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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Tongwei Xie

This article aims to analyze inter‐provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001.

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to analyze inter‐provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan from 2001 to 2008, and applies the method of “economic convergence”.

Findings

The results show that after the reform of rural compulsory education, inter‐provincial rural education disparities and educational equality have been significantly improved and trend to convergence; nevertheless the convergence rate on inter‐provincial disparities of education equality declines. The defects of the education input system – “county as principle” – has been a factor that restricts the coordinated development of rural education.

Practical limitations

This paper suggests that it is necessary for China's provincial and central government to afford the expense of compulsory education. China's present investment system would also worsen inter‐provincial inequities of education.

Social implications

Education equality is one of the basic social priorities. In China education equality has been improved; however it could be better if China's provincial and central government afforded the expenses of compulsory education.

Originality/value

This paper applies the method of “economic convergence” to analyze China's rural education disparities among its regions.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

John Asafu‐Adjaye

This paper investigates the effect of income inequality on health status. A model of health status was specified in which the main variables were income level, income…

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3488

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of income inequality on health status. A model of health status was specified in which the main variables were income level, income inequality, the level of savings and the level of education. The model was estimated using a panel data set for 44 countries covering six time periods. The results indicate that income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) has a significant effect on health status when we control for the levels of income, savings and education. The relationship is consistent regardless of the specification of health status and income. Thus, the study results provide some empirical support for the income inequality hypothesis.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 31 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Zehorit Dadon-Golan, Iris BenDavid-Hadar and Joseph Klein

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it examines the extent of equity in the academic achievement distribution by analyzing Israeli students’ high school…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it examines the extent of equity in the academic achievement distribution by analyzing Israeli students’ high school matriculation scores, controlling for background characteristics (e.g. parental education) and for previous achievement. Second, it analyzes the trends in equity during the examined period from 2001 to 2011.

Design/methodology/approach

Nationwide extensive data sets, at the student level, of 11 cohorts are analyzed using logistic regression models.

Findings

Major findings reveal that the odds ratios (ORs) are in favor of students from families with a high level of parental education (an increment of one year of parental education increases the odds of student’s success by 3 percent). In addition, the ORs are less favorable for Arab students (30 percent lower). Furthermore, a high previous achievement level increases the odds of success (an increment of 1 percent in achievement increases the odds by 6 percent). In addition, the extent of inequity remains stable throughout the examined period.

Originality/value

Israel serves as an interesting case study, as its student achievement distribution in international examinations is characterized by the highest gap compared with other OECD countries, although its policy aspires to achieve equity. This puzzle, is the motivation for this study. Moreover, insights from this research might assist policy makers to promote equitable education.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Abstract

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-724-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Sarah Giroux, Parfait Eloundou-Enyegue, John W. Sipple and Michel Tenikue

Does education still serve as a great equalizer today? Does today’s worldwide expansion of schooling foster a global economic convergence? These questions need fresh…

Abstract

Does education still serve as a great equalizer today? Does today’s worldwide expansion of schooling foster a global economic convergence? These questions need fresh answers at this time of growing concern over inequality. Past studies have abundantly documented the effects of schooling on within-country inequality, but we know little about corresponding effects on between-country inequality. We fill this gap by drawing on two innovations. The first is to formulate a theory of global inequality that integrates international differences in both the quantity and quality of education. The second, methodological, innovation is to propose and apply a method for decomposing trends in global inequality in GDP in terms of five social forces that include the quantity and quality of schooling. Analyses focus on the 1990–2010 period. The results confirm the continued salience of education: Trends in education account for as much as 80% of the 1990–2010 decline in between-country GDP inequality. However, we find a declining significance of “quantity” over “quality.” In sum, education remains salient as a global equalizer but its salience increasingly depends on bridging international differences in school quality.

Details

Annual Review of Comparative and International Education 2019
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-724-4

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Emanuel Tamir and Sherry Ganon-Shilon

The study explores characteristics of strong school cultures through principals' exploitation of additional resources within implementation of a national reform.

Abstract

Purpose

The study explores characteristics of strong school cultures through principals' exploitation of additional resources within implementation of a national reform.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive approach was utilized to analyze qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 35 Israeli high school principals who implemented a national reform in state and religious-state schools from all school districts.

