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Article

Aysit Tansel and Nil Gungor

This study is concerned with the separate output effects of female and male education, as well as output effects of the educational gender gap. Several recent empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is concerned with the separate output effects of female and male education, as well as output effects of the educational gender gap. Several recent empirical studies have examined the gender effects of education on economic growth or on output level using the much exploited, familiar cross-country data. This paper aims to undertake a similar study of the gender effects of education on economic growth using a panel data across the provinces of Turkey for the period 1975-2000.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical basis of the estimating equations is the neoclassical growth model augmented to include separate female and male education capital and health capital variables. The methodology the authors use includes robust regression on pooled panel data controlling for regional and time effects. The results are found to be robust to a number of sensitivity analyses, such as elimination of outlier observations, controls for simultaneity and measurement errors, controls for omitted variables by including regional dummy variables, steady-state versus growth equations and different samples of developed and less-developed provinces of Turkey.

Findings

The main findings indicate that female education positively and significantly affects the steady-state level of labor productivity, while the effect of male education is in general either positive or insignificant. Separate examination of the effect of educational gender gap was to reduce output.

Originality/value

As evident in the literature, there is controversy surrounding the gender effects of education on growth. This paper provides new evidence on this issue from the perspective of a single country rather than a cross-country viewpoint.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article

Mauricio Cortez Reis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between educational mismatch and labor earnings in Brazil, taking into account individual fixed effects.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between educational mismatch and labor earnings in Brazil, taking into account individual fixed effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis employs longitudinal data and information provided by job analysts about the schooling required for each occupation. The latter of which is used to classify workers as undereducated, overeducated, or adequately matched. Estimates include individual fixed effects to control for time-invariant unobserved heterogeneity.

Findings

Evidence indicates that one more year of overeducation increases labor earnings, but only half as strong as one more year of required schooling. The estimated effects on years of undereducation are negative, but undereducated workers earn more than adequately matched workers with the same level of education. Although, in particular, the incidence of undereducation in Brazil is much higher than reported for developed countries, the impact of over- and undereducation does not differ.

Research limitations/implications

The fixed effects approach only controls for unobservable factors that are time-invariant. Also, much lower impacts using fixed effects may be due in part to attenuation bias as a consequence of measurement errors.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the scarce literature on the consequences of overeducation and undereducation for labor earnings in developing countries, providing estimates that take into account individual fixed effects.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Uschi Backes-Gellner, Christian Rupietta and Simone N. Tuor Sartore

The purpose of this paper is to examine spillover effects across differently educated workers. For the first time, the authors consider “reverse” spillover effects, i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine spillover effects across differently educated workers. For the first time, the authors consider “reverse” spillover effects, i.e. spillover effects from secondary-educated workers with dual vocational education and training (VET) to tertiary-educated workers with academic education. The authors argue that, due to structural differences in training methodology and content, secondary-educated workers with VET degrees have knowledge that tertiary academically educated workers do not have.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data from a large employer-employee data set: the Swiss Earnings Structure Survey. The authors estimate ordinary least squares and fixed effects panel-data models to identify such “reverse” spillover effects. Moreover, the authors consider the endogenous workforce composition.

Findings

The authors find that tertiary-educated workers have higher productivity when working together with secondary-educated workers with VET degrees. The instrumental variable estimations support this finding. The functional form of the reverse spillover effect is inverted-U-shaped. This means that at first the reverse spillover effect from an additional secondary-educated worker is positive but diminishing.

Research limitations/implications

The results imply that firms need to combine different types of workers because their different kinds of knowledge produce spillover effects and thereby lead to overall higher productivity.

