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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

J. Augusto Felício, Eduardo Couto and Jorge Caiado

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the human capital and social capital of managers and the influence of these attributes on the performance of small and medium-sized…

8601

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the human capital and social capital of managers and the influence of these attributes on the performance of small and medium-sized Portuguese companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The structural modeling approach was applied to a sample of 199 small and medium-sized companies aged between 3 and 15 years, from five different sectors of activity.

Findings

It was found that human capital affects social capital, and that experience and cognitive ability influence personal relations and complicity. Organizational performance is strongly influenced by human capital through the cognitive ability of the manager.

Practical implications

Based on these findings managers can gain a better knowledge about how to improve the performance of their firms, for example through adjustments in communication methods or strategic decision capacities.

Originality/value

This work is innovative in the sense that it confirms the influence of human capital on social capital, and shows that it is cognitive ability that affects organizational performance.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Fernando Luiz Abrucio, Eduardo Grin and Catarina Ianni Segatto

Brazilian federalism was important in the political game of combating the pandemic for three reasons. First, Brazil's public health system depends heavily on…

Abstract

Brazilian federalism was important in the political game of combating the pandemic for three reasons. First, Brazil's public health system depends heavily on intergovernmental relations between Union, states, and municipalities because there is a policy portfolio based on federative cooperation. Second, the subnational governments' autonomy to act against COVID-19 was constantly questioned by the Federal Government – the conflict between the President and governors was a key piece in all health policy. Finally, states and local governments were primarily responsible for policies to fight against pandemic, but the absence and/or wrong measures taken by the Federal Government (such as the delay in purchasing vaccines) generated intergovernmental incoordination, increased territorial inequality, and reduced the effectiveness of subnational public policies, especially those linked to social isolation. In this context, Brazilian federalism played a dual role in the pandemic. On the one hand, the federative structure partially succeeded in averting an even worse scenario, mitigating the impact of mistaken presidential decisions. The role of subnational governments, especially of the states, was critical as a counterweight to federal decisions. On the other hand, the President actively acted against governors and mayors and, above all, sought to weaken intergovernmental articulations within the Unified Health System (SUS), the federative model designed three decades ago. One could say that the federative actors, such as the Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal – STF) and subnational governments, were the main obstacles for the Bolsonarist antiscientific agenda. The success of this reaction to President Bolsonaro's negationist populism was partial, but the results of the fight against COVID-19 would have been much worse without these federalist barriers.

Abstract

Details

American Federal Systems and COVID-19
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-166-3

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Eduardo Kunzel Teixeira, Mirian Oliveira and Carla Curado

This paper aims to analyse the relationship between knowledge management processes and innovation (KM-IN) in Brazilian and Portuguese companies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the relationship between knowledge management processes and innovation (KM-IN) in Brazilian and Portuguese companies.

Design/methodology/approach

The tests were performed using a sequential mixed-method approach. Quantitative analysis was conducted using 341 observations from Brazilian and Portuguese companies and partial least squares techniques. Qualitative analysis was conducted using ten interviews and content analysis techniques.

Findings

Results showed differences between Brazilian and Portuguese companies with respect to the relationship between knowledge sharing process and innovation. Portuguese companies cope with the geographical dispersal of operations and the lack of interpersonal skills by introducing formal knowledge sharing processes.

Practical implications

Findings demonstrate that the transfer of knowledge processes to foreign countries may demand adjustments according to cultural traits. Specifically, the findings will be of interest to firms intending to expand their activities between Brazil and Portugal.

Originality/value

Although researchers have investigated the influence of the national context in many countries, country comparisons are still scarce.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 March 2017

Barbara de Lima Voss, David Bernard Carter and Bruno Meirelles Salotti

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…

Abstract

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.

Details

Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management: Social and Environmental Accounting in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-376-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Mauro Boianovsky

Paul Samuelson was attracted to the irregular economic development pattern of some South American countries because of the links between economic performance and political

Abstract

Paul Samuelson was attracted to the irregular economic development pattern of some South American countries because of the links between economic performance and political factors. He discussed the influence of “populist democracy” on Argentina’s relative economic stagnation, which, he argued in the 1970s and early 1980s, served as a dangerous paradigm for the American economy under stagflation. Stagflation phenomena marked the end of Samuelson’s “neoclassical synthesis.” Moreover, he applied his concept of “capitalist fascism” to deal with military dictatorships in Brazil and (especially) in Chile. The Brazilian translation of his Economics in 1973 brought about a correspondence with Brazilian economists about the “fascist” features of the regime. The main variable behind the South American economic and politically unstable processes discussed by Samuelson was economic inequality, which became also a conspicuous feature of the American economy since the adoption of market-based policies in the 1980s and after.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Selection of Papers Presented at the 2019 ALAHPE Conference
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-140-2

Keywords

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the risks associated with managing the dispersed knowledge in inter-organizational arrangements for innovation. Specifically, it proposes a model to analyze the knowledge management risks in open innovation, applied in four steps.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, the authors carried out a systematic literature review (SLR) on the concepts that connect knowledge management, inter-organizational arrangements for innovation and risks. The SLR results led to a complementary theoretical review on the conceptual elements in question. Based on the findings, the authors have developed a model to analyze the knowledge management risks in open innovation, which was validated by experts. It was then studied the case of GOL Airlines, a company that uses innovation to overcome the paradox between low-cost and full service in the commercial air transportation industry, considering the application and adjustment of the proposed model.

