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Book part

Changsong Niu and Jing Liu

This chapter aims to investigate and interpret China’s educational aid by analyzing its history, philosophies, and practices in Africa. The study is based on review and…

Abstract

This chapter aims to investigate and interpret China’s educational aid by analyzing its history, philosophies, and practices in Africa. The study is based on review and analysis of governmental documents, reports, academic papers, and news by Chinese and foreign scholars on China’s aid, particularly educational aid to Africa. The analysis unveils three transformations of China’s aid “from pro-ideology to de-ideology,” “from single area to multiple areas,” and “from pragmatic economy driven to sustainable and humane economy focused” in Africa. Meanwhile, it indicates a continuity of the philosophy of solidarity, morality, and reciprocity in China’s South-South cooperation with African educational development.

The analysis also shows China’s educational aid does not match well with the framework of the Western donors. China, under the FOCAC framework, is devoted to higher education cooperation, human resources training program, scholarship, and Chinese language education with African partners. With the growth of its economic and political influence, China will play multiple roles as the biggest developing country and as an active promoter and provider for South-South cooperation in the negotiation and construction of the post-2015 agenda. Nevertheless, we assume China will keep a pragmatic higher education cooperation with its developing country partners to inclusively link it with business, technology transfer, and people-to-people exchange.

This study delivers a comprehensive review and analysis of paradigm shift, philosophy, mechanism, and practice of China’s educational aid to Africa to fill up the literature gap in this field. It also timely presents China’s stance toward discussion on the post-2015 agenda.

Details

Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Book part

Shoko Yamada and Kazuhiro Yoshida

As the sole Asian country in the DAC donor community until South Korea joined in 2010, Japan has been struggling with the pressure to align with the norms and modalities…

Abstract

As the sole Asian country in the DAC donor community until South Korea joined in 2010, Japan has been struggling with the pressure to align with the norms and modalities of the community, while having a different history of aid from Western donors and desiring to be unique. This chapter untangles the domestic and international factors that have affected policy making and implementation of the Japanese Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), particularly in education, at different times in its history. The philosophical foundations of Japanese aid policies are examined in the changing political, economic, and social contexts from the 1950s up to the present.

As the Education for All paradigm took the stage, Japanese education ODA has shifted from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s to primary education from technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and higher education. However, in the post-2015 process, the policies have swung back to give equal emphasis to TVET and higher education as to basic education, reflecting the global trend to make the agenda more comprehensive. While the convergence with the global trend is clear in Japanese ODA, the hesitant desire to be unique always forces Japanese ODA officials and scholars to discuss and try to demonstrate the “Japanese model” of development and aid.

The chapter also points out that the increased presence of other Asian donors in recent years has made Japanese ODA policies driven more by national interests than by global humanitarianism, which is clearly seen in the Development Cooperation Charter adopted in 2014.

Details

Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Article

John Adams and Hongli Song

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key developments in Sino‐foreign cooperation in higher education (HE) in China in terms of policy initiatives and legal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key developments in Sino‐foreign cooperation in higher education (HE) in China in terms of policy initiatives and legal frameworks and to highlight the main challenges for the sector in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerous policy papers, academic literature sources and legal acts are analysed to produce a meta analysis of the understanding to date of the issues involved in partnerships in HE in China. Secondary data sources are accessed and compared for consistency.

Findings

The analysis reveals a clear path of initially slow, enhancing, and then rapid developments in the framework of Sino‐foreign HE cooperation. It also reveals some serious issues in the motives behind cooperation, quality of provision, and relevance to China's future development.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper suggest that cooperative partnerships in HE in China need to be much clearer on strategy and purpose and there is an urgent need for a proper assessment of their contribution to the country's education capacity building, educational, and knowledge exchange and future social and economic development.

Originality/value

This paper offers an insight into how it arrives at where it is in terms of these partnerships, how to improve them and raises questions that may well be uncomfortable reading for some.

