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Book part
Publication date: 6 January 2016

Allyson Krupar and Esther Prins

Using conceptions of transnationalism to (re)evaluate the field of comparative and international education (CIE), this chapter analyzes educational programming and policy…

Abstract

Using conceptions of transnationalism to (re)evaluate the field of comparative and international education (CIE), this chapter analyzes educational programming and policy for migrant refugee youth at the margins and borderlands of the nation-state system. Drawing from newspaper articles about displaced youth on Kenya’s eastern border and the southwestern U.S. border, this chapter focuses on comparative and international education’s potential influence on programming and policies in borderland regions. Both populations present the need for targeted educational programming within and outside of formal education systems and urgency for research linked with practice. We argue that CIE scholars can fill a critical, activist purpose to draw attention to educational access and curricular content in educational projects at the borders of the nation-state system, to investigate programming, and to work with practitioners and policy makers to address the needs of youth on the physical and figurative margins of education.

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Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2015
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-297-9

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Matthew A. Witenstein and Betsy Palmer

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model for examining the unique factors contributing to the gendered inequality of post‐secondary educational

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model for examining the unique factors contributing to the gendered inequality of post‐secondary educational participation in Nepal.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual/theoretical paper aims to apply and potentially critique the dynamic model of educational inequality offered by Lynch and O’Riordan to the context of Nepalese post‐secondary educational inequality. The authors hope to use the current model, developed through an exploration of data from a developed country, to further understanding of the forces maintaining educational inequality in the developing world.

Findings

The constraints from Lynch and O’Riordan's model are all important forces that impact educational persistence for girls and women in Nepal. However in order to fully examine the complexity of barriers imposed on girls in persisting through the Nepali educational system, the case has been made to add both geographic and political facilitators/constraints to the model. By creating a model that includes these forces, researchers and policy makers can proscribe change that is more holistic.

Research limitations/implications

By constructing models that accurately reflect the real conditions present in developing countries, we can truly begin to find solutions to disparities in educational access and attainment.

Originality/value

This paper contributes both an examination of barriers and stratification in Nepal's higher education system while also developing a model for examining post‐secondary education systems in developing nations. It also provides some understanding of why Nepal has fallen behind its peers.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Marcella Turner-Cmuchal and Stuart Aitken

Within today’s information and knowledge society, learners with disabilities and/or special education needs (SEN) are among the groups most likely to encounter barriers to…

Abstract

Within today’s information and knowledge society, learners with disabilities and/or special education needs (SEN) are among the groups most likely to encounter barriers to accessing and using ICT, while at the same time the essential purpose of using ICT in education for learners with disabilities and/or SEN is to promote equity in educational opportunities.

This chapter considers two key issues:

  • Legislation and policy focussing upon rights and entitlements to ICT as an educational equity issue;

  • Access to appropriate ICTs within an accessible and sustainable ICT infrastructure for learners with disabilities and/or SEN.

Legislation and policy focussing upon rights and entitlements to ICT as an educational equity issue;

Access to appropriate ICTs within an accessible and sustainable ICT infrastructure for learners with disabilities and/or SEN.

In the chapter, how international and European level policy impacts upon the use of ICT in inclusive education will be discussed, followed by the presentation of a profile of a fictitious learner with disabilities who uses ICT as a key tool for accessing educational and inclusive learning opportunities. The case study will be used to exemplify the sorts of issues apparent in many different policy and practice situations across Europe.

Based on this discussion, a consideration of the use of ICT in inclusive education as a tool to enable all learners to be empowered in their learning is presented. This discussion leads to the identification of three potential policy levers that should be further exploited in attempts to address the digital divide and ensure all learners benefit from ICT as a tool for accessing inclusive learning opportunities:

  1. Public procurement;

  2. A widespread programme of training for all stakeholders;

  3. School level policies and action plans for ICT.

Public procurement;

A widespread programme of training for all stakeholders;

School level policies and action plans for ICT.

Details

Implementing Inclusive Education: Issues in Bridging the Policy-Practice Gap
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-388-7

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2019

Poonam Batra

Several countries in South Asia face the challenge of ineffective educational reforms manifest in increasing rates of school failure and poor learning outcomes after…

Abstract

Several countries in South Asia face the challenge of ineffective educational reforms manifest in increasing rates of school failure and poor learning outcomes after embarking along education for all. Critical voices from the South have questioned the relevance and appropriateness of ideas that have shaped these reforms. Narratives from the region tell us that importation of educational concepts and policy orientations have led to the dismantling of existing structures and processes of education, creating new forms of inequities and disadvantage. The sheer scale and diversity of populations within the region poses formidable challenges and opportunities for contextual innovation. The construction of national imaginaries in the diverse societies of South Asia has the potential to provide new discourses to educational reform; going beyond the abstract goals set by disconnected international experts and the institutional processes they represent. This chapter deliberates on the need to establish a persuasive critical perspective that can influence and shape the trajectories of policy and practice, research and theorization, within the field of comparative education in South Asia, and the global south.

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Comparative and International Education: Survey of an Infinite Field
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-392-2

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2014

Alexander W. Wiseman and Audree Chase-Mayoral

Neo-institutional theory has provided a productive perspective on comparative and international education phenomena since the 1970s. Yet, recent critical discourse about…

Abstract

Neo-institutional theory has provided a productive perspective on comparative and international education phenomena since the 1970s. Yet, recent critical discourse about educational phenomena investigated through a neo-institutional lens has been somewhat one-sided. The authors reexamine neo-institutional theory and its application to comparative and international education by demonstrating the ways that the theory frames both macro- and micro-level educational phenomena. The ability to shift the discourse about neo-institutional theory from a largely macro-level framework to one capable of investigating educational changes occurring at the micro level is vital to understanding the comprehensiveness of national educational systems and the ways that both world culture and individual agency contribute to these systems. Specifically, using the empirical application of neo-institutional theory to the intersection of information and communication technology (ICT) and internationally comparative educational data, the macro and micro levels of educational phenomena can be productively examined. In so doing, this chapter shifts the discourse on how and why neo-institutional theory reflects cross-national educational trends and micro-contextual effects on education worldwide.

