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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Edmund R. Gray and Larry R. Smeltzer

A good image can help strengthen sales and enhance a company's ability to obtain financing. It is vital to keep one's corporate image from becoming outdated.

Abstract

A good image can help strengthen sales and enhance a company's ability to obtain financing. It is vital to keep one's corporate image from becoming outdated.

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Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

John M.T. Balmer and Edmund R. Gray

Recent environmental trends are forcing senior managers to give greater import to corporate identity and corporate communications. They are discovering that conventional…

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14818

Abstract

Recent environmental trends are forcing senior managers to give greater import to corporate identity and corporate communications. They are discovering that conventional methods of redressing identity problems are becoming progressively less effective because, in our opinion, the traditional focus has viewed corporate identity and corporate communications as functional rather than as strategic. We suggest a much broadened view that looks at corporate communications as a three‐part system process – primary, secondary, and tertiary. In many companies these three are out of balance. Primary communication should present a positive image of the company and set the stage for a strong reputation. Secondary communication should be designed to support and reinforce primary communication. Tertiary communications should be positive and result in a superior reputation if the other two stages of corporate communication are properly conceived. The authors postulate that senior managers who implement this can invest their organisation with a competitive advantage.

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Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

David Y. Choi and Edmund R. Gray

The purpose of this paper is to examine the venture development processes (or “entrepreneurial processes”) of “sustainable” entrepreneurs, i.e. entrepreneurs who create…

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4506

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the venture development processes (or “entrepreneurial processes”) of “sustainable” entrepreneurs, i.e. entrepreneurs who create and build profitable companies that also pursue environmental or social causes. The paper aims to find how these mission‐oriented entrepreneurs achieve their business objectives while serving their social and environmental causes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies 21 successful sustainable entrepreneurial companies in various industries ranging from apparel to biotechnology that were exemplary in their pursuit for sustainability. The paper examined their key decisions and activities in their “entrepreneurial process”, collecting most of the relevant information from published or self‐developed case studies.

Findings

The paper finds that most of sustainable entrepreneurs are an unusual breed with limited business backgrounds. Most obtain financing from non‐conventional sources and employ unorthodox, yet sound human resource management practices. They are shrewd in their marketing strategies and effective in running efficient, environmentally sound operations. Also, they find innovative methods for balancing their financial goals against their objectives of making a difference in their environment and society.

Practical implications

The paper's findings help demystify and provide some insights into how values‐oriented entrepreneurs and their companies can simultaneously meet economic, social and/or environmental objectives.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few studies that examine the business practices of for‐profit, sustainability‐oriented entrepreneurs. It is also one of the few formal studies that identify commonalities among a relatively large and diverse sample of companies. Most important, this research suggests practical guidelines for aspiring entrepreneurs to follow as they build their sustainable business ventures.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

John M.T. Balmer and Edmund R. Gray

This article examines the nature, importance, typology, and management of corporate brands. Argues that in making a distinction between corporate brands, corporate…

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39018

Abstract

This article examines the nature, importance, typology, and management of corporate brands. Argues that in making a distinction between corporate brands, corporate identities, and product brands, the underlying characteristics of corporate brands can be uncovered. A key thesis of the article is that a corporate brand is a valuable resource: one that provides an entity with a sustainable, competitive advantage if specific criteria are met. These criteria are defined in terms of an economic theory known as “the resource‐based view of the firm”. An affirmation of this economic doctrine requires corporate brands to be rare, durable, inappropriable, imperfectly imitable, and imperfectly substitutable. Also contends that the traditional tripartite, branding typology be expanded to reflect the new modes in which corporate brands are being utilised. These new corporate branding categories are: familial, shared, surrogate, supra, multiplex, and federal. Finally, reasons that the management of a corporate brand requires the orchestration of six “identity types”. The critical identity type is the “covenanted identity” because it underpins the corporate brand. The covenanted identity comprises a set of expectations relating to an organisation's products/services and activities. Internally, it acts as a standard against which an employee/employer's actions can be evaluated. Argues that employees are crucial to the success, and maintenance, of corporate brands. Speculates that the current interest in corporate brands is redolent of a new dynamic in marketing. As such, corporate brands are symptomatic of the increased importance accorded to corporate‐level concerns and concepts. This interest in corporate‐level concerns should form the basis of a new branch of marketing: one that weft and weaves the concepts of corporate identity, image, reputation, communications along with corporate branding. The article concurs with Balmer and Greyser who argue that this area should be known as corporate‐level‐marketing.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 37 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

John M.T. Balmer and Edmund R. Gray

Recent environmental trends are forcing senior managers to give greater import to corporate identity and corporate communications. They are discovering that conventional…

Downloads
24913

Abstract

Recent environmental trends are forcing senior managers to give greater import to corporate identity and corporate communications. They are discovering that conventional methods of redressing identity problems are becoming progressively less effective because, in our opinion, the traditional focus has viewed corporate identity and corporate communication as functional rather than as strategic. We suggest a much broadened view that looks at corporate communication as a three‐part system process – primary, secondary and tertiary. In many companies these three are out of balance. Primary communication should present a positive image of the company and set the stage for a strong reputation. Secondary communication should be designed to support and reinforce primary communication. Tertiary communication should be positive and result in a superior reputation if the other two stages of corporate communication are properly conceived. The authors postulate that senior managers who implement this can invest their organisation with a competitive advantage.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Cathleen A. McGrath, Larry E. Pate, Edmund R. Gray and Charles M. Vance

The purpose of this article is to examine the nature and influence of entrepreneurs' advice networks on the innovative performance of their companies from both economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the nature and influence of entrepreneurs' advice networks on the innovative performance of their companies from both economic and social perspectives. Specifically, it aims to address three research questions: Does information typically flow both ways in advice dyads? How important is trust in these relationships? What is the ideal structure of an advice network?