Findings

The article presents four types of cracking cultures led by the principals: (1) a school values-based culture, such as respect; (2) a caring culture based on trust and a positive atmosphere; (3) a maintenance achievement-oriented culture; and (4) a creative culture that supports the teachers and takes risks in using resources beyond their intended purpose.

Originality/value

Exploring principals' exploitation of resources within a cracking culture may promote school improvement and innovation during national reform implementation.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Bernardin Senadza

The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and extent of gender and spatial inequalities in educational attainment in Ghana.

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4229

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature and extent of gender and spatial inequalities in educational attainment in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the education Gini coefficient, computed on the basis of years of schooling of individuals, to assess education inequality in Ghana.

Findings

The paper finds evidence of gender and spatial inequality in education in Ghana. In particular, the three northern regions have lower education attainment as well as higher education Gini coefficients compared to the rest of the country. The paper finds evidence of intra‐gender and intra‐spatial inequalities in education attainment in Ghana, with females contributing proportionately more to the within‐inequality component of the education Gini. The paper also finds a positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality.

Research limitations/implications

The research finds a positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality but requires an econometric analysis to make inferences regarding causality.

Practical implications

The findings call for the design and implementation of policies not only to address between‐gender and spatial inequities in education in Ghana, but also to tackle within‐gender and within‐spatial inequalities. The positive correlation between poverty incidence and education inequality implies the need to create greater equity in educational opportunities across the country.

Social implications

The need for changes in attitudes, values and cultural practices that put girls at a disadvantage when it comes to education.

Originality/value

One important and new finding of the paper is the existence of intra‐gender and intra‐spatial inequalities in education attainment in Ghana, with females contributing proportionately more to the within‐inequality component of the education Gini.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 27 August 2016

Carlos Gradín

We investigate the reasons why income inequality is so high in Spain in the EU context. We first show that the differential in inequality with Germany and other countries…

Abstract

We investigate the reasons why income inequality is so high in Spain in the EU context. We first show that the differential in inequality with Germany and other countries is driven by inequality among households who participate in the labor market. Then, we conduct an analysis of different household income aggregates. We also decompose the inter-country gap in inequality into characteristics and coefficients effects using regressions of the Recentered Influence Function for the Gini index. Our results show that the higher inequality observed in Spain is largely associated with lower employment rates, higher incidence of self-employment, lower attained education, as well as the recent increase in the immigration of economically active households. However, the prevalence of extended families in Spain contributes to reducing inequality by diversifying income sources, with retirement pensions playing an important role. Finally, by comparing the situations in 2008 and 2012, we separate the direct effects of the Great Recession on employment and unemployment benefits, from other more permanent factors (such as the weak redistributive effect of taxes and family or housing allowances, or the roles of education and the extended family).

Details

Income Inequality Around the World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-943-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Rahmah Ismail

The poverty rate in Malaysia has dropped tremendously, whereas income inequality has followed an upward and downward trend. Beginning 1957/58 until 1990, Malaysia has…

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2146

Abstract

The poverty rate in Malaysia has dropped tremendously, whereas income inequality has followed an upward and downward trend. Beginning 1957/58 until 1990, Malaysia has completed one cycle of Kuznets Inverted‐U Hypothesis. However, since the 1990s income inequality is beginning to move upward again. One of the major concerned by the government in line to reduce poverty and income inequality is the role of education. Inequality in educational attainment may contribute inequality in income distribution. This paper attempts to analyze trend of income inequality and poverty in Malaysia. The main objectives of this paper are to look at the distribution of employment by educational status and the relationship between educational attainments amongst employees with income inequality.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2012

Wail Benaabdelaali, Saîd Hanchane and Abdelhak Kamal

This paper introduces a new quinquennial dataset of educational inequality disaggregated by age group for 146 countries, from 1950 to 2010, by using the Gini index of…

Abstract

This paper introduces a new quinquennial dataset of educational inequality disaggregated by age group for 146 countries, from 1950 to 2010, by using the Gini index of education as a measure of the distribution of years of schooling. Based on recent estimates of average years of schooling from Barro and Lee (2010), our calculations take into consideration, for the first time, the changes over time in the duration of educational stages, in each country and for each age group. The downward trends in educational inequality observed during the last decades depend on age group, gender, and development level.

Details

Inequality, Mobility and Segregation: Essays in Honor of Jacques Silber
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-171-7

Keywords

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