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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Avi Kaplan, Mirit Sinai and Hanoch Flum

Identity exploration is a central mechanism for identity formation that has been found to be associated with intense engagement, positive coping, openness to change…

Abstract

Purpose

Identity exploration is a central mechanism for identity formation that has been found to be associated with intense engagement, positive coping, openness to change, flexible cognition, and meaningful learning. Moreover, identity exploration in school has been associated with adaptive motivation for learning the academic material. Particularly in the fast-changing environment of contemporary society, confidence and skills in identity exploration and self-construction seems to be increasingly important. Therefore, promoting students’ identity exploration in school within the curriculum and in relation to the academic content should be adopted as an important educational goal. The purpose of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for interventions to promote students’ identity exploration within the curriculum. The framework involves the application of four interrelated principles: (1) promoting self-relevance; (2) triggering exploration; (3) facilitating a sense of safety; and (4) scaffolding exploratory actions.

Approach

We begin the paper with a conceptual review of identity exploration. We follow by specifying the conceptual framework for interventions. We then present a methodological-intervention approach for applying this framework and describe three such interventions in middle-school contexts, in the domains of environmental education, literature, and mathematics.

Findings

In each intervention, applying the principles contributed to students’ adaptive motivation and engagement in the academic material and also contributed to students’ identity exploration, though not among all students. The findings highlight the contextual, dynamic, and indeterminate nature of identity exploration among early adolescents in educational settings, and the utility of the conceptual framework and approach for conceptualizing and intervening to promote identity exploration among students.

Value

This paper contributes to the conceptual understanding of identity exploration in educational settings, highlights the benefits and the challenges in intervening to promote identity exploration among students, and discusses the future directions in theory, research, and practice concerned with the promotion of identity exploration in educational settings.

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Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Martha L. Thurlow, Courtney Foster and Christopher M. Rogers

Federal education laws increasingly seem to expect educational research to follow the same processes, approaches, and designs as all scientific research. Scientific…

Abstract

Federal education laws increasingly seem to expect educational research to follow the same processes, approaches, and designs as all scientific research. Scientific inquiries typically are based on empiricism, seen as methodical and producing results that are reliable and generalizable, all of which are appealing when examining educational approaches (National Research Council, 2002). The implementation of scientific inquiry uses experimental conditions, comparison of control groups to groups who received the educational intervention, and clearly measurable outcomes. Experimental conditions require random assignment, which means that participants are just as likely to be selected for the control condition as they are for the experimental/intervention condition. In most educational settings, research rarely achieves random assignment of participants to control and experimental conditions because students are grouped into classrooms with teachers who have different teaching styles, communication styles, and relationships with individual students (Odom et al., 2005).

Details

Current Issues and Trends in Special Education: Identification, Assessment and Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-669-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Edith H. Hooge, Nienke M. Moolenaar, Karin C.J. van Look, Selma K. Janssen and Peter J.C. Sleegers

Although it is assumed that school district governance by districts leaders can impact schools’ capacity to improvement and educational quality, there is little systematic…

Abstract

Purpose

Although it is assumed that school district governance by districts leaders can impact schools’ capacity to improvement and educational quality, there is little systematic evidence to support this claim. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how governance goals and interventions affect school districts’ social capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical enquiry used quantitative data on district leaders enacting governance as perceived by their school principals. These data were collected among 399 school principals of 23 Dutch school districts in elementary education, using a survey. Social network data on social capital within school districts were collected using a social network survey among educational administrators (i.e. district leaders, central office administrators and school principals). Additionally, examples of the relation between school district social capital and governance at six school districts were described.

Findings

Results suggest that district leaders can promote the organizational social capital of their school districts through focusing on educational goals. In addition, the findings show that they can reinforce their impact by using interventions varying in coercion level, of which offering support to school principals appears to be “a golden button” to make organizational social capital thrive.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations to the study are the generalizability of the findings (they can be questioned because “convenience sampling” was used) and warrant a longitudinal design to examine how organization social capital develops over time.