Originality/value

The traditional view of spillover effects assumes that tertiary-educated workers create spillover effects toward secondary-educated workers. However, the authors show that workers who differ in their type of education (academic vs vocational) may also create reverse spillover effects.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Book part

William Smith, Daniel Salinas and David P. Baker

Understanding of the effects of formal education on HIV/AIDS infection in South Saharan Africa (SSA) has been a complex task because consecutive waves of research offer…

Abstract

Understanding of the effects of formal education on HIV/AIDS infection in South Saharan Africa (SSA) has been a complex task because consecutive waves of research offer different, seemingly contradictory results and explanations of what exactly are the schooling effects on HIV/AIDS and the causal mechanisms driving those effects. This chapter concentrates on the narrative and implications of the key substantive findings from a multidisciplinary scientific team that was formed to explore the precise nature of the relationship between population education and the HIV/AIDS pandemic in SSA and to determine the main causal mechanisms behind the association. As members of this team, this chapter reviews and synthesizes our technical demographic, epidemiological, and health research. This, and other relevant research, suggests that, like in other cases of education and health risk, because of a historical change in the public health and information environment during the pandemic there was a shift in which outcomes of education dominated individual's sexual and disease prevention behavior. The SSA HIV/AIDS case is thoroughly examined, and then used to bridge to a general discussion of the effects of educational development on population health.

Details

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-233-2

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Book part

Hyunjoon Park

During the past few decades, South Korea has experienced a remarkable educational expansion at its secondary and tertiary levels as well as at the primary level, resulting…

Abstract

During the past few decades, South Korea has experienced a remarkable educational expansion at its secondary and tertiary levels as well as at the primary level, resulting in extraordinary variation between the educational attainment of recent and older cohorts. Using 1990 data from the Social Inequality Study in Korea, the study examines trends in the influence of social background on educational attainment across three male cohorts born between 1921 and 1970. Although in general the impacts of social origin have changed little at the secondary levels of education, there is a significant reduction in the effect of father’s occupation on the odds of completing middle school for the youngest cohort. From a multinomial model of transitions to each type of tertiary education, it is found that family background has a stronger effect in the transition from high school to four-year university than to junior college. Interestingly, there has been an increase across cohorts in the influence of father’s education on the likelihood of entering a university, while such a pattern is not observed for the transition to junior college.

Details

Inequality Across Societies: Familes, Schools and Persisting Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-061-6

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Book part

Gianluca Manzo

In their authoritative literature review, Breen and Jonsson (2005) claim that ‘one of the most significant trends in the study of inequalities in educational attainment in…

Abstract

In their authoritative literature review, Breen and Jonsson (2005) claim that ‘one of the most significant trends in the study of inequalities in educational attainment in the past decade has been the resurgence of rational-choice models focusing on educational decision making’. The starting point of the present contribution is that these models have largely ignored the explanatory relevance of social interactions. To remedy this shortcoming, this paper introduces a micro-founded formal model of the macro-level structure of educational inequality, which frames educational choices as the result of both subjective ability/benefit evaluations and peer-group pressures. As acknowledged by Durlauf (2002, 2006) and Akerlof (1997), however, while the social psychology and ethnographic literature provides abundant empirical evidence of the explanatory relevance of social interactions, statistical evidence on their causal effect is still flawed by identification and selection bias problems. To assess the relative explanatory contribution of the micro-level and network-based mechanisms hypothesised, the paper opts for agent-based computational simulations. In particular, the technique is used to deduce the macro-level consequences of each mechanism (sequentially introduced) and to test these consequences against French aggregate individual-level survey data. The paper's main result is that ability and subjective perceptions of education benefits, no matter how intensely differentiated across agent groups, are not sufficient on their own to generate the actual stratification of educational choices across educational backgrounds existing in France at the beginning of the twenty-first century. By computational counterfactual manipulations, the paper proves that network-based interdependencies among educational choices are instead necessary, and that they contribute, over and above the differentiation of ability and of benefit perceptions, to the genesis of educational stratification by amplifying the segregation of the educational choices that agents make on the basis of purely private ability/benefit calculations.

