Search results

1 – 10 of over 13000
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Abdul Malik Iddrisu, Michael Danquah and Peter Quartey

Using data from the sixth round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey, this paper aims to take a critical look at issues relating to the demand for education in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

Using data from the sixth round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey, this paper aims to take a critical look at issues relating to the demand for education in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

In doing this, the paper develops a model for the determinants of household’s educational expenditure using the full sample of data and an income-quintile disaggregated model of the determinants of household’s educational expenditures. The study adopts robust empirical estimation techniques to estimate the model.

Findings

The paper finds that household resources importantly influence children’s educational expenditures with wealthier households spending proportionately more in educating their children than poorer households; large-sized households spend more in terms of educational expenses than small-sized households reflecting largely the quantity of education purchased, given that quality and contextual factors matters for educational investments. Strikingly, the findings show that female headship is a significant positive predictor of households’ demand for education. These findings provide valuable policy options relating to the goal of ensuring inclusive and quality education for all and promoting a lifelong learning by 2030.

Originality/value

While literature on the determinants of households’ educational expenditures abound, very few of this literature focuses on sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, this study makes an important contribution to the literature by providing evidence on the determinants of households’ educational expenditure in the context of sub-Saharan Africa.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Deepti Singh and Shruti Shastri

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nexus among public expenditure allocated to education, educational attainment at secondary level and unemployment rate in India…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nexus among public expenditure allocated to education, educational attainment at secondary level and unemployment rate in India for the period 1987–2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) bound testing approach suggested by Pesaran et al. (2001) to find the long-run relationship among the variables. The causal linkages are investigated through block exogeneity test based on vector error correction model.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that educational attainment proxied by gross enrolment ratio at secondary level of education negatively affects unemployment rate in long run as well as in short run. However, public expenditure on education is ineffective in influencing both educational attainment and unemployment rate.

Originality/value

The study is the first empirical effort to identify the causal nexus among public expenditure on education, educational attainment and unemployment in the context of India.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-06-2019-0396

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dmitry V. Didenko

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and…

Abstract

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and households. It contributes to the literature discussing theoretical issues and empirical patterns of modernization, human development, as well as the transition from a centralized to a market economy. The empirical evidence is based on extensive utilization of the dataset introduced in Didenko, Földvári, and Van Leeuwen (2013). Our findings provide support for the view expressed in Gerschenkron (1962) that in late industrializers the government tended to substitute for the lack of capital and infrastructure by direct interventions. At least from the late nineteenth century the central government's and local authorities' budgets played the primary role. However, the role of nongovernment sources increased significantly since the mid-1950s, i.e., after the crucial breakthrough to an industrial society had been made. During the transition to a market economy in the 1990s and 2000s the level of government contributions decreased somewhat in education, and more significantly in research and development, but its share in overall financing expanded. In education corporate funds were largely replaced by those from households. In health care, Russia is characterized by an increasing share of out-of-pocket payments of households and slow development of organized forms of nonstate financing. These trends reinforce obstacles to Russia's future transition, as regards institutional change toward a more significant and sound role of the corporate sector in such branches as R&D, health care, and, to a lesser extent, education.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-179-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Robert E. Looney

Addresses the question of whether military expenditures in the Arabworld have been at the expense of human capital development. Mainlyfinds that countries in the Arab…

Abstract

Addresses the question of whether military expenditures in the Arab world have been at the expense of human capital development. Mainly finds that countries in the Arab world have experienced increases in human capital development associated with increased rates of military participation (armed forces per capita). This phenomenon is in sharp contrast with that found in non‐Arab countries. Also this phenomenon appears to be relatively recent, increasing in strength during the period after 1980. In part Arab governments have chosen to subsidize the education of increased numbers of civilians during periods of steppedup military expenditures with the understanding that upon completion of training those individuals will serve some time in the military.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Amita Majumder and Chayanika Mitra

This paper aims to detect gender bias in education expenditure on “students”, who are children and young adults, in a household in the rural and the urban sectors of West…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to detect gender bias in education expenditure on “students”, who are children and young adults, in a household in the rural and the urban sectors of West Bengal. Outlay equivalent ratios have been calculated using the Engel curve approach, where the budget share function is log quadratic in income, to identify items relating exclusively to education of school/college going students. Heckman’s (1979) two-step procedure is used for estimation to address selection bias The 68th round (July 2011 to June 2012) household level consumption expenditure survey data of the National Sample Survey Organisation have been used for the analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Engel curve approach is used to capture parental preference for student’s welfare and to find the existence of male student favouritism in the field of education. In case of exclusive adult goods, the addition of a student will reduce the resource allocated for adult goods leading to negative income effect. If a household favours males over females, then that household is likely to sacrifice more for a male student’s education than that for a female student. To address selection bias, Heckman’s two-step procedure has been used.