Details

Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in China, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1418

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Book part

Shoko Yamada

This chapter will situate the global paradigm shift toward Post-Education-For-All (Post-EFA) not only in the policy trends in the field of international education…

Abstract

This chapter will situate the global paradigm shift toward Post-Education-For-All (Post-EFA) not only in the policy trends in the field of international education development, but also in the academic context of international relations and comparative education.

The chapter highlights three dimensions which characterize the paradigm shift; namely, discourse on norms, diversifying actors, and the changed mode of communication and participation in the global consultation processes. The existing formal structure of the EFA global governance is based on multilateralism which recognizes sovereign nation-states, representing national interests, as the participants. However, such an assumption is eroding, given that there is a growing number of state and nonstate actors who influence decision-making not only through conventional formal channels, but also informally. Urging the revision of theories of multilateralism, the chapter introduces the attention given to nontraditional donors and horizontal networks of civil society actors in this volume.

The introduction also shows that that the widening basis of participation in the global consultation processes on post-EFA and advanced communication technology have changed the ways in which discourse is formulated. While the amount and the speed of exchanging information have been enhanced and different types of actors have been encouraged to take part, it also obliges scholars to adopt innovative methods of analyzing discourse formation.

The chapter also demonstrates the importance of the focus on the Asia-Pacific region, which is composed of diverse actors who often underscore Asian cultural roots in contrast to Western hegemony. By focusing on the discourse, actors, and the structure through which the consensus views on the post-EFA agenda were built, the volume attempts to untangle the nature of the post-EFA paradigm shift, at the global, Asia-Pacific regional, and national levels.

Details

Post-Education-Forall and Sustainable Development Paradigm: Structural Changes with Diversifying Actors and Norms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-271-5

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Book part

Tavis D. Jules

This chapter reviews the changing contours of education governance in today’s global environment in which governments participate in different educational agreements…

Abstract

This chapter reviews the changing contours of education governance in today’s global environment in which governments participate in different educational agreements across various levels (supranational and global) or what is identified as the rise of “educational multistakeholderism.” Methodologically it draws up discursive evidence from previous studies in the form of a content analysis to show how the expansion of international regimes (institutions) into new issue areas, such as education, creates an overlap between the elemental (core) regime and other regimes. In exploring how regime theory has been applied to comparative and international education, this chapter draws attention to how new regimes and institutions arise and coexist alongside two or more classes (civil society, nongovernmental, intergovernmental, businesses, and state) of actors and its consequences for education governance. It suggests that regime complex(es) in education, which aims to facilitate educational cooperation and are composed of assemblages from several other regimes, are responsible for governing, steering, and coordinating education governance activities through the use of agreements, treaties, global benchmarks, targets, and indicators. It concludes by suggesting that regimes and regime complex(es) in education are constituted by different types of multistakeholder governance.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2017
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-765-4

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Article

Shoko Yamada

The purpose of this paper is to untangle the domestic and international factors that have affected policy making and implementation of the Japanese Overseas Development…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to untangle the domestic and international factors that have affected policy making and implementation of the Japanese Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), particularly in education, at different times in its history.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on analysis of governmental policy documents and reports, minutes of ODA consultative meetings, and statistical data on Japanese financial and technical developmental assistance. The major methodology was discourse analysis of primary documents; secondary sources supplement this.

Findings

Japan was the first non-western Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development-Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC) member and has always been in the ambivalent position of being both a DAC member and an Asian latecomer. As the Education for All paradigm took the ground, Japanese ODA to the education sector has shifted to the primary education from Technical and Vocational Education and Training and higher education from the mid-1990s until the mid-2000s. While the global trend is clear in Japanese ODA, it has always stressed the importance of establishing and demonstrating the “Japanese model” in ODA policy documents and practices. The sensitive balance between the demand to harmonize with mainstream aid modalities and the drive to demonstrate uniqueness characterize Japanese educational aid.

