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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2018

Jason Potts and Stuart Thomas

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new classification of rules-driven sports and technology-driven sports that suggests different models of how sports develop. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new classification of rules-driven sports and technology-driven sports that suggests different models of how sports develop. This paper outlines some key aspects of an evolutionary view of sports economics research and, separately, an institutional view of sports economic research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a conceptual/theoretical piece rather than an empirical analysis of a research question. The authors scaffold a proposed analytic framework that is a combination of evolutionary economics and new institutional economics.

Findings

A new dynamic approach to the study of sports industries is called for. The authors observe that sports and sports industries exhibit dynamic qualities but in the study of sports there is no analogue of “industrial dynamics” as in economics. What is missing is the field of “evolutionary sports dynamics.” To build this, the authors frame a new evolutionary approach to the study of the sports economy and sports industries – by examining the evolution of sports, their industries, and the complex industrial ecosystems they operate in, through the lens of institutional and evolutionary economics.

Originality/value

The paper establishes a theoretical basis for a “New Economics of Sports” – as a shift in the types of questions that sports economics seeks to answer. These are away from “sports statics” – as a branch of applied economics of industrial organization and optimal allocation of sports resources (ala Rottenberg, 1956; Neale, 1964) – and toward concern with the economics ofsports dynamics.” The prime questions are less with the optimal organization of existing sports, and more toward understanding the origin of new sports and the evolutionary life cycles of sports.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

J. Cairns, N. Jennett and P.J. Sloane

Since the appearance of Simon Rottenberg's seminal paper on the baseball players' labour market in the Journal of Political Economy (1956), the literature on the economics

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3099

Abstract

Since the appearance of Simon Rottenberg's seminal paper on the baseball players' labour market in the Journal of Political Economy (1956), the literature on the economics of professional team sports has increased rapidly, fuelled by major changes in the restrictive rules which had pervaded these sports, themselves a consequence of battles in the courts and the collective bargaining arena. These changes have not been limited to North America, to which most of the literature relates, but also apply to Western Europe and Australia in particular. This monograph surveys this literature covering those various parts of the world in order to draw out both theoretical and empirical aspects. However, to argue that the existence of what is now an extensive literature “justifies” such a survey on professional team sports clearly begs a number of questions. Justification can be found in at least two major aspects.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2011

Fernando Lera-López and Manuel Rapún-Gárate

This paper analyses the determinants of sports participation and attendance in 40 sports and recreational activities in Spain. Ordered probit models are used to identify…

Abstract

This paper analyses the determinants of sports participation and attendance in 40 sports and recreational activities in Spain. Ordered probit models are used to identify determinants in each case and to test for possible relationships. The results show that the two types of involvement, participation and attendance, are very different, the former constrained by economic, sociological and psychological variables such as gender, age, time availability and motivational factors, the latter explained by variables such as age, gender and size of household.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Steve McKelvey and Neil Longley

The bid process for hosting mega global sporting events mandates the enactment of event-specificambush marketing legislation that provides extraordinary trademark law…

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1039

Abstract

The bid process for hosting mega global sporting events mandates the enactment of event-specific ambush marketing legislation that provides extraordinary trademark law protections for private sports organisations and their official sponsors. Such event-specific ambush marketing legislation, or ESAML, has come under increasing scrutiny by academics and practitioners who question, among other things, the need for such legislation. One of the major areas of concern has become the potential social cost of such legislation that includes restrictions on free speech and curbs on marketplace competition. We apply economic theory as a means to explain why governments have been so willing to enact such legislation.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2009

Michael A. Levin

This paper investigates the role of competitive balance among teams in a league in predicting attendance at spectator sporting events. It also controls for the demographic…

Abstract

This paper investigates the role of competitive balance among teams in a league in predicting attendance at spectator sporting events. It also controls for the demographic and economic characteristics of the league's markets, and changes in the number of teams in the league. The research relies on a sample that includes 707 non-major professional team seasonal win-loss records (12,956 games) from five sports, aggregated into 75 seasons to develop a model consistent with extant literature. The authors find that competitive balance and average income in the league's markets are significant predictors of leaguewide attendance.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Andreas Christoph Weber, Veerle De Bosscher and Hippolyt Kempf

Since the 1990s, the International Olympic Committee has offered nations more medal-winning opportunities at every Winter Games. Meanwhile, many countries are constrained…

Abstract

Purpose

Since the 1990s, the International Olympic Committee has offered nations more medal-winning opportunities at every Winter Games. Meanwhile, many countries are constrained by their limited financial resources to target sports strategically. The purpose of this paper is to examine the targeting approaches to Olympic Winter Sports of National Sports Agencies (NSAs), and to identify the factors they assess in the decision-making process.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 11 decision makers of medal-winning NSAs at the 2014 Sochi Games. The data were then analysed with reference to strategic management in an approach which combines a resource-based view (RBV) with a market-based view (MBV) to build a competitive advantage.