Findings

The authors find that not all education items relate exclusively to students of a household. Expenditure on books is not exclusively for students, whereas other educational items, such as stationary and photocopy charges, tuition fees and private coaching fees, are found to be students’ items only. Transport cost is found to be an adult good. Further, we find evidence of pro male bias in expenditure on educational items, and the extent of gender bias is more in the urban sectors compared to the rural sectors in West Bengal.

Originality/value

The objective of this paper is to identify the educational items exclusively for “students” and to test the difference in the allocation of resources in education, with respect to these items, between a male student and a female student for both sectors in West Bengal, using the outlay equivalent ratios.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

Quang-Thanh Ngo, Hoa Anh Tran and Hai Thi Thanh Tran

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of green finance (i.e. green investment, green security and green credit) along with capital formation and government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of green finance (i.e. green investment, green security and green credit) along with capital formation and government educational expenditures on the economic development of (ASEAN) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were gathered from the central banks of all ASEAN countries and the World Bank Indicators between 2008 and 2019. The fixed-effect model and generalized method of moments were used to check the nexus between the constructs.

Findings

The results revealed that green finance along with capital formation and government educational expenditures have a positive association with the economic development of ASEAN countries.

Research limitations/implications

The study carries some limitations, even though it addresses the underlying variables comprehensively. These limitations provide opportunities to future researchers and authors to expand the scope and accuracy of their study. This research investigation has been supported by the data collected from a single source. Though data collection is maintained correctly, it is still recommended to the upcoming scholars to acquire data to reconfirm the same findings using multiple data sources. The data collected from using some specific data source may be limited in scope and may hinder the comprehensive elaboration of the underlying variables and their mutual relationship. Therefore, the utilization of multiple sources of data collection gives data sufficient to meet the requirement of an okay quality research study. The study is about the economies of ASEAN countries. It checks the influences of green finance development on economic activities and the country's economic growth in ASEAN countries' economies. Thus, its results are valid only in the economies of these countries, and this research investigation lacks generalizability. For generalizability, the authors must consider the underlying variables in the world's vast economies. They must adopt a standard scale to judge the impacts of green financial development on economic development. Besides, the study analyzes the economic factors, economic conditions and their effects on the country's position in the world economy in the face of a severe epidemic like COVID-19. Thus, the results may be different in the case of the normal situation. So, a general standardized study is recommended to be conducted in the upcoming days.

Originality/value

Green finance has significant capability to improve the global economy, especially amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. This study is beneficial for policymakers to develop policies related to economic development with reference to green finance and also helps future research on a similar topic.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Tiloka de Silva

With many countries having reached universal primary and secondary education, parents are increasingly investing in private tutoring as a means of ensuring that their…

Abstract

With many countries having reached universal primary and secondary education, parents are increasingly investing in private tutoring as a means of ensuring that their children attend the best schools and universities. However, unlike the returns to years of schooling and effects of school quality on student achievement, the effects of spending on private tutoring have received limited attention. This chapter studies the impact of tutoring on higher educational outcomes using exogenous variation in tutoring expenditure caused by the imposition of a curfew on the operating hours of tutoring institutes in Korea. The estimated effects of the curfew highlight the severity of the college entrance rat race, with a 10 p.m. curfew constraining tutoring expenditure and increasing sleeping hours. I find diminishing marginal effects of tutoring on college entrance and positive effects on degree completion while the impact on college major followed varies across disciplines.

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2010

Mika Maliranta, Satu Nurmi and Hanna Virtanen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of labour market outcomes after the initial vocational basic education (ISCED 3).