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Glenn Hardaker, Aishah Sabki, Atika Qazi and Javed Iqbal

Most research on information and communication technologies (ICT) differences has been related to gender and ethnicity, and to a lesser extent religious affiliation. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Most research on information and communication technologies (ICT) differences has been related to gender and ethnicity, and to a lesser extent religious affiliation. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this field of research by situating the discussion in the context of British Muslims and extending current research into ICT differences beyond gender and ethnicity.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the ICT differences in access and use by British Muslim teenage girls at Islamic faith schools, and ICTs’ perceived influence on learning. The qualitative research was undertaken by conducting 45 semi-structured interviews with British Muslim teenage girls in Islamic faith schools.

Findings

The study provides tentative findings that Islamic faith schools are not only framed by the wider diverse Muslim community, but also by the supplementary schooling of madrasahs. The findings suggest that the home use of ICTs was reinforced rather than compensated for by the Islamic faith schools. This seemed to inhibit many pupils’ access to online educational resources. The authors found that didactic instruction was prevalent and this provided tentative insights into the types of digital inequity experienced by many pupils.

Originality/value

The research into ICT differences in the UK adopted the premise that the unity in Muslim identity increasingly transcends ethnicity and gender in the Muslim community.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Book part
Publication date: 13 March 2012

Walter R. Allen and Uma Jayakumar

This study overviews the representation of students of color at critical junctures in California's educational pipeline based on analyses of California Postsecondary…

Abstract

This study overviews the representation of students of color at critical junctures in California's educational pipeline based on analyses of California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) and the California Department of Education (CDE) data. More specifically, it examines high school completion, undergraduate and graduate attendance rates, and degree attainment for different racial/ethnic groups within California's higher education system and related state-wide statistics. In doing so, we aim to provide a critical analysis of the state's educational system and the conditions for access and success in higher education.

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As the World Turns: Implications of Global Shifts in Higher Education for Theory, Research and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-641-6

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Rolf Straubhaar

Throughout Latin America, policy-makers are struggling to reconcile two conflicting political pressures: (i) the push to become more globally competitive on the basis of…

Abstract

Throughout Latin America, policy-makers are struggling to reconcile two conflicting political pressures: (i) the push to become more globally competitive on the basis of international assessments such as the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), and (ii) the simultaneous need to address long-standing, entrenched inequities in both educational quality and access throughout much of the region. This chapter documents how policy-making elites throughout Latin America are trying to address these two goals by incorporating “evidence-based” policy solutions that can be empirically defended as promoting equity. However, scholars throughout Latin America argue that instead of promoting equity, an increasing focus on accountability in educational policy at the national level throughout the region has resulted instead in a shift in priorities from the governance of educational systems to evaluation of those systems, with the state functioning primarily as an Evaluative State. This argument is developed through secondary analysis of the Hispanophone and Lusophone academic education literatures of Latin America, whose robust and rigorous studies of these trends at both national and regional levels remain little explored within the Anglophone academic tradition.

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The Global Educational Policy Environment in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-044-2

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Xiaogang Wu and Zhuoni Zhang

This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the…

Abstract

This chapter examines the trend in school enrollment and transitions to senior high school and to college in China for selected young cohorts since the 1990s, based on the analyses of the sample data from population censuses in 1990 and 2000 and the mini-census in 2005. We pay particular attention to educational inequality based on gender and the household registration system (hukou) in the context of educational expansion. Results show a substantial increase in educational opportunities over time at all levels. In particular, women have gained relatively more; gender inequality has decreased over time, and the gap in college enrollments was even reversed to favor women in 2005. However, rural–urban inequality was enlarged in the 1990s. The educational expansion has mainly benefited females and urban residents.

Details

Globalization, Changing Demographics, and Educational Challenges in East Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-977-0

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

David Ansong, Chesworth Brittney Renwick, Moses Okumu, Eric Ansong and Cedrick Joseph Wabwire

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial patterns of gender inequality in junior high school enrollment and the educational resource investments associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial patterns of gender inequality in junior high school enrollment and the educational resource investments associated with the spatial trends.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses data on 170 districts in Ghana and hot spot analysis based on the Getis-Ord Gi statistic, linear regression, and geographically weighted regression to assess spatial variability in gender parity in junior high school enrollment and its association with resource allocation.

Findings

The results reveal rural-urban and north-south variability in gender parity. Results show that educational resources contribute to gender parity. At the national level, educational expenditure, and the number of classrooms, teachers, and available writing places have the strongest positive associations with girls’ enrollment. These relationships are spatially moderated, such that predominantly rural and Northern districts experience the most substantial benefits of educational investments.

Practical implications

The findings show that strategic allocation of infrastructure, financial, and human resources through local governments holds promise for a more impactful and sustainable educational development of all children, regardless of gender. Besides seeking solutions that address the lack of resources at the national level, there is a need for locally tailored efforts to remove the barriers to equitable distribution of educational resources across gender and socioeconomic groups.

Originality/value

This paper’s use of advanced spatial analysis techniques allows for in-depth examination of gender parity and investments in educational resources, and highlights the spatial nuances in how such investments predict gender disparities in junior high school enrollment. The findings speak to the need for targeted and localized efforts to address gender and geographical disparities in educational opportunities.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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