Search results

1 – 10 of over 33000
Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Tripti Agarwal, Prarthna Agarwal Goel, Hom Gartaula, Munmum Rai, Deepak Bijarniya, Dil Bahadur Rahut and M.L. Jat

Increasing trends of climatic risk pose challenges to the food security and livelihoods of smallholders in vulnerable regions, where farmers often face loss of the entire…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing trends of climatic risk pose challenges to the food security and livelihoods of smallholders in vulnerable regions, where farmers often face loss of the entire crop, pushing farmers (mostly men) out of agriculture in destitution, creating a situation of agricultural making agriculture highly feminization and compelling male farmers to out-migrate. Climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) are promoted to cope with climatic risks. This study aims to assess how knowledge related to CSAPs, male out-migration, education and income contribute to the determinants of male out-migration and CSAPs adoption and how they respond to household food security.

Design/methodology/approach

Sex-disaggregated primary data were collected from adopter and non-adopter farm families. STATA 13.1 was used to perform principle component analysis to construct knowledge, yield and income indices.

Findings

Yield and income index of adopters was higher for men than women. The probability of out-migration reduced by 21% with adoption of CSAPs. An increase in female literacy by 1 unit reduces log of odds to migrate by 0.37. With every unit increase in knowledge index, increase in log-odds of CSAPs adoption was 1.57. Male:female knowledge gap was less among adopters. Non-adopters tended to reduce food consumption when faced with climatic risks significantly, and the probability of migration increased by 50% with a one-unit fall in the nutrition level, thus compelling women to work more in agriculture. Gender-equitable enhancement of CSAP knowledge is, therefore, key to safeguarding sustainable farming systems and improving livelihoods.

Social implications

The enhancement of gender equitable knowledge on CSAPs is key to safeguard sustainable farming systems and improved livelihoods.

Originality/value

This study is based on the robust data sets of 100 each of male and female from 100 households (n = 200) using well-designed and validated survey instrument. From 10 randomly selected climate-smart villages in Samastipur and Vaishali districts of Bihar, India, together with focus group discussions, the primary data were collected by interviewing both men and women from the same household.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Veronika V. Eberharter

Based on representative longitudinal data (CNEF 1980–2013) the paper analyzes gender differences of the level and the determinants of earnings dynamics in the work life of

Abstract

Based on representative longitudinal data (CNEF 1980–2013) the paper analyzes gender differences of the level and the determinants of earnings dynamics in the work life of different cohorts of employees in Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. Notwithstanding country differences concerning the existing welfare state regime constituting the institutional settings of the labor market, the educational system, and family role models, the empirical results show decreasing earnings mobility in the work history. The earnings level, educational attainment, family size, the occupational choice, the career stage, the birth cohort, and the macroeconomic fluctuations significantly influence earnings mobility. In the United States, earnings mobility is significantly lower and gender differences are less pronounced than in Germany and Great Britain. The gender gap of earnings mobility is less expressed for younger cohorts of German employees. The increase of the gender gap of earnings dynamics in the course of the work career indicates continuing heterogeneity of labor market behavior and outcome of women and men which contribute to persistent economic and social stratification.

Details

Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 18 February 2004

E.K. Hunt and Allen M. Sievers

The University of Utah is located in Salt Lake City, the home of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS or Mormon). This conjunction has led some to believe…

Abstract

The University of Utah is located in Salt Lake City, the home of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS or Mormon). This conjunction has led some to believe the University is Church-run, or at least Church dominated. In fact, the University, state-financed from the beginning, has been wholly autonomous since an incident in the early 20th Century. In that incident several faculty members were discharged for their unorthodox religious and political views. This led to an uproar and subsequent protracted controversy, the resolution of which did not reinstate the discharged faculty members but did establish the complete autonomy of the University from the Church.

Details

Wisconsin "Government and Business" and the History of Heterodox Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-090-6

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Prue Hyman

Downloads
140

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Louise Patterson and Vic Benuyenah

The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the employment figures in the labour market after the two Korean financial crises (1997 and 2008), focusing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the employment figures in the labour market after the two Korean financial crises (1997 and 2008), focusing on the gender gap across different characteristics. Based on several data points, a general trend becomes evident whereby, as companies retrenched, they shifted the demographics of their employees to those perceived as most valuable, i.e. workers with university educations. However, when distinguished by gender, it is evident that their priorities changed. This discovery suggests that as the world faces another global health crisis (COVID-19) with its associated impact on organisational retrenchment, the gender gap in Korea could widen further.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis was conducted by applying a simple compounded average growth rate (CAGR) analysis to determine the impact of the two crises on employment by the educational level.

Findings

A general trend becomes evident whereby, as companies retrenched, they shifted the demographics of their employees to those perceived as most valuable, i.e. workers with university educations. However, when distinguished by gender, it is evident that their priorities changed.

Research limitations/implications

Secondary data were used for the analysis as data for unemployed, who had given up looking for work, were not available.

Practical implications

Managers can use the findings when making decisions about laying-off staff during times of financial/economic crisis.

