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Recognizing the need to build global-minded citizens, higher education institutions are increasingly trying to find ways to leverage their international programs to…
Recognizing the need to build global-minded citizens, higher education institutions are increasingly trying to find ways to leverage their international programs to develop students’ intercultural competence. The MA in global leadership at Royal Roads University, Canada, created an international partnership in Ecuador that serves to go beyond the traditional student study abroad or service learning focus and instead focuses on developing competencies of global mindedness and strategic relationships. In this chapter, we present an analysis of how an international student group engaged in building dynamic partnerships within a Global South country to create change for sustainable development initiatives of mutual concern. Through a case example, we describe how these partnerships evolved and adapted in ways that enhanced the learning needs of the students while simultaneously supporting the development of new educational opportunities for Ecuadorians. To illustrate, this chapter delineates the activities that members of the program undertook to connect and develop a mutuality of relationship across diverse stakeholders in Ecuador. The authors analyze this network-building process from the perspective of cultural context, building trust and influence, and responding to social development needs of host communities.
This chapter deals with the Citizens’ Revolution in Ecuador facing US imperialism. It is divided into five parts. Firstly, the author gives some historical elements on the…
This chapter deals with the Citizens’ Revolution in Ecuador facing US imperialism. It is divided into five parts. Firstly, the author gives some historical elements on the structure and dynamics of the Ecuadorian economy in the short medium and long term. Secondly, the author presents the project of transition to socialism of the Citizens’ Revolution as it occurred at the normative level and in public policies. The third part focuses especially on the economic dimension of this project and offers an overall critic of it. The fourth part provides a general explanation on the dynamics of the progressive cycle in Ecuador. Eventually the fifth part emphasizes the need to perform much more radical breaks to make a process of transition to socialism viable in this country.
This article is based on the assumption that entrepreneurship improves quality of life (HDI). Its main objective is to establish causal relationships between…
This article is based on the assumption that entrepreneurship improves quality of life (HDI). Its main objective is to establish causal relationships between entrepreneurship variables such as credits, innovation (R&D), business growth, foreign direct investment and the Global Competitiveness Index and how these have influenced a country's development.
To analyse and validate this assumption, relevant information has been extracted about Ecuador (the subject of the study) for the 1998–2017 period. The information has received the respective econometric treatment, through a multivariate estimation by the autoregressive vector (ARV) method that made it possible to establish impulse-response functions.
The results indicate that there is a significant and positive statistical impact between the variables related to entrepreneurship and quality of life (HDI), with the exception of “Innovation”, which is not representative in the model, demonstrating that the investment made at country level in R&D is not sufficient to have an impact on the HDI. It was also determined that promoting entrepreneurship would be useful as this would alter the trend of the variables, making them conducive to increasing the HDI.
This article is one of the few to address this issue. It includes the self-regressive vector model as a key methodology used to evaluate and establish public policies. RVM has provided positive results in the field of economics and can be adopted in the area of entrepreneurship.
El presente artículo se basa en el supuesto de que el emprendimiento mejora la calidad de vida de los individuos (IDH), siendo el objetivo principal establecer relaciones causales entre variables de emprendimiento como: Créditos, Innovación (I + D), Crecimiento Empresarial, Inversión Extranjera Directa e Índice de Competitividad Global; y, como estas han influido en el desarrollo de un país.
Para el análisis y validación del supuesto mencionado anteriormente, se ha extraído información relevante sobre el Ecuador (sujeto de estudio) para el período comprendido entre 1998 y 2017, a los cuales se les ha dado el respectivo tratamiento econométrico, a través de una estimación multivariante por el método de Vectores Autorregresivos (VAR) que permitió establecer funciones de impulso – respuesta.
Los resultados señalan que existe una significativa incidencia estadística entre las variables relacionadas con el emprendimiento y la calidad de vida (IDH) de manera positiva, a excepción de la “Innovación” que no tiene representatividad en el modelo, demostrando que la inversión realizada a nivel país en I + D es insuficiente para impactar el IDH. También se determinó la conveniencia de impulsar el emprendimiento, pues esto cambia la tendencia de las variables haciéndolas favorables para el crecimiento del IDH.
Este artículo es uno de los pocos en abordar esta problemática, además incluye el Modelo de Vectores Autorregresivos como una metodología clave para evaluar y establecer políticas públicas, que ha brindado resultados positivos en el campo de la Economía y que puede adoptarse en la rama del Emprendimiento.