Originality/value

The study is unique as it addresses the impact district leaders may have on their districts’ social capital by focusing on social network approach in the study of school district governance.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Judith M. Harackiewicz, Yoi Tibbetts, Elizabeth Canning and Janet S. Hyde

We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses…

Abstract

Purpose

We review the interventions that promote motivation in academic contexts, with a focus on two primary questions: How can we motivate students to take more STEM courses? Once in those STEM courses, how can we keep students motivated and promote their academic achievement?

Design/methodology/approach

We have approached these two motivational questions from several perspectives, examining the theoretical issues with basic laboratory research, conducting longitudinal questionnaire studies in classrooms, and developing interventions implemented in different STEM contexts. Our research is grounded in three theories that we believe are complementary: expectancy-value theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002), interest theory (Hidi & Renninger, 2006), and self-affirmation theory (Steele, 1988). As social psychologists, we have focused on motivational theory and used experimental methods, with an emphasis on values – students’ perceptions of the value of academic tasks and students’ personal values that shape their experiences in academic contexts.

Findings

We review the experimental field studies in high-school science and college psychology classes, in which utility-value interventions promoted interest and performance for high-school students in science classes and for undergraduate students in psychology courses. We also review a randomized intervention in which parents received information about the utility value of math and science for their teens in high school; this intervention led students to take nearly one semester more of science and mathematics, compared with the control group. Finally, we review an experimental study of values affirmation in a college biology course and found that the intervention improved performance and retention for first-generation college students, closing the social-class achievement gap by 50%. We conclude by discussing the mechanisms through which these interventions work.

Originality/value

These interventions are exciting for their broad applicability in improving students’ academic choices and performance, they are also exciting regarding their potential for contributions to basic science. The combination of laboratory experiments and field experiments is advancing our understanding of the motivational principles and almost certainly will continue to do so. At the same time, interventions may benefit from becoming increasingly targeted at specific motivational processes that are effective with particular groups or in particular contexts.

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Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2013

Larry Maheady, Cynthia Smith and Michael Jabot

Evidence-based practice (EBP) can have a powerful impact on school-aged children. Yet this impact may not be realized if classroom teachers do not use empirically…

Abstract

Evidence-based practice (EBP) can have a powerful impact on school-aged children. Yet this impact may not be realized if classroom teachers do not use empirically supported interventions and/or fail to include the best research available when they make important educational decisions about children. Whether classroom teachers use EBP may be influenced, in part, by what they learned or failed to learn in their preservice preparation programs. This chapter describes recent efforts to assess preservice teachers’ understanding and use of empirically supported interventions and provides four examples of how such practices were taught to preservice general educators in a small, regional teacher preparation program. We discuss four contemporary educational reform movements (i.e., federal policies mandating EBP, state-level policies linking growth in pupil learning to teacher evaluation, clinically rich teacher preparation, and the emergence of a practice-based evidence approach) that should increase interest and use of EBP in teacher education and offer recommendations for how teacher educators might infuse EBP into their traditional teaching, research, and service functions in higher education.

Details

Evidence-Based Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-429-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

George Giannakopoulos, Haris Assimopoulos, Dimitra Petanidou, Chara Tzavara, Gerasimos Kolaitis and John Tsiantis

High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely…

Abstract

High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents' attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16-18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Åsa Tjulin, Bodil Landstad, Stig Vinberg, Andrea Eriksson and Emma Hagqvist

The increasingly demanding psychosocial working conditions in Swedish public sector workplaces call for implementation of workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions

Abstract

Purpose

The increasingly demanding psychosocial working conditions in Swedish public sector workplaces call for implementation of workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. There is a need to increase first-line public sector managers’ capacities for health-promoting leadership. The purpose of this paper is to investigate first-line managers’ experiences of participating in an intervention aimed at strengthening health-promoting leadership. More precisely, the aim is to study what obstacles and prerequisites the intervention have for their learning processes to become health-promoting managers.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study in Northern Sweden at workplaces in the county council and municipalities was conducted. The data were gathered through individual interviews with 18 participating first-line managers. Inductive-content analysis was used to analyse the data.