Design/methodology/approach

As part of a larger study, executives at 20 entrepreneurial software companies in the Greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, region of the USA were interviewed in person to determine the nature and structure of their advice networks.

Findings

The executives reported sharing business and technical advice with their contacts, both within and outside of their own organizations. Entrepreneurs who maintained diverse, uncommonly connected advice networks led organizations that were perceived as more innovative than those with more densely connected networks.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should examine these research questions in economic and cultural settings outside the USA, and examine the influence of advice‐network size and different network environments on advice‐network value and productivity.

Practical implications

Entrepreneurs should be careful to not take trust in these networks lightly.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurs may be able to leverage their advice networks for maximum innovation by adding new advice contacts not connected to their current advice contacts. Entrepreneurs should be careful to not take trust in these networks lightly.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Larry E. Pate

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301

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2013

Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez

Purpose – This chapter provides a theoretical and conceptual overview of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is written as a descriptive document to enhance the…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter provides a theoretical and conceptual overview of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is written as a descriptive document to enhance the understanding of CSR within the context of international business.Design/methodology/approach – This chapter is built based on an extensive literature review.Findings – This chapter contains six subsections. The first subsection looks at the concept of CSR, and it highlights the possible role of CSR in mitigating the negative consequences of globalisation. The second subsection looks at the evolution of CSR since the 1990s. The third section looks at ethics theories. The fourth section looks at political theories to explain CSR. The fifth section looks at the business case for CSR. And finally the sixth section looks at specific CSR initiatives.Practical implications – This chapter provides a response to the necessity for this analysis that arises from the effects of CSR actions in international business.Originality/value of chapter – This chapter provides a summary of the conceptual and theoretical framework of CSR. It could be used as a teaching tool for undergraduate and masters’ courses on either international business or corporate social responsibility.

Details

International Business, Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-625-5

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Anna Blombäck and Olof Brunninge

This paper seeks to uncover why and how the combination of family and company history in family businesses implies idiosyncratic opportunities in the process to uncover…

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2265

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to uncover why and how the combination of family and company history in family businesses implies idiosyncratic opportunities in the process to uncover, activate, and nurture heritage‐based corporate identities and brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion is specifically informed by the literatures on brand heritage, family business, and the notion of hybrid identities. To illustrate this typology of history communication in family businesses the paper relies on web site observations in Sweden and German‐based family businesses.

Findings

Based on the construct of brand heritage, the paper clarifies why the entwinement of family and business provides fertile ground for brand heritage. The presentation of a typology of ways to communicate family, business and family business history respectively further reveals the varying openings and practices of family businesses in this area.

Research limitations/implications

The paper primarily takes an external marketing orientation and is conceptual.

Practical implications

The distinction of two sources of brand heritage in family businesses and the typology of approaches to reflect history in corporate communications should be of interest for practitioners. The findings can serve as an eye‐opener and instrument in the planning of strategic marketing.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on brand heritage and heritage branding from a family business perspective. Being hybrid identity organizations, characterized by entwinement of family and company history, family businesses offer particular perspectives to the heritage brand discussion.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1900

There are very few individuals who have studied the question of weights and measures who do not most strongly favour the decimal system. The disadvantages of the weights…

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70

Abstract

There are very few individuals who have studied the question of weights and measures who do not most strongly favour the decimal system. The disadvantages of the weights and measures at present in use in the United Kingdom are indeed manifold. At the very commencement of life the schoolboy is expected to commit to memory the conglomerate mass of facts and figures which he usually refers to as “Tables,” and in this way the greater part of twelve months is absorbed. And when he has so learned them, what is the result? Immediately he leaves school he forgets the whole of them, unless he happens to enter a business‐house in which some of them are still in use; and it ought to be plain that the case would be very different were all our weights and measures divided or multiplied decimally. Instead of wasting twelve months, the pupil would almost be taught to understand the decimal system in two or three lessons, and so simple is the explanation that he would never be likely to forget it. There is perhaps no more interesting, ingenious and useful example of the decimal system than that in use in France. There the standard of length is the metre, the standard of capacity the cubic decimetre or the litre, while one cubic centimetre of distilled water weighs exactly one gramme, the standard of weight. Thus the measures of length, capacity and weight are most closely and usefully related. In the present English system there is absolutely no relationship between these weights and measures. Frequently a weight or measure bearing the same name has a different value for different bodies. Take, for instance, the stone; for dead meat its value is 8 pounds, for live meat 14 pounds; and other instances will occur to anyone who happens to remember his “Tables.” How much simpler for the business man to reckon in multiples of ten for everything than in the present confusing jumble. Mental arithmetic in matters of buying and selling would become much easier, undoubtedly more accurate, and the possibility of petty fraud be far more remote, because even the most dense could rapidly calculate by using the decimal system.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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