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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Whitney Botsford Morgan, Johnathan Nelson, Eden B. King and Victor S. Mancini

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) gender stereotypicality, and to consider whether despite efforts to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) gender stereotypicality, and to consider whether despite efforts to systematically evaluate employees through formalized performance appraisal processes, gender-stereotypic bias is likely to enter into performance management systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 used archival data from 197 federal employees to explore actual punishment recommendations allocated to men and women who engaged in a variety of CWBs. Study 2 tested the causal effect of gender stereotypicality on punishment recommendations with 47 EMBA students who participated in a laboratory study.

Findings

Study 1 revealed an interaction between appellant gender and CWB stereotypicality with regard to termination decisions suggesting that women who engage in stereotypical (i.e. feminine) CWBs and men who engage in stereotypical (i.e. masculine) CWBs are more likely to be terminated than women and men who engage in gender counter-stereotypic CWB. Study 2 revealed that women (not men) tended to receive harsher punishment recommendations for stereotypical (i.e. feminine) CWB than for counter-stereotypical (i.e. masculine) CWB.

Practical implications

Findings illustrate that punishments are not universally extreme, as men and women are denigrated differentially depending on the stereotypicality of their behavior. The current research affirms that there are social constructions for evaluating performance that may continue to confound evaluations of performance.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to explore the gendered nature of CWB and supports the argument that prescriptive gender stereotypes shape reactions to CWBs.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Dov Eden

Pygmalion and charisma are mutually compatible leadership constructs that beg integration. They share some basic assumptions about human nature, about how leaders lead…

Abstract

Pygmalion and charisma are mutually compatible leadership constructs that beg integration. They share some basic assumptions about human nature, about how leaders lead, and about how they could lead more effectively. Nevertheless, for the most part these constructs are discussed in disparate academic literatures. The present treatise integrates these somewhat divergent yet partially overlapping approaches to leadership and management. The differences between Pygmalion and charismatic leadership, and the commonalities that they share, are explicated. The aim is to understand better how leaders affect followers and how they can exert their influence with greater effectiveness. Some ideas for further research and for more effective management practice based on integration of Pygmalion and charisma constructs are presented. The result is a description of “charismatic Pygmalion,” an integrated management style that embodies both leadership constructs.

Details

Leadership Now: Reflections on the Legacy of Boas Shamir
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-200-0

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Ho Kwan Cheung, Eden King, Alex Lindsey, Ashley Membere, Hannah M. Markell and Molly Kilcullen

Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace…

Abstract

Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace discrimination remains a persistent problem in organizations. This chapter provides a comprehensive review and analysis of contemporary theory and evidence on the nature, causes, and consequences of discrimination before synthesizing potential methods for its reduction. We note the strengths and weaknesses of this scholarship and highlight meaningful future directions. In so doing, we hope to both inform and inspire organizational and scholarly efforts to understand and eliminate workplace discrimination.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-263-7

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Eden B. King and Whitney E. Botsford

The purpose of this report is to highlight an important set of papers that address strategies for reducing discrimination that were presented at the Society for Industrial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this report is to highlight an important set of papers that address strategies for reducing discrimination that were presented at the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP)'s annual conference.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper summarizes four papers from the SIOP conference that dealt explicitly with methods that individuals and organizations can take to avoid or reduce prejudice and discrimination.

Findings

Each paper provided empirical evidence of the existence of discrimination, as well as unique strategies for its reduction.

Practical implications

This report underscores the need for individuals and organizations, as well as researchers and practitioners, to work toward breaking down systems of privilege that legitimize discrimination.

Originality/value

The 2007 SIOP conference overall, and this set of presentations in particular, contributed critical new evidence that should guide research and practice regarding the equitable management of diversity in organizations.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Isaac Sabat, Alex Lindsey and Eden King

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals experience institutionalized prejudice within society and in their working lives. This prejudice increases the stress that…

Abstract

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals experience institutionalized prejudice within society and in their working lives. This prejudice increases the stress that these individuals experience within the workplace. Thus, in this chapter, we outline the mechanisms of LGB-workplace stress, detailing the antecedents, outcomes, and strategies to remediate this form of stress. We first outline theoretical conceptualizations of workplace stress before explaining how sexual orientation minorities experience additional workplace stressors due to their specific, stigmatized identities. Then, we explain how the stressors of formal discrimination, interpersonal discrimination, stigma consciousness, internalized heterosexism, concealment, and social isolation each contribute to workplace stress and ultimately health and workplace outcomes. Finally, we discuss several strategies that organizations, stigmatized individuals, and allies can engage in to prevent and cope with each of these LGB-related workplace stressors. In so doing, this chapter encourages researchers and practitioners to continue to develop more comprehensive and effective strategies to combat the negative outcomes experienced by these and all other stigmatized employees, thereby promoting more healthy and inclusive organizations.

Details

The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Katherine M. Ryan, Eden B. King and Lisa M. Finkelstein

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of age-related stereotyping processes on younger workers’ mood, attitudes, and impression management behaviors at work.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of age-related stereotyping processes on younger workers’ mood, attitudes, and impression management behaviors at work.

