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Article

Petru L. Curşeu, Jörg Raab, Jing Han and Aukje Loenen

This paper sets out to test the mediating role of internal network density and external network range in the relationship between educational diversity (i.e. separation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to test the mediating role of internal network density and external network range in the relationship between educational diversity (i.e. separation and variety) and group effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 267 employees in 54 organizational groups.

Findings

The study's results show that educational separation has a U‐shaped relationship with the advice network density. Moreover, educational variety moderates the relation of educational separation with external network range in such a way that for groups with high educational variety, the relationship between educational separation and external network range is U‐shaped, while for groups with low educational variety the relationship has an inverted U shape. The results also show that internal network density and external network range mediate the relationship between educational diversity and group effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The paper extends the literature on group diversity by simultaneously exploring two forms of educational diversity (separation and variety) as they relate to group network density and external network range. The study is cross‐sectional, restricting causal inferences and future research should further explore the way in which the alignment of educational variety and separation relates to social network structure and group effectiveness.

Practical implications

Understanding the association between educational diversity and group social network structure and the way they relate to group effectiveness enables managers to improve group effectiveness.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the first to explore the curvilinear association between educational diversity and social network structure.

Social implications

By exploring the relation between diversity and social network structures, these results increase understanding of how to address diversity issues at the societal level.

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Article

Maretno Agus Harjoto, Indrarini Laksmana and Ya wen Yang

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the nationality and educational background diversity of directors serving on corporate boards and the firms’ corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the nationality and educational background diversity of directors serving on corporate boards and the firms’ corporate social performance (CSP).

Design/methodology/approach

This study measures nationality diversity by directors’ national citizenship and measures educational background diversity by countries from which they earned their undergraduate and post undergraduate degrees. It measures firms’ CSP using the MSCI ESG ratings. The study uses both univariate and multivariate analyses to empirically test the hypotheses.

Findings

Using a sample of US firms, the authors find that board nationality diversity and educational background diversity are positively associated with CSP. The findings suggest that improving director nationality diversity and educational background diversity could improve firms’ social performance.

Originality/value

This study shows that the increasing trend of foreign nationals in the US boards could shift the focus of US corporations to be more stakeholder-oriented.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Article

Peng-Yu Li and Kuo-Feng Huang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why firms engaged in R&D investment and international diversification produce different results in innovation performance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why firms engaged in R&D investment and international diversification produce different results in innovation performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a sample of 283 Taiwanese manufacturing firms in the information technology industry.

Findings

The findings showed that in the top management teams (TMTs) with greater tenure diversity there was a stronger relationship between R&D investment and innovation performance. In addition, the TMTs with greater educational diversity enhanced the relationship between international diversification and innovation performance.

Originality/value

This study stresses the vital role of TMT diversity in resource allocation and information processing during the process of innovation. The authors examined the critical role of TMT educational diversity in bringing a wider range of network resources and the role of TMT tenure diversity in the allocation of firm-specific resources. The TMT diversity causes firms to experience different innovation results during the innovation process.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

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Article

Imran Khan, Ismail Khan and Ismail Senturk

This study aims to examine the relationship between board diversity and quality of corporate social responsibility (QCSR) disclosure.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between board diversity and quality of corporate social responsibility (QCSR) disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

The study estimates seven dimensions of board diversity including age, gender, nation, ethnicity, educational level, educational background and tenure by applying Blau’s index. The relationship between board diversity and QCSR disclosure from the perspective of the resource-based view theory is estimated by using panel random effects regression across 57 firms producing exclusive sustainability reports listed in the Pakistan Stock Exchange from 2010 to 2017. The robustness of the results has also been checked through alternative measurements of the variables under study.

Findings

The regression results reveal that gender and national diversities are the firms’ valuable resources, having the potential to promote QCSR disclosure. However, age diversity was found to be negatively associated to QCSR disclosure. Furthermore, educational level, educational background, ethnicity and tenure were insignificant on QCSR disclosure. The sensitivity analysis supports the findings of the baseline model.

