysis.
This study affirms that income per capita, educational tourism price, price of competitor countries and quality of universities based on accredited programmes and world university ranking are the determinants of educational tourism demand in both the short and the long term. Also, a dynamic effect exists in educational tourism demand.
The results imply that government should take the quality of services for existing students, price decisions and QU into account to promote the country as a tertiary education hub and achieve sustainable development.
Research on the determinants of the demand for educational tourism is rare in terms of macro data, and this study includes the roles of QU, competitor countries and dynamic effects.
Educational tourism is under-researched in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to argue that this stems from a lack of consensus regarding the nature and scope of…
Educational tourism is under-researched in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to argue that this stems from a lack of consensus regarding the nature and scope of educational tourism as a theoretical concept and market segment.
Through a review of research over the last decade and a half, the paper aims at providing a concise overview of the key perspectives and concepts in educational tourism whilst highlighting the potential for future directions of the sector.
Ritchie’s (2003) segmentation model of educational tourism is usually considered the international standard for writing on the subject. However, it excludes certain sectors of tourism that may be considered educational. In response to this, a new conceptual model is presented. Further research is needed to understand the schools’ educational tourism market. When international educational tourism is considered, the majority of empirical research and academic debate has originated in the closely related field of international education. Educational tourism has the potential for hybridisation with other segments of tourism and non-tourism sectors and to contribute towards global peace.
This paper offers an alternative process-driven and outcomes-based conceptual model of educational tourism. It identifies directions for future research in schools’ and international educational tourism and proposes a typology to aid hybridisation of the phenomenon with other sectors. Finally, it discusses the potential of educational tourism to foster peace through the integration of global learning into touristic practice.
It is salient to be acquainted with the key elements that determine educational tourists’ decision in selecting an overseas destination while considering the rise of…
It is salient to be acquainted with the key elements that determine educational tourists’ decision in selecting an overseas destination while considering the rise of international competition amidst nations concerning international students. There has been a growth in the number of nations committed to attracting educational tourists. This issue is evident in countries involved in higher education (HE), such as Northern Cyprus, identified as an edu-tourism destination. Northern Cyprus can attract a whopping number of tourists, and the higher population is most likely to be made up of international students regardless of its interdiction on direct flights and political pressure. This chapter centres on analysing educational tourists’ motivators in selecting a tourism education destination abroad and on revealing effective recruitment and promotion plans towards attracting them. The chapter includes the descriptions and discussions of educational tourism, the HE industry over the years, globalisation and internationalisation of educational tourism, factors influencing educational tourists’ decision-making process and key elements influencing educational tourists’ decisions in HE institutions. At the end of the chapter, a case study is presented that reports the findings of interviews with educational tourists, overseas recruitment agents and Eastern Mediterranean University staff responsible for promoting the institution. The results identified eight factors affecting educational tourists’ decisions on study destination. Those factors comprise cost, ease of access, location, social factors, quality of education, instruction language, cultural environment and communication quality. The sub-factors of the main eight factors are scholarships, destination’s scenery, safety, friends’ and relatives’ influence and cultural differences. This chapter brings a significant knowledge about the motives that affect educational tourists in selecting at a particular HE destination. Based on the study’s findings, educational institutions may consider various recommendations to redesign their strategies towards attracting educational tourists more effectively. Generally, this study promotes an apprehension about the diverse elements that affect educational tourists’ selection of a destination study. An in-depth understanding of these factors will help education institutions’ decision-makers better develop plans of action to provide desired services to educational tourists, attract and keep them in return.
Educational tourism in agriculture is attracting growing attention. It is expected that educational activities can create a new social role for agriculture. However…
Educational tourism in agriculture is attracting growing attention. It is expected that educational activities can create a new social role for agriculture. However, farmers need to refine their identity to embark on this emerging activity. On the basis of a questionnaire survey, the present study has statistically clarified how a farmer’s identity determines their attitude toward educational tourism by focusing on mainly family-run Educational Dairy Farms in Japan. The results show that those farmers who have a wider perspective on the activity domain conduct educational tourism more positively than those who do not. The findings also indicate how the next-generation farm successors view the educational activity; that is, whether they consider themselves to be simply conventional milk producers or rather farm resource managers with a wider scope of new social demand that is connected to farmers’ identity. The latter redefinition will be increasingly necessary when farm successors conduct tourism-related activity.
