This article focuses on the strategic importance of framing cultural changes in special education through a critical lens. The article explores why cultural responsivity…
This article focuses on the strategic importance of framing cultural changes in special education through a critical lens. The article explores why cultural responsivity must be understood from a critical perspective that accounts for the historical sedimentation of racism that exists within special education organizational policies and practices. This sedimentation affects current and future organizational features that sustain historical, persistent and pernicious racial and ableist structures, relationships and outcomes.
By examining the role of power within organizational systems, the authors trace its contribution to reproduction of these systems through special education leadership. Special education leaders along with their peers in general education can frame transformative change through a systemic lens designed to address structural, regulatory and cultural practices that perpetuate raced and ableist outcomes. The pernicious and sustaining structures and practices that have created unequal outcomes in our educational systems need strategic intervention, prevention and re-creation to create equitable supports and services programs.
By examining the role of power within organizational systems, the authors trace its contribution to reproduction of these systems through special education leadership. Special education leaders along with their peers in general education can frame transformative change through a systemic lens designed to address structural, regulatory and cultural practices that perpetuate raced and ableist outcomes.
With clear outcomes that are responsive to all students, including those identified with dis/abilities, education leaders can make consequential shifts in access, opportunity and the distribution of social and intellectual capital throughout education.
The pernicious and sustaining structures and practices that have created unequal outcomes in our educational systems need strategic intervention, prevention and re-creation to create equitable supports and services programs.
The application of DisCrit to educational leadership practices offers an opportunity to frame leadership through a powerful equity lens.
Most comparative education research has included investigation of dimensions of educational reform but not all research in the field has focused concertedly on reform in…
Most comparative education research has included investigation of dimensions of educational reform but not all research in the field has focused concertedly on reform in relation to the realities in practice. In the latter half of the 20th century comparativists underscored the need to investigate implementation issues, not just reform policies, as had often been the case in earlier comparative research, since time had shown that political processes did not always equate with educational outcomes. Reforms can be thwarted altogether, significantly modified or mediated in practice, embraced with qualification, or differentially implemented across regions or levels within a given country. Reform implementation might produce intended and unintended change (for better or for worse); or no change at all might be the outcome; or change might occur ahead of reform. Some of the most fascinating findings in comparative research are dichotomous considerations of change such as policy versus practice, ideal versus real, de facto change versus de jure change, intended and unintended outcomes of reform, grass-roots (bottom–up) versus centralized (top–down) reforms, and de facto change legitimized-after-the-fact through reform or new policy.
The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical review of the educational innovation field in the USA. It outlines classification of innovations, discusses the…
The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical review of the educational innovation field in the USA. It outlines classification of innovations, discusses the hurdles to innovation, and offers ways to increase the scale and rate of innovation-based transformations in the education system.
The paper is based on a literature survey and author research.
US education badly needs effective innovations of scale that can help produce the needed high-quality learning outcomes across the system. The primary focus of educational innovations should be on teaching and learning theory and practice, as well as on the learner, parents, community, society, and its culture. Technology applications need a solid theoretical foundation based on purposeful, systemic research, and a sound pedagogy. One of the critical areas of research and innovation can be cost and time efficiency of the learning.
Several practical recommendations stem out of this paper: how to create a base for large-scale innovations and their implementation; how to increase effectiveness of technology innovations in education, particularly online learning; how to raise time and cost efficiency of education.
Innovations in education are regarded, along with the education system, within the context of a societal supersystem demonstrating their interrelations and interdependencies at all levels. Raising the quality and scale of innovations in education will positively affect education itself and benefit the whole society.
Originality is in the systemic approach to education and educational innovations, in offering a comprehensive classification of innovations; in exposing the hurdles to innovations, in new arguments about effectiveness of technology applications, and in time efficiency of education.
Entrepreneurial approaches to public mass education are not easily developed or managed by public sector institutions. Instead, private sector entities are often…
Entrepreneurial approaches to public mass education are not easily developed or managed by public sector institutions. Instead, private sector entities are often responsible for the development and implementation of innovative and entrepreneurial education. Part of the reason may be the resistance to change that isomorphism in mass education engenders, but the involvement of privately-funded, organized, and managed organizations plays a significant role as well. Private sector-driven educational change has become the dominant mode of entrepreneurship in 21st century national educational systems, but there are challenges and obstacles to privately managing public sector institutions such as education and the activities or curricula that comprise its core. To understand this phenomena the promises and challenges for innovation and entrepreneurship are discussed through an institutional framework.