Research limitations/implications

Pakistani firms need to improve the level of board diversity through encouragement of the inclusion of diverse forces of gender and nationality to enhance disclosure on CSR practices.

Originality/value

This is the first study on board diversity and QCSR in the case of Pakistan.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Book part

anthony lising antonio, Jeffrey F. Milem and Mitchell J. Chang

Racial and ethnic diversity and the attendant challenges and benefits of multiculturalism in society are a worldwide phenomenon. As higher education is often the training…

Abstract

Racial and ethnic diversity and the attendant challenges and benefits of multiculturalism in society are a worldwide phenomenon. As higher education is often the training ground for future social and political leaders, as well as the primary institution charged with the study of social problems, the educational benefits, and challenges of diversity in society are particularly relevant to institutions of higher learning. This chapter synthesizes the ongoing empirical research on the educational impact of racially and ethnically diverse university environments in a U.S. context and offers a framework of institutional practices based on that work to help administrators both respond to challenges and better harness-related benefits for all students.

Details

As the World Turns: Implications of Global Shifts in Higher Education for Theory, Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-641-6

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Article

Caroline C. Hartmann and Jimmy Carmenate

Board diversity positively impacts corporate social responsibility (CSR); however, there is limited evidence on how board diversity affects the reputation of organizations…

Abstract

Purpose

Board diversity positively impacts corporate social responsibility (CSR); however, there is limited evidence on how board diversity affects the reputation of organizations that are involved in CSR. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect board diversity has on socially responsible firms’ corporate social responsibility reputation (CSRR). The authors specifically examine this relationship because an organization’s corporate reputation may be very different to its CSRR gained through engagement in socially responsible activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the CSR reputation scores for the top 100 most socially responsible global companies provided by the RepTrak Database as a measure of CSRR. Board diversity measures are calculated for gender, ethnicity and education to measure their impact on social reputation. The sample for this study consists of 146 observations for the period 2013–2017.

Findings

The authors find a significant and positive relation between having a combination of women and ethnically diverse members on the board and firms’ CSRR. The authors also find a significant positive effect on CSRR when the board is composed of women and educationally diverse members.

Research limitations/implications

Board diversity characteristics continue to impact organizations’ decision-making processes and their involvement in CSR activities as public stakeholders demand greater representation of females and minorities on the board. Because research on board diversity is in its infancy, the authors urge scholars to continue to investigate the impact board diversity has on an organization’s motivation to be socially responsible as well as how it affects their CSRR.

Practical implications

The findings of this study highlight the importance stakeholders place on an organization’s social responsibility reputation and the positive effects of board diversity in managing their CSRR.

Social implications

The findings provide evidence that the composition of the board can influence a company’s engagement in CSR activities and their CSRR as perceived by its stakeholders.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the CSR literature by introducing the concept of CSRR. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study also extends research in the diversity literature by examining the relationship between board diversity variables and an organization’s CSRR. The findings highlight the importance of having a diverse board composed of ethnically and educationally varied individuals and provide evidence of a link between organizations’ involvement in socially responsible activities and their CSRR.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article

Alejandro Bello-Pintado and Carlos Bianchi

Diversity of people, knowledge and resources has been identified as a determinant of firms' growth. This paper focusses on innovation propensity as a critical dimension of…

Abstract

Purpose

Diversity of people, knowledge and resources has been identified as a determinant of firms' growth. This paper focusses on innovation propensity as a critical dimension of firm's growth path, aiming to analyse the effects of the firm's horizontal educational diversity (HED) on the propensity to conduct different technological innovation activities (TIAs). In addition, considering the evidence showing that these effects are neither direct nor linear, the authors analyse the moderating role of the firm's organizational practices oriented to knowledge sharing (KS) on the association between HED and the adoption of TIAs.

Design/methodology/approach

Following the theoretical arguments of the resource-based view (RBV), the evolutionary economics and the dynamic capabilities approach and related empirical evidences, the authors proposed four hypotheses regarding the effect of HED on TIAs and the moderating role of work organization practices oriented to promote KS. Empirically, the authors calculated different HED diversity indexes capturing two basic dimensions: variety and balance. Hence, using instrumental variables and panel data techniques to control endogeneity biases, the authors tested the proposed hypotheses using a data set of Uruguayan manufacturing firms between 2004 and 2015.