Originality/value

While many important works examined the decision-making mechanism and philosophies of Japanese educational ODA, this paper contextualizes governmental programs in the intersection between domestic factors – bureaucratic, political, and societal – and international influence. It clarifies the changing relationships between Japan and western and Asian countries in determining its agendas and directions from the 1960s to the present.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article

Alexandr Akimov, Robert J. Bianchi and Michael E. Drew

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively review one example of academic-industry cooperation, namely, the partnership arrangements between the CFA Institute and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively review one example of academic-industry cooperation, namely, the partnership arrangements between the CFA Institute and universities around the globe. There is a scarcity of literature relating to academic-industry cooperation between the finance discipline and business.

Design/methodology/approach

Relevant data were hand-collected and a comprehensive analysis of individual CFA partner programs was undertaken, including the geographical distribution of the programs and program characteristics and ranking of partners programs; the motivation for and approaches of universities toward the CFA Institute partnership and program design are identified. The general findings are validated with a detailed analysis of the CFA partner postgraduate programs offered in Australian universities.

Findings

The research finds that the primary focus of cooperation between the CFA Institute and universities is the adoption of practitioner-relevant academic curriculum in universities, which should assist in setting industry educational standards. The authors observed a great diversity of partner institutions and programs around the globe, their rankings and their approach to cooperation with the CFA Institute thanks to the flexibility of their partnership arrangements. This explains the rapid growth of universities seeking formal cooperation with the CFA Institute. However, this growth has created challenges for the CFA Institute in managing and delivering value in their partnership arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

Due to data limitations, the research does not provide an empirical analysis of factors driving enrollments in Australian postgraduate finance programs.

Practical implications

The paper serves as a guide to universities interested in engaging in cooperation with the CFA Institute. This study is also useful for the professional bodies that evaluate various models of cooperation with educational institutions.

Originality/value

The paper is the first, to the authors' knowledge, to examine the practical aspects of cooperation between universities and a professional body in the finance discipline. Moreover, it is the first to evaluate perceived benefits and problems universities may experience by entering into a popular CFA Institute Partner Program.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article

Yury Nikolayevich Sayamov

The purpose of this paper is to analyse various aspects of education for sustainable development (ESD) drawing attention to the approaching end of the UN Decade on ESD…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse various aspects of education for sustainable development (ESD) drawing attention to the approaching end of the UN Decade on ESD (DESD) in 2014 and to the necessity of the continuation of ESD activities. Defining the internationalisation of education as an ever more significant part of globalisation, the paper insists that the education should be recognised as the foundation for sustainable development and building of the global knowledge society.

Design/methodology/approach

The author presents a vision of the education as of a global “soft power” thus introducing a new understanding and a different application of the notion used mainly in a negative sense which, in author's opinion, can serve as educational instrument and technology of attraction. The author's methodology and approach take note of the basic principles of the globalisation theory and include the recognition of the fact that the contradiction between global interdependent problems of the planetary scale on one side and the existing rather fragmentary and desultory way of acquiring knowledge on the other side is the main challenge to the present and future quality of the human potential.

Findings

Considering ways how to continue the work on ESD after the end of the UN DESD in 2014, the author expresses a point of view that it should be an innovation project requiring state, public, law and financial support. United Nations Organization for Science, Culture and Education (UNESCO) Chairs have an important role to play as a new instrument of the global educational “soft power” inspired to promote knowledge and scientific experience worldwide.

Originality/value

Authentic experience of the UNESCO Chair creation and activity at the Faculty of Global Studies at Moscow State University is shown. The author having about 40 years of experience of cooperation with UNESCO as a member of a group of experts at the Director General, later – as a diplomat at UNESCO and recently – as UNESCO Chairholder presents an original point of view based on personal findings and conclusions.

