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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Mariano González-Delgado, Manuel Ferraz-Lorenzo and Cristian Machado-Trujillo

After World War II, an educational modernization process gained ground worldwide. International organizations such as UNESCO began to play a key role in the creation…

Abstract

Purpose

After World War II, an educational modernization process gained ground worldwide. International organizations such as UNESCO began to play a key role in the creation, development and dissemination of a new educational vision in different countries. This article examines the origin and development of this modernization process under the dictatorship of Franco. More specifically, we will show how the adoption of this conception in Spain must be understood from the perspective of the interaction between UNESCO and Franco's regime, and how the policies of the dictatorship converged with the proposals suggested by this international organization. Our principal argument is that the educational policies carried out in Spain throughout the second half of the 20th century can be better understood when inserted into a transnational perspective in education.

Design/methodology/approach

This article uses documents from archives that until now were unpublished or scarcely known. We have also analyzed materials published in the preeminent educational journals of the dictatorship, such as the Revista de Educación, Revista Española de Pedagogía, Bordón and Vida escolar, as well as documents published by the Spanish Ministry of National Education.

Findings

Franco's dictatorship built an educational narrative closely aligned with proposals put forward by UNESCO on educational planning after World War II. The educational policies created by the dictatorship were related to the new ideas that strove to link the educational system with economic and social development.

Originality/value

This article is inspired by a transnational history of education perspective. On the one hand, it traces the origins of educational modernization under Franco's regime, which represented a technocratic vision of education that is best understood as a result of the impact that international organizations had in the second half of the 20th century. On the other hand, it follows the intensifying relationship between the dictatorship and the educational ideas launched by UNESCO. Both aspects are little known and studied in Spain.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Elena P. Antonacopoulou, Christian Moldjord, Trygve J. Steiro and Christina Stokkeland

The purpose of this paper – PART II – is to present the lived experiences of Sensuous Organisational Learning drawn from the educational practices and learning culture of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper – PART II – is to present the lived experiences of Sensuous Organisational Learning drawn from the educational practices and learning culture of the Norwegian Defence University College, Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy’s (RNoAFA) approach to growing (Military) leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reflects the co-creation of actionable knowledge between military officers, academics at the RNoAFA and international scholars engaged as research collaborators. The objective is to present the benefits of “practising knowing through dialogical exchange” (MacIntosh et al., 2012) as an approach to co-creating knowledge for responsible action. In this case, the authors present the conceptualisation and illustration of the idea of the New Learning Organisation they advance.

Findings

The Sensuous Organisational Learning – 8As framework explains how Attentiveness, Alertness, Awareness, Appreciation, Anticipation, Alignment, Activation and Agility form an integral part of the educational strategy that enables the RNoAFA to respond to the wider Educational Reforms and Modernisation programme of Norwegian Defence. The RNoAFA is presented as an illustration of how the New Learning Organisation serves the common good if Institutional Reflexivity and High Agility Organising were key aspects of the Learning Leadership it fosters.

Research limitations/implications

Consistent with MacIntosh et al.’s (2012) dialogical exchanges the authors present the relational and intersubjective nature of meaningful dialogue between the co-authors that provides scope for integrative stories of practice. The resulting illustrative example of the New Learning Organisation, is an account of the learning experienced. Hence, this paper is presented neither as a traditional empirical paper nor as a self-disclosing or even auto-ethnographic account. Instead, it is one of a series of research outputs from innovative research collaboration between the authors all committed to “practising knowing”.

Practical implications

The New Learning Organisation promoted here focuses on responsible action to serve the common good. Investing in Institutional Reflexivity becomes critical in continuing to broaden the ways of being and becoming. As individuals, communities and organisations, that comprise the institution (in this case Norwegian Defence) grow and elevate their practical judgements to serve the common good the capacity to engage in reflexive critique heightens organisational agility and leadership.