1162

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of labour market outcomes after the initial vocational basic education (ISCED 3).

Design/methodology/approach

A multinomial logit model is used for examining the effect of school resources and other factors on students' post‐schooling outcomes defined as employment, further studies, non‐employment and dropping out. Analysis has been done by using unique linked register data on students, their parents, teachers, educational organisations and business companies in Finland.

Findings

The results indicate that teaching expenditures do not matter but teachers' characteristics have a role to play. Teachers with a university degree increase the employment probability of the students, whereas the formal competence of the teachers does not have such positive effects. The students' characteristics and performance in comprehensive schools play an important role in determining the outcomes. Local business conditions affect the outcomes of boys but less those of girls. The official quality evaluations adopted in recent years seem to pay attention especially to such aspects of education production that are important for providing capabilities for further studies but less so for employability.

Originality/value

Employability seems to be a great challenge to the initial vocational basic education. The findings for local business conditions give support to the view that measures of education policy do not suffice but need to be complemented with those of regional or employment policy, for example, policies aiming to increase regional mobility of the labour force. Such complementary tools are particularly important for boys.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1970

FREDERICK M. WIRT

This article employs a system analytic framework to categorize the available research literature on the politics of education in order to explain the inter‐relationship of…

Abstract

This article employs a system analytic framework to categorize the available research literature on the politics of education in order to explain the inter‐relationship of private and public interests and of different levels in primary and secondary American schools. The objectives are several: to explain and develop the analytical framework of David Easton; to illustrate its heuristic utility by categorizing empirically‐based research within the components of that framework, and to suggest and encourage future research directions in the subject. Education has escaped application of traditional policy analysis in America because educators have convinced scholars and laymen that they are “non‐political,” a label which even most political scientists have accepted without challenge. However, during the 1960s, a few scholars in education and political science began to apply political analytical methods to public school conflict. This research has begun to change perceptions of education and to provide a beginning set of research projects whose data support tentative generalization about the policy‐making process and the total system of public schools. This orientation is bound to increase because of increasing national government intervention in local schools, both through integration and financial policies. These have provoked growing conflict locally over the proper direction of school policies. In this article, we see how such stress is transmitted in the form of “demands” and “supports” into the “political system”, that persistent social mechanism known in all societies in different forms provides an “authoritative allocation of values and resources”. The political system, in this case public school bodies, “converts” such “inputs” into “outputs” of public policy, which in their administration create outcomes which later cause a “feedback” into the political system as the material for new policy demands. For each component of this Eastonian system, this article examines relevant research, providing an extensive annotated bibliography. From this review, it is possible to suggest lines of needed research.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2009

Faith E. Crampton

The purpose of this study is to further develop an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical…

2342

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to further develop an emerging thread of quantitative research that grounds investment in school infrastructure in a unified theoretical framework of investment in human, social, and physical capital.

Design/methodology/approach

To answer the research question, what is the impact of investment in human, social, and physical capital on student achievement, the author uses canonical analysis, a multivariate statistical approach that allows for multiple independent and dependent variables. The null hypothesis is selected given the limited body of research on this question, and the state is selected as the unit of analysis. Level of student poverty is added as a control variable given an extensive body of research that supports its negative impact on achievement. Descriptive statistics are generated as well as a Pearson product moment correlation matrix to diagnose and address potential issues of multicollinearity and simultaneity. Three national databases are used: United States Census Bureau, US Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress test score data, and the US Department of Education's Common Core of Data. Years analyzed are 2003, 2005, and 2007.

Findings

The results of the canonical analysis are robust, statistically significant, and consistent over time. Investment in human, social, and physical capital accounts for between 55.8 and 77.2 percent of the variation in student achievement in fourth and eighth grade Reading and Mathematics. Investment in human capital is consistently the largest influence on student achievement followed by social and physical capital. The null hypothesis is rejected.

Originality/value

This study advances the use of theory in explaining the impact of investment in school infrastructure on student achievement, a feature which distinguishes it from much previous research in this domain. The use of a theory also addresses a major weakness of traditional, atheoretical education production function research. In addition, utilization of canonical analysis rather than multiple regression to operationalize the theoretical model and analyze the data represents an advance in research design and statistical analysis for this type of research question.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 13000