Learning about wildlife is an important part of childhood education, but it is yet to be capitalised upon in the context of educational tourism. This chapter considers the…
Learning about wildlife is an important part of childhood education, but it is yet to be capitalised upon in the context of educational tourism. This chapter considers the different types of wildlife tourism that are available to children, how wildlife tourism experiences might have educational value and what the benefits of this niche tourism type might be. By providing insight into the educational elements of wildlife tourism, this chapter provokes analytical thinking about how this can be implemented and managed in a sustainable and responsible manner.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the lighter (entertainment and esthetic experiences) and darker sides (educational and escapist experiences) of dark tourism…
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the lighter (entertainment and esthetic experiences) and darker sides (educational and escapist experiences) of dark tourism experiences. This study also examines the effect of lighter and darker sides of dark tourism experiences on functional and emotional value.
To investigate how and where visitors experience lighter and darker sides of dark tourism, the authors conducted in-depth interviews from visitors to the Korean demilitarized zone (DMZ). To demonstrate consequences of lighter and darker sides of dark tourism experiences on functional and emotional value, the authors collected field survey data. Taken together, the authors used mixed methods with exploratory sequential design.
Interviewees vividly described their entertainment (crossing the suspension bridge) and esthetic experiences (seeing a family of crane birds from a short distance) in the Korean DMZ. They also described educational (understanding the background of the civil war) and escapist experiences (limiting daily entries made them feel like they were entering a special place or even a foreign country). Survey results showed that educational and esthetic experiences increased emotional value, while educational and escapist experiences enhanced functional value of a tour of the Korean DMZ.
Previous research operationalized lighter and darker sides of dark tourism based on characteristics of dark tourism sites. Specifically, darker and lighter aspects of dark tourism were determined, depending on whether such sites are directly related to human death or not. However, the current study draws on tourist experiences to operationalize lighter and darker sides of dark tourism. While previous research focused on the supply side, this study shifts focus to the demand side, thereby advancing knowledge in hybrid dark tourism experiences.
本研究旨在通过娱乐和审美体验（相对于教育和逃避现实的体验）展示黑暗旅游的光明（相对于黑暗）的一面。除此, 本研究以到访频率和到访目的作调节变量, 分别探讨上述四个类别的黑色旅游体验、功能性或情感性价值和访客满意度的关系。
先前的研究根据黑色旅游地点的特点, 对黑色旅游的光明面和黑暗面进行了展示。具体来说, 根据这些地点是否与人类死亡直接相关, 确定了黑暗旅游的光明及黑暗的方面。然而, 本研究利用旅游体验来定义黑色旅游的光明面和黑暗面。虽然之前的研究侧重于旅游供应方面, 但本研究将重点转移到需求方面, 从而推进了混合黑色旅游体验的知识发展。
El propósito de este estudio es demostrar el encendedor (entretenimiento y estética) experiencias) y los lados más oscuros (experiencias educativas y escapistas) de las experiencias de turismo oscuro. Este El estudio también examina el efecto de los lados más claros y más oscuros de las experiencias de turismo oscuro en funcional y valor emocional.
Para investigar cómo y dónde los visitantes experimentan más claro y más oscuro lados del turismo oscuro, los autores realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a visitantes del desmilitarizado coreano zona desmilitarizada (DMZ). Demostrar las consecuencias de los lados más claros y más oscuros de las experiencias de turismo oscuro en valor funcional y emocional, los autores recopilaron datos de encuestas de campo. En conjunto, los autores utilizaron métodos mixtos con diseño secuencial exploratorio.
Los entrevistados describieron vívidamente su entretenimiento (cruzar el puente colgante) y Experiencias estéticas (ver una familia de pájaros grulla desde una corta distancia) en la DMZ coreana. Ellos también describió experiencias educativas (comprendiendo los antecedentes de la guerra civil) y escapistas (limitar las entradas diarias les hizo sentir como si estuvieran entrando en un lugar especial o incluso en un país extranjero). Los resultados de la encuesta mostraron que las experiencias educativas y estéticas aumentaron el valor emocional, mientras que Las experiencias educativas y escapistas mejoraron el valor funcional de un recorrido por la DMZ coreana.