Pacari Chocolate is the flagship brand of SKS Farms CIA Ltda., located in Quito, Ecuador. The company specializes in organic chocolate production which it sells in Ecuador and exports to other Latin American, European and North American markets. The company began operation in 2002, founded by Carla Barbotó and her husband Santiago Peralta. Carla is the Director of SKS and Santiago is General Manager. The case is set just after Santiago negotiated a deal to supply Emirates Airlines with mini bars to be distributed to flight passengers. Santiago is excited about this new deal, which will provide a new revenue stream, enhance brand image and potentially create new customers. Carla and Santiago pursue excellence with their products, as evidenced by over 160 awards, many globally recognized. However, their mission is also very much social in that they seek to improve the lives of Andean farmers, indigenous peoples and broader Ecuadorean society. The principle author uses this case in a course on innovative approaches to engaging emerging market opportunities, in which shared (social + economic) value and the formation of strong national industries are key outcomes, to be addressed through complementary market and non-market entrepreneurship strategies.
Expected learning outcomes
Expected learning outcomes are as follows: to identify the contextual challenges faced by an emerging market firm, and explain what must be done to overcome them; to identify the role of a firm in developing a national competency in an agricultural product industry; to demonstrate the creation of “shared value” and examine how the social mission of a company can reinforce and sustain its economic value creating activities; and to generate and evaluate options for developing international markets when a firm has limited resources to invest in marketing activities.
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CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.
This research examines environmental negotiations in two countries, Mexico and Ecuador, currently undergoing democratic transition. We examine the ability of democratizing…
This research examines environmental negotiations in two countries, Mexico and Ecuador, currently undergoing democratic transition. We examine the ability of democratizing political systems to respond to the pressures intrinsic to emerging pluralism. Using a comparative case study approach we examine environmental policy making for conservation. Mexico and Ecuador are at different stages in the democratization process with Mexico being more advanced than Ecuador. We conclude that Mexico’s approach to communicative forums and its management of environmental decision making in a pluralist context is more systematized and less prone to corruption given the stronger set of democratic institutions. In comparison we find that Ecuador’s political institutions remain weak and subject to informal pressures from emerging environmental groups as well as from established interests from the pre-democracy era.
Business creation is an important measure of real economic activity as it shows the dynamics with which new firms are born, create jobs, move their capital, innovate and…
Business creation is an important measure of real economic activity as it shows the dynamics with which new firms are born, create jobs, move their capital, innovate and compete with old firms. In this sense, this paper aims to analyze the short-term impact of the lockdown policies implemented to stop the spread of the COVID-19 on the creation of new formal firms in Ecuador.
This paper uses a regression discontinuity in time (RDiT) design jointly with official administrative real-time data. This data is collected by the supervisory and regulatory institution of formal companies in Ecuador. The authors use real-time data from January 13, 2020, to May 15, 2020. This period allows to use the President’s order of effective lockdown on March 16, 2020, as the exogenous event. This gives 43 working days on each side of the cutoff date on the baseline model.
The authors find: an overall large drop in the creation of new formal firms (−73%) and a decrease in the total amount of initial capital coming from the new formal firms (−40%). Additionally, the results suggest that the negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the creation of new formal firms seems not to decrease in the short term. The main conclusion is that lockdown policies have a negative impact on firm creation, a result that is of high policy relevance and can be a tool to design business attraction policies.
The analysis is carried out in a short period because on May18, 2020, a new policy was applied in Ecuador that allowed firms to be created more quickly, with 1 USD of capital, and 1 shareholder, among other benefits, and this may affect the outcomes analyzed in this document, so extending the analysis of the impact of the lockdown to a longer period could result in biased results due to this policy. Additionally, studying daily sales would be of the utmost importance; however, these data are not found in the database of the supervising institution.
This study contributes to the empirical literature and the policy debate in various aspects. First, it is important to generate facilities for the creation of new formal firms, from the reduction of days it takes to create one (using technology as a support in this matter) to the decrease of the minimum capital to formalize a company. Second, improve the business conditions of the new formal firms that were born during the pandemic, but also that these conditions create stimulus for the creation of new companies. Third, the authors show that induced-lockdown policies have a negative impact on the creation of new formal firms and the total amount of initial capital from new formal firms; this effect could be a full-blown recession if governments do not apply mechanisms to revert this situation that could be a drag on the economy.
This paper opens the debate on the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on the creation of new formal firms; therefore, future research could study the impact in a broader time window to analyze medium and long-run effects, but also in different economic sectors and in the effects on firm bankruptcy, which added to an analysis of job loss, will show a total effect of damage in the economy.