Social implications

Embedding care as the essence of learning not only enables accepting mistakes and owning up to these mistakes, but reinforcing the strength of character in doing so demonstrating what it means to be resilient, flexible and ready to respond to the VUCA. This is what permits High Agility Organising to foster learning on an ongoing basis driving the commitment to continually renew operational and professional practices. By focussing on how the common good can be better served, the New Learning Organisation cares to pursue the higher purpose that social actions must serve.

Originality/value

Advancing leadership as a personal, relational and organisational quality supported by an orientation towards practising goes beyond single, double and triple loop learning. In doing so, the Learning Leadership that drives the New Learning Organisation energises Attentiveness, Alertness, Awareness, Appreciation, Anticipation, Alignment, Activation and Agility. This paper marks a new chapter in Organisational Learning research and practice by demonstrating the value of sensuousness as a foundation for improving the practical judgements across professional practices.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2010

Olga Bain

The chapter identifies and analyzes scholarly discourses that framed understanding of change and directed further reforms in post-socialist education over the past two…

Abstract

The chapter identifies and analyzes scholarly discourses that framed understanding of change and directed further reforms in post-socialist education over the past two decades. It discusses the origins of these discourses, their theoretical underpinnings, evolution, and cultural biases. The analysis of scholarly texts published on post-socialist education draws on methods of discourse analysis and utilizes the concept of sensemaking and the lens of translation to deconstruct how educational change is framed. Most of the identified discourses – restoration, importation, revolution and evolution, transformation and innovation, crisis and survival, glocalization, educational borrowing, system convergence, education for social transformation – originated outside either education or the post-socialist region itself in transitology studies, dependency theory, world system theory, and social reproduction theory. The resultant discourses carried over or challenged the underlying theoretical assumptions, exposed cultural sensitivity, or otherized the post-socialist region. The chapter identifies emerging scholarship that deconstructs framing of the same post-socialist educational phenomena. These emerging approaches reflect local and national searches for identity rather than global agendas. Contrary to the earlier prediction that with the end of the cold war, economic, political, and social institutions would converge into one monolithic world order, the chapter argues that the contemporary world today has come to display diversity, particularism, multiple voices, and the beginning of new histories. This study identifies emerging lines of research that look into the construction of meanings and expose cultural biases, while offering original conceptualization of two decades of scholarship on post-socialist educational change.

Details

Post-Socialism is not Dead: (Re)Reading the Global in Comparative Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-418-5

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Book part
Publication date: 12 July 2005

Diane Brook Napier

Most comparative education research has included investigation of dimensions of educational reform but not all research in the field has focused concertedly on reform in…

Abstract

Most comparative education research has included investigation of dimensions of educational reform but not all research in the field has focused concertedly on reform in relation to the realities in practice. In the latter half of the 20th century comparativists underscored the need to investigate implementation issues, not just reform policies, as had often been the case in earlier comparative research, since time had shown that political processes did not always equate with educational outcomes. Reforms can be thwarted altogether, significantly modified or mediated in practice, embraced with qualification, or differentially implemented across regions or levels within a given country. Reform implementation might produce intended and unintended change (for better or for worse); or no change at all might be the outcome; or change might occur ahead of reform. Some of the most fascinating findings in comparative research are dichotomous considerations of change such as policy versus practice, ideal versus real, de facto change versus de jure change, intended and unintended outcomes of reform, grass-roots (bottom–up) versus centralized (top–down) reforms, and de facto change legitimized-after-the-fact through reform or new policy.

Details

Global Trends in Educational Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-175-0

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Fatih Töremen, Mehmet Karakuş and Tezcan Yasan

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of total quality management (TQM) practices in primary schools based on teachers' perceptions, and how their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of total quality management (TQM) practices in primary schools based on teachers' perceptions, and how their perceptions are related to different variables.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a survey based descriptive scanning model was used. This study was carried out in Malatya city centre on teachers working at primary schools. Using stratified sampling method, 21 schools and 420 teachers working in these schools were selected randomly. A total of 396 of the questionnaires were validated and evaluated. A total of six‐dimensioned and a 60‐itemed questionnaire was administered to these teachers. Data were analysed by SPSS program.