Social implications

There is a perceived negative impact upon highly educated Korean women.

Originality/value

The paper advances the pay gap literature by providing evidence from Korea. CAGR analysis has never been used previously in analysing the pattern of labour market data to reveal gender discrimination. With a global health crisis (COVID-19) with its associated impact on organisational retrenchment, the gender gap in Korea could widen further.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Attila Bruni, Silvia Gherardi and Barbara Poggio

Uses the neologism “entrepreneur mentality” – paying implicit homage to Foucault's govermentality – to highlight how an entrepreneurial discourse is mobilized as a system…

Downloads
21169

Abstract

Uses the neologism “entrepreneur mentality” – paying implicit homage to Foucault's govermentality – to highlight how an entrepreneurial discourse is mobilized as a system of thinking about women entrepreneurs which is able to make some form of that activity thinkable and practicable, namely: who can be an entrepreneur, what entrepreneurship is, what or who is managed by that form of governance of economic relations? Discourses on women entrepreneurs are linguistic practices that create truth effects. Argues that social studies of women entrepreneurs tend to reproduce an androcentric entrepreneur mentality that makes hegemonic masculinity invisible. They portray women's organizations as “the other”, and sustain social expectations of their difference, thereby implicitly reproducing male experience as a preferred normative value. Taking a deconstructive gaze on how an entrepreneur‐mentality discourse is gendered, reveals the gender sub‐text underpinning the practices of the scientific community that study women entrepreneurs and, in so doing, open a space to question them.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Inka Havrila and Christabel Zhang

University students often view economics as one of the most challenging subjects. In this paper, we explore whether the same attitude is shared by students at an offshore…

Abstract

University students often view economics as one of the most challenging subjects. In this paper, we explore whether the same attitude is shared by students at an offshore campus. The analysis is based on a survey of onshore and offshore students in an Australian university. The focus of the paper is on identifying similarities/differences in student attitudes towards economics, their degree of motivation, satisfaction with the content and the delivery of lectures and tutorials, major challenges, and student profile characteristics. A non‐parametric test indicates significant differences between the two cohorts, in terms of their age, enrolment status, paid work commitments, prior study of economics, their motivation and approach to studying the subject, and satisfaction with both the content and the delivery of the lectures/tutorials. The findings in this study are helpful in developing strategies for enhancing student learning in culturally diverse cohorts.

Details

Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Shoshana Neuman and Ronald L. Oaxaca

To examine gender and ethnic wage structures and wage differentials an Israel and decompose the difference in wages into endowments, discrimination and selectivity components.

Downloads
1637

Abstract

Purpose

To examine gender and ethnic wage structures and wage differentials an Israel and decompose the difference in wages into endowments, discrimination and selectivity components.

Design/methodology/approach

Selection and wage equations are estimated for each of the population groups (Eastern women, Western women, Eastern men, Western men) separately. The wage equations are corrected for selectivity using the Heckman procedure and subsequently wage differentials are decomposed into the three components mentioned above, using four alternative decompositions suggested in 2004 by Neuman and Oaxaca.

Findings

Gender wage differentials are significantly larger than ethnic differences. Discrimination is more common between the genders. The four alternative decompositions – that are based on different assumptions and objectives – yield different results.

Research limitations/implications

Decomposition of wage differences between groups needs to take into account information on the local relevant labor market and the wage setting process.

Practical implications

Information on the relative shares of the endowments, discrimination and selectivity components leads to a more effective way to close wage gaps.

Originality/value

Employment of new proposed decomposition methodologies that might lead to practical implications to combat gender and ethnic wage gaps in Israel.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Anastasia Klimova and Russell Ross

The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in gender inequalities in the Russian labour market between 1994 and 2001, the early period of the transition to the market…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in gender inequalities in the Russian labour market between 1994 and 2001, the early period of the transition to the market economy from the old Soviet Union.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines gender occupational segregation using the dataset from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of Russian households, the Russian Labour Market Survey. The occupational segregation index measure developed by Karmel and Maclachlan, known as the KM Index, is applied and extended by decomposing the index into several components.

Findings

The KM Index declined over this period, indicating a reduction in the extent of gender inequality, However, the decomposing of the KM index shows that, in contrast to previous research, the decrease in segregation within individual occupations contributed most of the overall fall in gender segregation. Changes in the overall occupational structure and an increase in female employment contributed, albeit marginally, to an increase in segregation.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the changes which have continued in Russia since 2001, these research results may lack applicability to current emerging economic circumstances in Russia. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further using data for the period 2005 to 2015 once the data become available.

Practical implications

The paper provides rigorous estimates of the trends in gender inequalities at an important period in Russia's economic development and serves as a benchmark for future analysis.

Originality/value

This paper provides new detail on the workings of the Russian labour market during the period of transition and as such provides a base against which changes in gender inequalities since 2001 can be measured.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2004

Abstract

Details

The Economics of Time Use
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-838-4

1 – 10 of over 33000