Motivated by transformations in global food systems and increasing demand for multidimensional credence attributes, the authors analyze cacao value chains in Ecuador – the…
Motivated by transformations in global food systems and increasing demand for multidimensional credence attributes, the authors analyze cacao value chains in Ecuador – the main producer of fine and flavor cacao worldwide. The authors identify opportunities and discuss how private and public sector initiatives can help meet emerging challenges.
Primary information was collected through interviews of actors in the Ecuadorian industry during spring/summer 2020, including cacao producer associations, exporter associations, chocolate processing firms, public institutions and local universities. Two focus groups were also conducted with producers from associations in the Ecuadorian Amazon.
Findings suggest new opportunities for cacao producers and chocolate processors have emerged from the global market transformation. To exploit these, firms need to personalize and differentiate their products, for example, by using quality certifications such as organic and fair trade. Market developments, such as European cadmium regulations and the necessity of worldwide traceability systems, are driving exporters to enhance Ecuador’s cacao value chains. The sector still requires coordination to reap the benefits associated with demands for credence attributes.
Findings are supported by two case studies. The first focuses on how associativity can help those producing high-quality beans to differentiate themselves in modern agri-food markets. The second describes the success of a local chocolate firm and its links with local farmers.
Responding to local, regional and international demands and initiatives, the government of Ecuador has rolled out an innovative program Sistema Integral de Tecnologías…
Responding to local, regional and international demands and initiatives, the government of Ecuador has rolled out an innovative program Sistema Integral de Tecnologías para la Escuela y la Comunidad (SíTEC) to place information, and communication technologies (ICTs) into the hands of students, teachers, and other educational institutions. SíTEC draws upon several elements of social entrepreneurship and has successfully reached some of the most regionally remote and culturally diverse communities in the country. The SíTEC program is emblematic of many of the criteria set forth regarding social entrepreneurship including the vision of leadership, the focus on a social mission and the importance of innovation in partnership and resource allocation. This study looks at survey and interview data from the Shiña community teachers and school leaders to determine the effects of the SíTEC program and the availability and use of ICTs in schools, SíTEC has equipped public schools with computers, projectors, digital boards, and Internet. Additionally, SíTEC organizes training courses on ICTs for public school teachers and provides schools with educational software available in Spanish, Kichwa, Shuar, and English. While there is still much work to be done, SíTEC and the associated partnerships and programs are beginning to have impact in their specified outcomes. Creative partnerships developed within the Ministry of Education, Office of Bilingual Education, Shiña community have allowed for communication and exchange of knowledge and resources across multiple partners. This chapter explores SíTEC as an innovative government-based program that meets targeted social outcomes in ICTs and education.
Adopting a two-sited approach, this paper examines frames deployed by a network of organizations by developing the concept of the transnational field. The transnational…
Adopting a two-sited approach, this paper examines frames deployed by a network of organizations by developing the concept of the transnational field. The transnational field is the geo-specific field within which the movement organizations are encompassed which can explain the differential power across ties in a transnational network. It enables analyzing whether frames at the local and transnational level are similar, remain as is or are altered within a field which is mediated by the power dynamics embedded in the political-economic-cultural relationships between countries. Using qualitative data, this study of ties between movement organizations in the Amazonian region of Ecuador (local level) and organizations in the United States (transnational level) provides evidence for empirical and narrative fidelity of frames at both ends of the network. The two-sited approach enriches the understanding of resistance to globalization by prioritizing the perspective of indigenous peoples in the Global South highlighting the North–South power dynamic. Departing from common assumptions about the power of US-based groups in the choice of frames deployed, the analysis show that ties between organizations in a transnational network are complex as they rely on each other for resources and information. We discuss the conditions under which local frames are deployed or redefined at the transnational level.
This chapter investigates the environmental behaviours of three, four- and five-star hotels in Azuay (Ecuador). The methodology involved a quantitative research that…
This chapter investigates the environmental behaviours of three, four- and five-star hotels in Azuay (Ecuador). The methodology involved a quantitative research that measured the relationship between environmental responsibility (Gallardo, Sanchez, & Corchuelo, 2013) and stakeholder engagement (Kostova & Roth, 2002; Llamas-Sanchez, García-Morales, & Martin-Tapia, 2013; Vargas-Sánchez & Riquel-Ligero, 2012). The main findings suggest that the managers of the hotels implement environmental practices as they reduce waste, gas emissions and recycle materials. These practices are aligned with Ecuador’s extant legislation and regulations. In conclusion, this contribution implies that the hotels’ managers ought to communicate about their environmental responsibility with their stakeholders, including the employees, suppliers and customers.