Findings

In the perceptions of teachers, there were some problems with the indicators of TQM practices, especially on the dimension of change management. There were significant differences among teachers' perceptions on TQM practices depending upon the variables of branch, level of education and tenure, while there were no meaningful differences according to the gender variable.

Practical implications

The findings reveal the need for an effective change management, educating staff and utilizing human resources to attain a system‐wide quality improvement, to implement the principles of TQM.

Originality/value

Quality improvement is a continual process that should be taken up from the operational level to senior management. Primary schools, as the basic subsystem of educational super‐system, affect upper level schools with their outcomes. So TQM efforts at primary schools are fundamentally important to achieve a high quality education system. This paper sheds light on how to improve quality at this basic level.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2019

Aleksei V. Bogoviz, Svetlana V. Lobova, Alexander N. Alekseev, Vadim N. Prokofiev and Irina V. Gimelshtein

The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the perspectives and to develop recommendations for managing digital modernization of regional markets of educational services…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the perspectives and to develop recommendations for managing digital modernization of regional markets of educational services in the conditions of formation of Industry 4.0 by the example of modern Russia.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological basis of the research consists of the hypothetical and deductive method. The offered hypothesis of the necessity for decentralization of managing digital modernization of regional markets of educational services in the conditions of formation of Industry 4.0 is verified with the help of a complex of methods of economic statistics (econometrics), namely, the method of regression analysis and analysis of variation. The research objects are regions of modern Russia that are peculiar for the highest level of scientific and technological development (top 15 of 83 regions at the beginning of 2019), which shows their largest progress in formation of Industry 4.0. The information and empirical basis of the research consists of the materials of the report on human development in the Russian Federation “Human and Innovations”, prepared by the Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation (values of the education index are taken from it), and analytical materials of the rating “Level of Development of Science and Technologies in Regions of Russia” as a result of 2018, prepared by Ria rating (values of the index of scientific and technological development are taken from it).

Findings

It is determined that regional specifics are not sufficiently considered during management of modernization of regional markets of educational services in the conditions of formation of Industry 4.0 in modern Russia. This reduces efficiency of managing digital modernization of regional markets of educational services and leads to the fact that these markets do not perform their function of infrastructural provision of Industry 4.0, slowing down the process of its formation.

Originality/value

The necessity for managing modernization of the markets of educational services in the conditions of formation of Industry 4.0 at the regional level, in view of specifics of the regional economy, is substantiated. For this, a conceptual model and recommendations for its practical application in modern Russia are offered.

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Chunjiao Jiang and Pengcheng Mao

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Si-shu, a traditional form of local, private education grounded in classical instruction, responded to the rapid modernization

Abstract

Purpose:

The purpose of this paper is to examine how Si-shu, a traditional form of local, private education grounded in classical instruction, responded to the rapid modernization of education during the late Qing dynasty and early Republic of China and to explain why these schools, once extraordinarily adaptable, finally disappeared.

Design/methodology/approach:

The authors have examined both primary and secondary sources, including government reports, education yearbooks, professional annals, public archives, and published research to analyze the social, political and institutional changes that reshaped Si-shu in the context of China's late-19th- and early-20th-century educational modernization.

Findings:

Si-shu went through four stages of institutional change during the last century. First, they faced increased competition from new-style (westernized) schools during the late Qing dynasty. Second, they engaged in a process of intense self-reform, particularly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Third, they were marginalized by the new educational systems of the Republic of China, especially the Renxu School System of 1922 and the Wuchen School System of 1928. Finally, after the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949, they were considered remnants of feudal culture and forcibly replaced by modern schools.