Investigaciones anteriores operacionalizaron los lados más claros y más oscuros del turismo oscuro con base en Características de los sitios de turismo oscuro. Específicamente, los aspectos más oscuros y más claros del turismo oscuro fueron determinado, dependiendo de si tales sitios están directamente relacionados con la muerte humana o no. sin embargo, el El estudio actual se basa en las experiencias turísticas para operacionalizar los lados más claros y más oscuros del turismo oscuro. Si bien la investigación anterior se centró en el lado de la oferta, este estudio cambia el enfoque hacia el lado de la demanda, por lo que avanzar en el conocimiento de experiencias híbridas de turismo oscuro.
A World Heritage Site (WHS) since 2013, Coimbra, in the centre of Portugal, is already struggling with excess of tourists and with difficult management challenges. A…
A World Heritage Site (WHS) since 2013, Coimbra, in the centre of Portugal, is already struggling with excess of tourists and with difficult management challenges. A possible solution for this overtourism problem can be the creation of alternative differentiated tourism products in neighbouring, peripheral small towns capable of diverting tourists and visitors from the sites in overload. Cultural routes inspired by landscapes and historical places and personalities can contribute to the affirmation of a collective memory, combining natural and cultural heritage and adding value to existent heritage resources while providing intercultural dialogues and interaction with the visited community and its distinctive values. This research in cultural tourism and education is about a proposal of a walking route for cultural interpretation intended for young visitors. The theoretical framework draws on the importance of designing tourism products that will engage families in quality time and that heritage interpretation products for young visitors can also create an awareness of the importance of cultural heritage and its conservation. Literature review regarding issues of interpretation in tourism as well as on family and educational tourism preceded an inventory which covers natural and cultural resources used as materials in the route manual and activity guide. An important piece of information was collected through a survey aimed at understanding the socio-economical, cultural and attitudinal impacts that were caused by the UNESCO listing of the University of Coimbra, Alta and Sofia as a WHS. The route project demonstrates how cultural tourism can be a driver of local development through adequately designed non-formal educational tourist programmes to foster an in-depth knowledge of destinations. The results point to the importance of destination managers and marketers to focus on providing informal educational activities which can increase the tourist offer and satisfaction of young and family tourism and thereby strengthen a destination competitiveness and value creation. The tourist route challenges young visitors and their families to know the most relevant cultural aspects of the region, allowing them to effectively contribute to local development, as it invites visitors' interaction with the local community.
This paper asserts that sustainable tourism education is an issue of extreme importance, especially for young adolescents, ages 10 to 12. Despite little intersection…
This paper asserts that sustainable tourism education is an issue of extreme importance, especially for young adolescents, ages 10 to 12. Despite little intersection between middle-school education and tourism education, these two fields can become natural allies. Today's preteens not only influence their parent's tourism choices but will shape tomorrow's tourism, both as tourists and as hosts. This study is addressing the following research questions: if transformational school trips with tourism sustainability education proposes improve or enhance students' confidence and initiative, and how middle school individuals can become familiar with responsible and sustainable tourism and act upon it. Thus, the conceptual framework offered in this article is intended to contribute to a more systematic, programmatic, theory-based approach to the study of education for sustainable tourism in middle schools, and that by empowering students through travel. Results suggest that empowering middle-school individuals is halfway to achieve tourism sustainability goals.
While it is recognised that the involvement of children in sustainable tourism change and development is crucial the fact remains that information on their worldviews and…
While it is recognised that the involvement of children in sustainable tourism change and development is crucial the fact remains that information on their worldviews and sustainable tourism behaviour is scarcely available. One long-term empowerment strategy countries and governments around the world can implement is by promoting children's rights through responsible education. This chapter articulates one tactic of that strategy at the local action level of school excursions, which is seen as an instrument that can be made most effective when it is initiated with the assumption that it is needed to help our younger generation acquire an environmental worldview, is harnessed in coalition with collaborators and, applied around the ‘moral’ obligation of educational institutions to provide agency to students' voice. Of the 17 Goals of Sustainable Development, SDG4 (Quality) Education can make a critically important contribution to progress. A series of activities and initiatives undertaken in informal educational environments such as field trips and school excursions can contribute to educating children, building their awareness about responsible and sustainable tourism practices, and developing an environmental sensitivity. Excursion activities and destinations such as museum exhibits have the opportunity to shape identities—through access to objects, information and knowledge. Visitors can see themselves and their culture reflected in ways that encourage new connections, meaning making and learning. Upon looking into transformational experiences in museums it was found that students were easily able to articulate that ‘aha’ moment, particularly around thinking differently about issues and taking action for environmental and sustainable changes.