Findings

Open innovation is one of the inter-organizational arrangement types most applied in the context of innovation. Relations between agents are the primary sources of risks when managing the dispersed knowledge in these arrangements. The authors have found five main risks associated, namely, risk of the innovative effort does not reach the expected objective, risk of knowledge transfer being ineffective, risk of misappropriation of value, risk of dependency (lock-in) and risk of relations.

Practical implications

The practical implication is the proposition of a procedure for applying the model to analyze the knowledge management risks in open innovation, which makes it a prescriptive model for identifying risks. The proposed model is described in four steps, namely, to identify the agents in the environment of the value of open innovation; to identify the types of relations of each agent; to consider the barriers to knowledge management in innovation; and to assess the risks considering the possibilities derived from the agents, their relationships and the barriers. The model is applied in the GOL case and the results are presented.

Originality/value

First, it uses a novel approach to investigate open innovation while studying its risks. This approach considers the knowledge is dispersed and flows from one organization to another through a combination of relations inside the environment of value where the open innovation materializes. Second, it contributes to theory development by opening a research front that fuses four areas: risk management, knowledge management, innovation and inter-organizational arrangements. Third, this paper proposes a theoretical model and presents its operationalization. The study aims to make an impact beyond academia and uses a case study to illustrate the model application in a real and interesting open innovation project to support the business model at GOL Airlines.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2019

Carlos Eduardo de Almeida Ramoa, Luiz Carlos da Silva Flores and Felix Bernhard Herle

In a systemic approach, a ship is a system in which people and organizations interact directly and indirectly in all processes from construction, during the route and at…

Abstract

Purpose

In a systemic approach, a ship is a system in which people and organizations interact directly and indirectly in all processes from construction, during the route and at the destination, throughout its useful life, until eventual scrapping or disposal process. The purpose of this paper is to take on the UN 2030 Agenda ‒ Goal 14 to propose a management model that meets environmental guidelines for assessing impacts caused by the cruise ships.

Design/methodology/approach

To verify the proposed model, a quantitative survey using non-probability purposive sampling was conducted among ports, environmental sustainability experts and ocean cruise companies. The empirical data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling.

Findings

Findings have confirmed five environmental requirements that shipping companies must manage on their cruise ships to meet Goal 14: input management, waste management, air quality, energy management and water management. Adopting and disseminating sustainable development models provides transparent information about actions taken and results of environmental management, and it may change the perception of the organization’s image, which is relevant to win and maintain environment-friendly customers, adding intangible value to the tourism product.

Research limitations/implications

One of the limitations of the study is the research sample, especially ocean cruise companies, which can have biased results, as they are potential sources of environmental impacts. However, this was not the case, since the answers were similar to those of the other two groups surveyed.

Originality/value

The originality of the study is justified by researchers who argue that information provided by shipping companies on sustainability is very limited, as according to previous research, the convergence between strategy formulation model and environmental sustainability as a principle to be incorporated into the management of oceangoing vessels has not been studied.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Leonardo Augusto de Vasconcelos Gomes, Aline Mariane de Faria, Felipe Mendes Borini, Ximena Alejandra Flechas Chaparro, Matheus Graciani dos Santos and Guilherme Soares Gurgel Amaral

Accessing and sharing dispersed knowledge in ecosystems is neither easy nor automatic. In ecosystems, focal firms should purposely create the right conditions and act to…

Abstract

Purpose

Accessing and sharing dispersed knowledge in ecosystems is neither easy nor automatic. In ecosystems, focal firms should purposely create the right conditions and act to deal with dispersed knowledge. This study aims to investigate how focal firms manage dispersed knowledge in ecosystems characterized by a set of autonomous, heterogeneous, yet interdependent actors involved in experimentation under uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a conceptual framework based on preceding literature, this study conducted a broad qualitative case study of 6 firms and 12 projects, with 43 semi-structured interviews to identify the patterns of actions associated with dispersed knowledge management (KM) in ecosystems. This paper combines coding and multiple case comparisons to examine the processes and strategies used by the firms to strategically manage dispersed knowledge in ecosystems.

Findings

This paper proposes a framework that articulates a new type of orchestration (dispersed knowledge orchestration) and offers a new set of dispersed knowledge strategies (transfer, modularity and circular) for ecosystems.

Practical implications

Innovation and knowledge managers play the roles of dispersed knowledge orchestrators. The study offers guidance on how focal firms should carefully use a particular set of approaches (e.g. integrative theorization) including a portfolio of dispersed knowledge strategies in ecosystems.

Originality/value

Current literature on KM and ecosystem management offers a limited understanding of how organizations manage dispersed knowledge in ecosystems. The research provides three major original contributions. First, the framework contributes to broadening the current understanding of ecosystem orchestration by identifying the micro-foundations of dispersed knowledge orchestration: integrative theorization, nurturing distributed sensemaking and a new chapter for ecosystem governance (i.e. dispersed knowledge governance). Moreover, the framework proposes a new type of strategy, the dispersed knowledge strategy. Finally, by exploring the interplay between the micro-foundations of dispersed knowledge orchestration and dispersed knowledge strategy, the results contribute to a multi-level approach in the field.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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