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Article

Galatia Nicolaidou Solomou and Petros Pashiardis

Although school autonomy has been a matter of great interest during the last decades and several relevant measures have been implemented toward this end, the relation…

Abstract

Purpose

Although school autonomy has been a matter of great interest during the last decades and several relevant measures have been implemented toward this end, the relation between school autonomy and school effectiveness has not been examined thoroughly. The purpose of this paper is to explore this relation and to propose an effective school autonomy model for Cyprus, a small European country with a highly centralized educational system. The suggested model indicates which decisions (related to various administrative, financial, academic, pedagogical and human resources matters) must be made at school level, which decisions can be made partly from the school with a higher level of control from the ministry and which decisions have to be made exclusively by a central authority, in order to enhance school effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

An unusual methodological design is followed, using scenarios to examine hypothetical situations. Cypriot headteachers’ job satisfaction and work-related stress is examined in the case of full autonomy and in the opposite scenario of very limited autonomy. The results from this phase of the study lead to the design of the suggested school autonomy model, which is then tested in terms of effectiveness through a third scenario. The scenarios are given in questionnaires and the sample includes 300 out of a population of 350 primary school headteachers of Cyprus.

Findings

The findings of the study suggest that headteachers’ job satisfaction and work-related stress is affected by the level of school autonomy that characterizes an educational system. The most effective scenario for the case of Cyprus does not refer to the existing situation of very limited autonomy, neither to the opposite scenario of full autonomy. The most effective scenario refers to the suggested model of school autonomy where all decisions related to various academic, managerial, financial and human resource matters are taken at school level, except for the decisions related to teaching materials and textbooks, teacher placements, promotions, payroll and dismissals. For these decisions the guidance, support and/or control from the educational authorities have to be enhanced.

Research limitations/implications

In this study school effectiveness is examined through the headteachers’ job satisfaction and stress as the dependent variable, and not through the conventional student achievement variable. A part of the existing literature suggests that these variables affect school effectiveness in an indirect way. Taking into consideration student achievement was not possible for the case of Cyprus, since the only scenario currently existing refers to very limited or no school autonomy. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the academic results of students coming from schools with different levels of autonomy.

Practical implications

The methodological approach of the study can be followed in other contexts as well, in order to design an effective school autonomy model for a different educational system, district or school. Scenarios can also be used to test and make corrections for a suggested educational reform, before this is implemented, in order to avoid waste of time and/or financial resources.

Originality/value

The value of this study first lies in its attempt to design a school autonomy model, based on all the educational decisions and matters that can be affected from a school autonomy reform; this became possible through an extensive literature review. Second the study, does not only support some suggestions based on the results, but also tests the effectiveness of the suggestions before these are implemented, following the unusual methodological approach of scenarios. Moreover, the relation between school autonomy and school effectiveness has not been examined thoroughly in the existing literature and some conflicting opinions exist. The findings of the study can help us gain a better understanding of the above relation.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part

Miri Yemini

During the last two decades, education systems worldwide have been working under an increasing need to adapt to a rapidly changing postindustrial external environment with…

Abstract

During the last two decades, education systems worldwide have been working under an increasing need to adapt to a rapidly changing postindustrial external environment with social, technological, economic, and political transformations. The unprecedented growth, complexity, and competitiveness of the global economy with its attendant sociopolitical and technological developments have been creating relentless and cumulative pressures on education systems to respond to the changing environment. Today, educational institutions from primary schools to universities are being forced to compete and excel in the international arena, and are thus expected to go far beyond simply providing pure knowledge and skills as before. Increasingly, more institutions in primary and secondary education are embracing innovative practices from the global business world and dedicating growing attention to strategic and marketing aspects of educational management.

The European Commission has defined innovation as the “building block of the future competitive workplace during the 21st century” and the strategy of educational institutions around the world is being affected to a large extent by this statement. This chapter focuses on the identification and definition of the future challenges in schools’ governance, and presents a novel logical framework for the arena of educational marketing. Special attention is given to innovation as a key driver for further development of educational institutions and its possible impact on marketing efforts in educational institutions. These aspects, previously overlooked by research literature, are discussed in the present chapter, adding a new dimension to the understanding of strategic facets in the educational marketing arena.

Details

The Management and Leadership of Educational Marketing: Research, Practice and Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-242-4

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