Originality/value:

This paper brings hitherto unexplored Chinese sources to an English-speaking audience in an effort to shed new light on the history of traditional Chinese education. The fate of Si-shu was part of the larger modernization of Chinese education – a development that had both advantages and disadvantages.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

Daniel Kirk and Diane Napier

In recent years, interest in educational issues in the Muslim world has grown rapidly. This interest runs parallel with a media-led exploration of all things Muslim and…

Abstract

In recent years, interest in educational issues in the Muslim world has grown rapidly. This interest runs parallel with a media-led exploration of all things Muslim and the ideas that are fundamental to the tenets of Islam. This trend in examining the educational issues that exist in countries that are predominantly Islamic in history, culture, and belief, is part of a wider awareness of the educational elements of a globalized system of commerce, communication, education, and modernization. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has embraced many facets of globalization, striving to become a regional power and a new financial and commercial hub in the Middle East and a high-tech center in a globally oriented society. Along with other Arab nations, the UAE has recognized the strategic role played by education in national development and modernization.

Details

Gender, Equality and Education from International and Comparative Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-094-0

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Anastasia A. Sozinova, Aleksei A. Nabokikh, Aleksandra V. Ryattel and Marina A. Sanovich

The purpose of this paper is to determine the perspectives and to adapt the analysis of “underdevelopment whirlpools” to the current needs of state management of digital…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the perspectives and to adapt the analysis of “underdevelopment whirlpools” to the current needs of state management of digital modernization of the regional market of educational services in the aspect of determination and assessment of its disproportions as a tool of managing the regional market of education and managing the process of reorganization of regional universities in the conditions of transition to Industry 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of “underdevelopment whirlpools”, adapted by the authors to the specifics of the regional market of educational services, is used. The statistical basis for this paper includes the information and analytical materials as a result of monitoring the effectiveness of activities of educational organizations of higher education and the materials of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation.

Findings

“Underdevelopment whirlpools” of the Kirov branch of St. Petersburg University of the Humanities and Social Sciences are analyzed, and reorganization of this university is recommended. “Underdevelopment whirlpools” in Kirov Oblast are analyzed, and an increase of regulation of this market is recommended.

Originality/value

It is substantiated that the method of analysis of “underdevelopment whirlpools” could be a tool of managing the regional educational market and managing the process of reorganization of regional universities in the conditions of transition to Industry 4.0. The advantage of analysis of “underdevelopment whirlpools”, as compared to the existing similar methods of assessment of disproportions in the development of the regional market of educational services (e.g. comparative analysis and plan-fact analysis), is the possibility not only to evaluate the static underrun from the model/plan but also to study its dynamics (depth and speed of sucking into “underdevelopment whirlpool”), which allows achieving high precision of the results of assessment.

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2019

Aleksei V. Bogoviz, Svetlana V. Lobova, Marina V. Karp, Evgeny V. Vologdin and Alexander N Alekseev

The purpose of the paper is to determine the perspectives of diversification of educational services in the conditions of industry 4.0 on the basis of artificial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to determine the perspectives of diversification of educational services in the conditions of industry 4.0 on the basis of artificial intelligence (AI) training, determine the consequences of this process for academic and teaching staff and to develop recommendations for its practical implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

The methods of horizontal, trends and regression analysis are used for studying social consequences of digital modernization of the markets of higher education (for academic and teaching staff). The research is performed by the example of modern Russia on the basis of the statistical data of Federal State Statistics Service and the International Telecommunication Union. The timeframe of the research covers academic years 2000/2001-2018/2019.

Findings

It is determined that digital modernization of the sphere of higher education stimulates the reduction of the universities’ need for academic and teaching staff and growth of their unemployment. However, further digital modernization of economy on the basis of breakthrough technologies of industry 4.0 will lead to creation of a new type of educational services that are provided within entrepreneurship of universities – AI training of business. This will ensure development of university entrepreneurship (and reduction of dependence of universities on state financing), as well as growth of the employment opportunities for experts (academic and teaching staff) in the sphere of AI, which will not depend on the number of students, but will be connected to demand for AI training from digital business.

Originality/value

The role of AI training in the structure of production business processes of a university in the conditions of industry 4.0 is determined. The necessity for state stimulation of development of digital business in the modern economic systems is substantiated. It is shown that government has to pay close attention to the issues of support in the sphere of AI and mass distribution of their results. Because of this, it will be possible to control social risks in the sphere of higher education.

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