Design/methodology/approach

Using survey data from 281 younger workers, the hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

As younger workers are more self-conscious about being age stereotyped, they are less likely to be satisfied with older co-workers, which is partly explained by negative mood associated with that metastereotype consciousness. Also, chronological age, age-group identification, and age prejudice, were critical influences on the emergence of metastereotype consciousness.

Research limitations/implications

Unexpected findings point to: experiences of younger workers which may not follow the same patterns found with older groups and unique operation of age as a dynamic social category that may not parallel findings regarding other social categories.

Practical implications

There is clearly potential for younger workers to be concerned they are viewed “stereotypically” and this metastereotype consciousness influences how they feel, think, and behave at work. Organizations should be aware of the potential antecedents and consequences, as well as the nature of metastereotypic perceptions, to better facilitate positive and productive interactions across age groups at work.

Originality/value

This research contributes to an understanding of younger workers’ experiences at work, highlights the role of mood in the operation of metastereotypes on attitudes and behaviors in age-diverse contexts, and improves our understanding of social biases and inequality associated with age-based groups.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Eden B. King

The current report is intended to provide a narrow, brief summery of research presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The current report is intended to provide a narrow, brief summery of research presented at the annual conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology regarding women in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The conference, which broadly seeks to inform the science and practice of human well‐being and performance in organizations and draws thousands of participants from academic, consulting, and government agencies, included over 35 symposia, posters, and meetings related to diversity in organizations.

Findings

Research presented provided empirical evidence that women continue to face subtle forms of discrimination and that there are consequences for such women and their employing organizations.

Research limitations/implications

More multidisciplinary theory and research is needed to identify and develop effective strategies for the reduction of gender discrimination and the achievement of equal opportunities for men and women.

Originality/value

In summary, the SIOP conference continues serves as an incubator for research and practice regarding diversity in organizations. In particular, this year's meeting contributors provided empirical evidence that subtle discrimination toward women in organizations persists and that perceptions of bias can lead to negative attitudes and behaviors.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Kristen Jones, Kathy Stewart, Eden King, Whitney Botsford Morgan, Veronica Gilrane and Kimberly Hylton

Previous research demonstrates the damaging effects of hostile sexism enacted towards women in the workplace. However, there is less research on the consequences of…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research demonstrates the damaging effects of hostile sexism enacted towards women in the workplace. However, there is less research on the consequences of benevolent sexism: a subjectively positive form of discrimination. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing from ambivalent sexism theory, the authors first utilized an experimental methodology in which benevolent and hostile sexism were interpersonally enacted toward both male and female participants.

Findings

Results suggested that benevolent sexism negatively impacted participants' self-efficacy in mixed-sex interactions. Extending these findings, the results of a second field study clarify self-efficacy as a mediating mechanism in the relationship between benevolent sexism and workplace performance.

Originality/value

Finally, benevolent sexism contributed incremental prediction of performance above and beyond incivility, further illustrating the detrimental consequences of benevolently sexist attitudes towards women in the workplace.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2008

Eden B. King, Seth Kaplan and Steve Zaccaro

In this chapter, we theorize that metaperceptions (beliefs about how one is viewed by others) derived from social identity categories will influence intrapersonal…

Abstract

In this chapter, we theorize that metaperceptions (beliefs about how one is viewed by others) derived from social identity categories will influence intrapersonal processing and resultant member interaction patterns in diverse work groups. In turn, such patterns of interactions will affect the quality of emergent states within diverse groups, ultimately impacting group-level outcomes. We will extend previous work in this area by examining the formation, nature, and consequences of metaperceptions in workgroups within which individuals vary with regard to social identities. In addition, we will describe the implications of metaperceptions for the effective leadership of diverse groups.

Details

Diversity and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-053-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Ann Hergatt Huffman, Kristine J. Olson, Thomas C. O’Gara Jr and Eden B. King

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the part that gender roles play in fathers’ work-family experiences. The authors compared two models (gender role as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the part that gender roles play in fathers’ work-family experiences. The authors compared two models (gender role as a correlate and as a moderator) and hypothesized that gender role beliefs play an important factor related to fathers’ experiences of work-family conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants completed an online survey that consisted of questions related to work and family experiences. The final sample consisted of 264 employed, married fathers.

Findings

Results showed a relationship between traditional gender role beliefs and number of hours spent at work and at home. Additionally, number of work hours was related to time-based work-to-family conflict, but not strain-based work-to-family conflict. The results supported the expectation that work hours mediate the relationship between a father's traditional gender role beliefs and time-based work-to-family conflict.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of this study include the use cross-sectional and self-report data. Future research might want to expand the theoretical model to be more inclusive of fathers of more diverse demographic backgrounds, and assess the model with a longitudinal design.

Practical implications

A key theoretical implication gleaned from the study is that work-family researchers should include the socially constructed variable of gender roles in their work-family research. Findings provide support for the contention that organizations need to ensure that mothers’ and fathers’ unique needs are being met through family-friendly programs. The authors provide suggestions for specific workplace strategies.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that focussed on fathers’ experiences of the work-family interface. The results clarify that traditional gender role beliefs give rise to fathers’ gendered behaviors and ultimately work-family conflict.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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