Findings

In line with previous evidence, results showed idiosyncratic context effects. The authors found a robust, linear, positive and significant relationship between HED and TIAs, but the effect can only be consistently associated with the adoption of internal or external research and development (R&D) activities. Moreover, the moderating role of work organization practices oriented to promote KS is positive and significant when firms engage in TIAs. For technological innovations that only involve the acquisiton of technology (AT), a positive effect is also observed but always associated to organizational practices oriented to promote KS.

Originality/value

This paper revisits the analysis of workforce diversity for a relatively less explored context. This research contributes to the field by linking HED and work organization practices to understand firm's innovation propensity in a developing context. Moreover, while other studies have focussed only on top management or R&D team diversity, the authors have analysed the whole professional's workforce. It allows the authors to discuss the effects of diversity on innovation propensity in the light of the ongoing debate on the effects of innovation in employment.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article

Ayman Issa, Hesham Yousef, Ahmed Bakry, Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha and Ahmad Sahyouni

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. nationality, gender and educational level) on financial performance for a sample of banks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of board diversity (e.g. nationality, gender and educational level) on financial performance for a sample of banks listed in 11 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the system generalized method of moments estimation approach on the data of banks listed in the MENA countries over the period 2011–2018 to investigate the relationship between board diversity and financial performance. Also, the findings are supported by additional robustness tests, including ordinary least squares, fixed and random effect techniques.

Findings

The empirical results show that there is a significant relationship between board diversity and financial performance in banks. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that board diversity related to nationality has a significant positive impact on bank performance. The findings also show an insignificant association between gender and educational level diversity and bank performance. The robustness analysis supports the findings of the baseline model.

Practical implications

The study provides multi-country evidence on the importance of board diversity in the MENA region and it sheds light on possible tracks for future reforms aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the board’s functions.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the association between board diversity and financial performance of banks in the MENA countries. This paper also provides preliminary evidence on the importance of board diversity to influence financial performance.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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Book part

The purpose of this chapter is to present some evidence of an empirical exploration carried out with 178 primary school teachers from the State of Sonora, México,1 about…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to present some evidence of an empirical exploration carried out with 178 primary school teachers from the State of Sonora, México,1 about their perceptions regarding diversity and educational inclusion. A mixed-cut methodology was used that considered the application of a scale questionnaire and focus groups. The results allow to appreciate, in general, a tendency to incorporate diversity in the appreciation and valuation schemes. However, there are also appreciations that make an important set of deficiencies to face diversity in schools evident.

Details

From Pedagogy to Quality Assurance in Education: An International Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-106-8

Keywords

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Article

Yong Wu, Zelong Wei and Qiaozhuan Liang

The purpose of this paper is to describe the building of a theoretical model to explore how team pay disparity and resource slack moderate the effects of top management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the building of a theoretical model to explore how team pay disparity and resource slack moderate the effects of top management team (TMT) diversity on strategic change and if the moderating effects of resource slack differ in firms with a low or high level of pay disparity.

Design/methodology/approach

Nine hypotheses are proposed and tested with a sample from 391 listed Chinese firms. Archival data are collected from annual reports to form the sample. The hypothesized model relationships are tested through regression analysis.

Findings

The findings show that pay imparity negatively moderates the effects of TMT diversity and resource slack also has important moderating effects. Furthermore, the moderating effects of resource slack differ in firms with low and high team pay imparity.

Originality/value

TMT demography diversity has an important effect on strategic change. However, two conflicting views exist on the relationship. Although some literature suggests that diversity may be sources of explorative activities such as strategic change, others suggest that diversity may cause integration difficulty and thus has a negative effect on strategic change. This paper contributes to extant debate regarding the effects of TMT diversity on strategic change by including TMT pay imparity and resource slack to explain that the effect of diversity on strategic change is contingent on the level of pay imparity, resources slack, and their interactive effects. This research also contributes to understanding organization slack by reasoning that the moderating effect is contingent on pay imparity level.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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