Findings

The results identify time for reflection and collegial discussions about leadership as prerequisites for learning about health-promoting leadership. Managers experienced the intervention as a confirmation of the leadership behaviours already gained. However, the health-promoting leadership intervention was seen as a contradiction, since organisational prerequisites to implement WHP measures were perceived to be lacking. The managers were not involved in the planning of the intervention and questioned why the organisation did not involve them more when the educational activities were created.

Originality/value

When the organisation understands how and when its managers learn, what they need and want to learn about WHP, and what they already know, tailored participatory interventions can be facilitated that consider the unique prerequisites for the particular organisation.

Details

Health Education, vol. 119 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Makoto Ohtsuki, Katsumi Shibata, Tutomu Fukuwatari, Yuko Sasaki and Kunihiko Nakai

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention to increase vegetable consumption by university students.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention to increase vegetable consumption by university students.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is an open, parallel randomized controlled trial for 25 weeks. University students aged 18-24 years were divided into an intervention group (n=52) and a control group (n=52). Vegetable intake was assessed using a questionnaire.

Findings

On investigation, the results indicated that the vegetable intake of the intervention group was well maintained at the end of the study, whereas that of the control group was significantly decreased by the seasonal change. This research showed that using three educational projects could significantly improve the vegetable consumption of university students.

Research limitations/implications

These results suggest that the educational approach is a promising method to improve the vegetable consumption status, particularly the consumption of green and yellow vegetables, by university students.

Originality/value

This parallel randomized controlled study investigated intervention via educational approaches, including a lecture on the nutritional significance of vegetable intake, a tour of an agricultural farm, and learning of cooking skills, focusing on increasing the consumption of vegetables by university students. Although there have been many intervention studies aimed at improving intake of vegetables in the world, there have been no intervention studies on the vegetable intake of young adults in Japan.

Details

Health Education, vol. 118 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Cameron A. Hecht, Stacy J. Priniski and Judith M. Harackiewicz

As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no…

Abstract

As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no common taxonomy for understanding the complex processes through which interventions can produce long-lasting effects. The lack of a common framework results in a number of challenges that limit the ability of intervention scientists to effectively work toward their goal of preparing students to effectively navigate a changing and uncertain world. A comprehensive framework is presented to aid understanding of how interventions that target motivational processes in education produce downstream effects years after implementation. This framework distinguishes between three types of processes through which interventions may produce long-term effects: recursive processes (feedback loops by which positive effects can build on themselves over time), nonrecursive chains of effects (“domino effects” in which proximal outcomes affect distinct distal outcomes), and latent intrapersonal effects (changed habits, knowledge, or perceptions that affect how students respond in different situations in the future). The framework is applied to intervention research that has reported long-term effects of motivation interventions, evidence for the processes described in this framework is evaluated, and suggestions are presented for how researchers can use the framework to improve intervention design. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the application of this framework can help intervention scientists to achieve their goal of positively influencing students’ lifelong trajectories, especially in times of change and uncertainty.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Sally Robinson and Carol Robinson

The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational interventions designed to reduce risk-taking behaviour or refer to a sexual health specialist. A research project to examine the perceptions of practitioners who had used the resource is reported.

Design/methodology/approach

The resource was based on a local needs assessment and developed by a multi-agency working group. The research utilised an online questionnaire and telephone interviews with practitioners.

Findings

Practitioners reported using the screening tool with young people with an average age of 13.1 years. They thought the educational interventions provided knowledge and helped with communication, self-awareness, reflection, confidence, attitudes and values clarification.

Research limitations/implications

The project was based in one county in England. A sample of 17 per cent of the practitioners responded to the questionnaire, and they might be biased towards those who had engaged most, or most positively, with the resource. Three practitioners undertook interviews. The views and behaviours of young people are yet to be evaluated.

Originality/value

Within a climate of limited resources, the findings suggest that the project is providing an acceptable proportionate universalist, early sexual health intervention for young people.

Details

Health Education, vol. 117 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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