Findings

The results show that NSAs, like firms, combine an internal analysis that reflects the RBV on resources and capabilities (e.g. athletes’ performance per sport and sport-specific elite sport system), with an external analysis of the competitive environment that reflects an MBV (e.g. sport’s medal market size and intensity of competition at Games) to target sports. Using this information, two phases were distinguished: first, the target sports are identified and finance is prioritised accordingly; second, the allocation of the nation’s resources is constantly reviewed in order to optimise it.

Research limitations/implications

Even though social desirability bias in the responses could not be fully excluded, the findings can help policy-makers to distinguish between the internal and external factors identified in this study, and to make more strategic decisions by combining RBV and MBV approaches to build-up their nation’s competitive advantage.

Originality/value

This paper models the targeting strategies of NSAs during an Olympic cycle by introducing the competitive positioning of firms to sports management.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Carlos Pestana Barros, Vincenzo Scafarto and António Samagaio

This paper analyses the cost efficiency of Italian football clubs using a stochastic frontier model. The frontier estimation confirmed that the model fits the data well…

Abstract

This paper analyses the cost efficiency of Italian football clubs using a stochastic frontier model. The frontier estimation confirmed that the model fits the data well with all coefficients correctly signed and in line with the theoretical requirements. Marketing and Sponsorship is taken into account as an explanatory variable and the factors which contributed to these findings, as well as other policy implications, are provided.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

Jesyca Salgado-Barandela, Angel Barajas and Patricio Sanchez-Fernandez

The organization of several small-scale events throughout the year is called event portfolio and may contribute to the development of the city strategy in the touristic…

Abstract

Purpose

The organization of several small-scale events throughout the year is called event portfolio and may contribute to the development of the city strategy in the touristic, social and economic fields. The organization of a set of sporting events represents an important innovation in the development of city marketing. This paper analyzing the scarce literature on event portfolio provides the main elements to benefit from this innovative strategy to achieve sustainable sports tourism for host cities. Among the innovative strategies, the inclusion of leverage and cross-leverage approaches in the management of event portfolios is studied in depth.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is divided into two phases. First, the Web of Science (WOS) and SCOPUS databases are searched using keywords. Once the selection of scientific studies that analyze the phenomenon of event portfolios has been obtained, an exhaustive review is carried out, allowing us to obtain novel findings on the field of study.

Findings

The work provides a classification of the portfolios of sports events analyzed in science considering the configuration (formal vs informal) and whether there is an integrated strategy. Second, the delimitation of the deficiencies and the most important aspects to be developed in sports-events portfolio management.

Originality/value

This study contributes with a summary of the main elements to consider when managing sports events portfolios. Moreover, the importance of integrated strategies is underlined, as well as the relevance of leveraging the strategies. The contributions are of interest in being a novel field with room for scientific development and with an eminently practical nature.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Felix Boronczyk, Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention…

Abstract

Purpose

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While such an approach requires knowledge on the interplay between in-game events and viewers' attention to sponsor signage previous studies have disregarded factors pertaining to the competition itself. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of game-related variables on the allocation of viewer attention in live broadcasts.

Design/methodology/approach

Eye tracking is used to examine the impact of variations in score, ball position and ball possession on soccer fans' attention to sponsor messages during broadcasts. In total, the data comprise n = 36,604 second-by-second observations from 11 participants and games.

Findings

Logistic regression analysis reveals game time effects and significant interaction effects between possession and the score as well as the ball position variable. Sponsors receive less attention if the attacking team controls the ball near the opponents' goal, particularly if the viewers' preferred team is in possession.

Practical implications

Property owners and sponsors can exploit these findings to determine the value of sponsor brand exposure more precisely. New systems could further increase message effectiveness through adjustments of sponsor exposure based on real time match event data.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore the influence of game-related variables on attention to sponsors. By employing live broadcasts in a near-realistic setting, it further addresses a gap in the literature and adds to the knowledge on sponsor message processing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2017

Abstract

Details

Sport Business in Leading Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-564-3

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