The chapter identifies and analyzes scholarly discourses that framed understanding of change and directed further reforms in post-socialist education over the past two…
The chapter identifies and analyzes scholarly discourses that framed understanding of change and directed further reforms in post-socialist education over the past two decades. It discusses the origins of these discourses, their theoretical underpinnings, evolution, and cultural biases. The analysis of scholarly texts published on post-socialist education draws on methods of discourse analysis and utilizes the concept of sensemaking and the lens of translation to deconstruct how educational change is framed. Most of the identified discourses – restoration, importation, revolution and evolution, transformation and innovation, crisis and survival, glocalization, educational borrowing, system convergence, education for social transformation – originated outside either education or the post-socialist region itself in transitology studies, dependency theory, world system theory, and social reproduction theory. The resultant discourses carried over or challenged the underlying theoretical assumptions, exposed cultural sensitivity, or otherized the post-socialist region. The chapter identifies emerging scholarship that deconstructs framing of the same post-socialist educational phenomena. These emerging approaches reflect local and national searches for identity rather than global agendas. Contrary to the earlier prediction that with the end of the cold war, economic, political, and social institutions would converge into one monolithic world order, the chapter argues that the contemporary world today has come to display diversity, particularism, multiple voices, and the beginning of new histories. This study identifies emerging lines of research that look into the construction of meanings and expose cultural biases, while offering original conceptualization of two decades of scholarship on post-socialist educational change.
An emerging synthesis between natural and social sciences isdiscussed and the new science of “chaos” which originates inchemical researches is introduced. Educational…
An emerging synthesis between natural and social sciences is discussed and the new science of “chaos” which originates in chemical researches is introduced. Educational systems are seen to be dissipative structures allowing analysis of them in “chaotic” terms. Such structures have a self‐organising dynamic which produces “second order” changes to a new regime. This has long been associated with analysis of leadership. The creative input of a single individual, though small, may lead to far‐reaching effects if guided by vision.
The purpose of this paper is to design an experimentally‐oriented program for the training of a new generation of educational a administrators. The rationale for the…
The purpose of this paper is to design an experimentally‐oriented program for the training of a new generation of educational a administrators. The rationale for the program is based on selected concepts and propositions of occupational sociology, organization theory, and systems theory. Some of the salient features of the program are as follows: (i) The design is guided by the logic of Campbell's quasi‐experiment. (ii) A principal goal is to stimulate the professionalization of educational administration by increasing (a) the body of systematic knowledge: and (b) the commitment to an ideal of service in education. (iii) Another major goal is to sensitize educational administrators to the dilemmas of organizational change and to strategies for inducing change. (iv) A systems analysis is set forth of five sequentially interrelated processes: goal formation, recruitment of faculty and students, specification of the content of the curriculum, placement of graduates, and an evaluation of the program. (v) A sample curriculum for a three‐year period, guided by six pedagogical conceptions. (vi) A design for an experimental program for four cohorts of students is outlined.
This account aims to introduce contrasting perspectives on teaching and learning methods, and to detail the growth of new forms and vocabularies of access to learning. As we move towards the new millennium, the development of national, yet diversified, credit frameworks and systems will provide an essential underpinning for the organisational culture that will be needed to sustain the wellbeing and growth of the educational system. These new systems are already being incorporated into the practice of ‘virtual’ education. Lifelong learning has widespread support across the social and political spectrum and its importance can hardly be over‐stated as we seek to maintain competitiveness in a changing world. Increasing knowledge and understanding to serve both the needs of the economy and of individuals to play a major role in democratic life has become an agenda of necessity as well as desire. An open society requires open systems of knowledge. A prognosis for the future is submitted where the significance of part‐time modular and open flexible learning is evaluated in terms of a curriculum rooted in useful knowledge and competences, acquired at different sites of learning, including the workplace. It is argued that modular structures, using the potential offered by credit accumulation and transfer to different institutions with different missions, can transcend and transform the learning opportunities for students in a mass system of higher education which is rapidly becoming part of a global market economy and society. Continuous lifelong learning involving its key features of open access, recognition of learning wherever it takes place and the growth of new learning networks and partnerships, is at the conceptual heart of the development of the virtual university.
Proposes a new model of teacher receptivity to system‐wide educational change, where the change is planned and implemented in a centrally controlled educational system…
Proposes a new model of teacher receptivity to system‐wide educational change, where the change is planned and implemented in a centrally controlled educational system involving teachers in their classrooms. Suggests a measure of teacher receptivity (based on the model) to help administrators plan a change and manage the implementation. Teacher receptivity is proposed to consist of four first‐order aspects, operationally defined by a number of second‐order aspects. These are: characteristics of the change (comparison with the previous system and practicality in my classroom), managing the change at school (alleviation of concerns, learning about the change and participation in decisions at my school), value for the teacher (personal cost appraisal, collaboration with other teachers and opportunities for teacher improvement) and teacher perceived value for students. Teacher receptivity is measured with three aspects for each of the 50 stem‐items and there is an ordered set of response categories relating to these aspects.
Educational change and improvement are constant processes. Practically every country in the world today is attempting to improve, reform, transform or change its…
Educational change and improvement are constant processes. Practically every country in the world today is attempting to improve, reform, transform or change its educational system. The results of these development efforts have generally been disappointing. A general consensus seems to be that the gap between societal expectations and educational achievements is wide and becoming greater. The perceived failures of education are particularly difficult for political and educational leaders to understand given the massive influx of resources invested in educational systems in recent years. This is a result of a linear expectation wherein output is proportional to the input. Non‐linear theory, proposed in this paper as a more valid way of conceptualizing educational development efforts, does not assume this proportional relationship. This paper addresses non‐linear theory by using it to examine educational development efforts in Western and Eastern European nations.