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Article

Yin Cheong Cheng and Wing Ming Cheung

Responding to the needs of current education developments, presentsa comprehensive framework specifically for the analysis of educationalpolicies and uses different policy…

Abstract

Responding to the needs of current education developments, presents a comprehensive framework specifically for the analysis of educational policies and uses different policy cases in Hong Kong to illustrate how it can be applied effectively. The framework consists of four frames and each suggests the major considerations that need to be focused on in analysing the characteristics of educational policy. The first frame analyses the background and underlying principles related to the development of educational policies. The second frame examines the policy formulation process. The third frame investigates the implementation process and the related gaps between implementation and planning. The last frame focuses on the effects of policies. By using these four frames, the policy analysts might have a more comprehensive perspective for critically reviewing current educational policies. The framework can contribute to the ongoing discussion and development of educational policies, not only in Hong Kong, but also in an international context.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part

Manting Chen

This study examines the extent to which educational outcomes are transmitted from mothers to daughters in rural China. An analysis of the 2010 China Family Panel Survey

Abstract

This study examines the extent to which educational outcomes are transmitted from mothers to daughters in rural China. An analysis of the 2010 China Family Panel Survey reveals that: (i) how far daughters go in their education is strongly associated with their mothers’ education; (ii) the association between mothers’ and daughters’ educational outcomes in rural China was found to be stronger than the corresponding relationships between mothers and sons, fathers and daughters, and fathers and sons, especially at higher levels of education; and (iii) while having more brothers and being born later worsens daughters’ educational outcomes, mothers’ higher education effectively mitigates these negative effects. These findings add to a growing body of literature and empirical evidence that challenges conventional social mobility research paradigms that neglect mothers’ roles. More importantly, the distinction between mother–daughter relationship and that between fathers and daughters and mothers and sons highlights the fact that education is likely transmitted intergenerationally via mechanisms that differ depending on the gendered parent–child pairs.

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Book part

Sara R Curran, Chang Y Chung, Wendy Cadge and Anchalee Varangrat

Within individual countries, the paths towards increasing educational attainment are not always linear and individuals are not equally affected. Differences between boys…

Abstract

Within individual countries, the paths towards increasing educational attainment are not always linear and individuals are not equally affected. Differences between boys’ and girls’ educational attainments are a common expression of this inequality as boys are more often favored for continued schooling. We examine the importance of birth cohort, sibship size, migration, and school accessibility for explaining both the gender gap and its narrowing in secondary schooling in one district in Northeast Thailand between 1984 and 1994. Birth cohort is a significant explanation for the narrowing of the gender gap. Migration, sibship size, and remote village location are important explanations for limited secondary education opportunities, especially for girls.

Details

Inequality Across Societies: Familes, Schools and Persisting Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-061-6

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Article

Peter Letmathe and Marc Zielinski

The focus is the interplay of cognitive capabilities (mathematical understanding and heuristic problem solving) and learning from feedback. Furthermore, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The focus is the interplay of cognitive capabilities (mathematical understanding and heuristic problem solving) and learning from feedback. Furthermore, the authors analyze the role of individual factors in designing appropriate feedback systems for complex decision-making situations. Based on a learning model the purpose of this paper is to present an experimental study analyzing the feedback effectiveness in a repeated complex production planning task. Referring to individual characteristics in terms of educational background and problem solving capabilities of the decision maker the authors compare different forms of feedback systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed four experiments bi-weekly based on a realistic production planning situation. Participants received – depending on the treatment – different types of feedback concerning the final outcomes of the production plans. For testing the hypotheses, the authors conducted ANCOVAs and additional post hoc tests for each subgroup to explore the effects of different types of feedback on the subgroups’ decision-making performance.

Findings

The authors show that feedback information is not always helpful, but due to acquired knowledge and problem solving capabilities can even be harmful. The authors also show that, depending on the decision maker’s individual characteristics and her past performance, the type of feedback is crucial for the learning process.

Practical implications

The study provides important information about feedback design taking individual characteristics of decision makers (educational background, work experience) into account. Applying the results of the study can increase decision-making performance and enhance learning of production planning tasks.

Originality/value

The findings extend previous literature reporting that the performance in complex decision-making tasks depends on educational background and on the ability to cope with the phenomena of cognitive load, working memory limitations and the capability to utilize relevant heuristics to prevent information overload. Some of our results, e.g., the negative impact of non-financial feedback of high-performing economists, contradict the general findings in the literature.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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