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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2012

Noralene Uy and Rajib Shaw

The unsustainable management of ecosystem services often arises as a result of the non-recognition of the multiple benefits or under-valuation of ecosystem services. The…

Abstract

The unsustainable management of ecosystem services often arises as a result of the non-recognition of the multiple benefits or under-valuation of ecosystem services. The chapter looks at economic valuation as an essential tool in ecosystem management decision-making and policy. It discusses the economics of ecosystem services, explains the motivations for economic valuation, describes economic valuation methods, and examines the limitations of economic valuation. It emphasizes that economic valuation can be a powerful and convincing tool for placing ecosystems on the agenda of planners and decision-makers.

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Ecosystem-Based Adaptation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-691-1

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

James DeLisle and Terry Grissom

Current economic conditions have identified a complication if not conflict in the application of valuation analysis assumptions with the free fall in asset prices observed…

Abstract

Purpose

Current economic conditions have identified a complication if not conflict in the application of valuation analysis assumptions with the free fall in asset prices observed since 2007. Discrepancies in debt obligations (from prior periods) with underlying collateral value have been opined to be an unforeseen anomaly. This investigation aims to observe an alternative perspective using data from 1900 to the present.

Design/methodology/approach

This 110‐year period of observation shows that return (value) volatility is the characteristic norm of the market system. Showing volatility as a fundamental characteristic of economic and property performance supports conjecture by definition, observation and rationality that valuation analysis had to be successfully employed in prior down cycles and across divergent economic regimes. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the application of specific value theory, premises and concepts with appropriate valuation techniques in given economic regimes. The variables derived from the literature and practices observed and designated as operating across time emphasizing recorded recessions are then tested for statistically significant associations using χ2 tests.

Findings

The findings show that traditional value techniques are successfully applied in stabilized and even accelerated growth periods, but weaken and even break down during down markets. Alternative approaches and techniques are emphasized and developed during these periods that address specific problems but are befitting more general issues. The alternative perspectives are then observed to operate, generating much debate for extended periods. They are then incorporated as orthodox or disappear as issues. This study identifies a statistical link between the economic and valuation concerns of the Great Depression of the 1930s and the current Great Recession of 2007‐2009. The more relevant finding, however, is that the period following the depression of the 1930s, which shows a period characterized as using innovation and alternative valuation techniques, was continued into a period that ran from the 1950s into the mid‐1990s. This was a period of stabilization, at least into the early 1980s. The deregulation of the 1980s generated a period of fewer cycles but major magnitude shifts in the less frequent measures of volatility. Unfortunately, the sophistication in debate concerning valuation procedure and valuation premises, as statistically measured, declined from the 1990s into the present period. The present economy reflects statistical measures similar to those observed from 1900‐1930.

Originality/value

Given the 110 years considered in the study, the findings should not be considered original with regard to assisting the general welfare or professional decision making. However, given that the market shifted from being a useful institution to assist in the allocation and distribution of property to being a religious caveat that could only result in perfect solutions to solve all social needs, wants and ills, the findings emphasizing valuation techniques based on rational value premises that can operate to assist inference of future events subject to divergent and cyclical operations might be calmed to offer very useful assistance with procedure based on fundamentals and expression of behaviour that has long been vilified. The uses of the patterns identified in this study need to be incorporated into causal analysis.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 29 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Book part
Publication date: 15 August 2002

Andreas Kontoleon, Richard Macrory and Timothy Swanson

The paper focuses on the question of the extent to which individual preference-based values are suitable in guiding environmental policy and damage assessment decisions…

Abstract

The paper focuses on the question of the extent to which individual preference-based values are suitable in guiding environmental policy and damage assessment decisions. Three criteria for “suitableness” are reviewed: conceptual, moral and legal. Their discussion suggests that: (i) the concept of economic value as applied to environmental resources is a meaningful concept based on the notion of trade-off; (ii) the limitations of the moral foundations of cost-benefit analysis do not invalidate its use as a procedure for guiding environmental decision making; (iii) the input of individual preferences into damage assessment is compatible with the basic foundations of tort law; (iv) using individual preference-based methods provides incentives for efficient levels of due care; (v) determining standing is still very contentious for various categories of users as well as for aggregating non-use values. Overall, the discussion suggests that the use of preference-based approaches in both the policy and legal arenas is warranted provided that they are accurately applied, their limitations are openly acknowledged and they assume an information-providing rather than a determinative role.

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An Introduction to the Law and Economics of Environmental Policy: Issues in Institutional Design
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-888-0

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Mariluz Maté-Sánchez-Val and Paolo Occhino

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence about the role of the geography on agri-food firms’ valuations. The goal is to test clusters and agglomeration effects on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence about the role of the geography on agri-food firms’ valuations. The goal is to test clusters and agglomeration effects on the SMEs valuations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an empirical test applying a spatial regression analysis on a sample constitute by 306 agri-food SMEs located in two municipalities with different economic characteristics: Murcia and Madrid. In addition, the authors applied the discounted cash flow model in order to estimate the SMEs’ economic value.

Findings

The findings show the importance of the geography variables on the SMEs’ performances highlights interesting differences between territories. In particular, the results confirm that the geographical proximity between agri-food firms and between them and external agents is significant on firms’ valuations. The agglomeration effects are verified in both municipality but the density variable present a negative non-linear effect confirming previous studies which indicates that the existence of a large number of firms 05 rise competition, decreasing the economic opportunities of these companies.

Originality/value

This study gives interesting insights to policymakers, researchers and practitioners concerning the importance of the relationships among agents, also favoured by a developed infrastructures system in a fully connected environment.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 80 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Svanhild Aabø

The purpose of this paper is to show that the need to communicate the value of libraries is growing, and especially now during the global financial crisis. As a response…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that the need to communicate the value of libraries is growing, and especially now during the global financial crisis. As a response library valuation research is expanding and there is now a need for a status report.

Design/methodology/approach

The library valuation field is developing towards generating a critical mass of empirical studies. The focus of the meta‐analytical review is on the subgroup that reports a return on investment (ROI) or a cost‐benefit ratio. Meta‐analysis is a quantitative analysis of findings of previous studies, conducted to infer general findings and lessons from prior empirical research. The dataset is 38 library valuation studies reporting a return on investment figure or cost‐benefit ratio.

Findings

Of the 38 studies, 32 are of public libraries, a number high enough to indicate a tenable result. The meta‐analysis indicates that the patterns in the findings are consistent with expectations regarding the benefit types that are included in the ROI figure, the methods used, and the scope of the study.

Originality/value

This study appears to be the first meta‐analytical review of library studies reporting a return on investment figure. The tentative conclusion is that for each dollar invested in public libraries they return, on average, approximately four times more. This is a strong message with policy implications.

Details

New Library World, vol. 110 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Abstract

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Understanding Mattessich and Ijiri: A Study of Accounting Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-841-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Sabine U. O’Hara

The loss of bio‐diversity has received increasing attention as oneof the most serious environmental threats we face. Yet not onlybiodiversity is being lost at staggering…

Abstract

The loss of bio‐diversity has received increasing attention as one of the most serious environmental threats we face. Yet not only biodiversity is being lost at staggering rates, socio‐diversity is being lost as well. Sociodiversity is defined as the various social and economic arrangements by which people organize their societies, particularly the underlying assumptions, goals, values and social behaviours guiding these arrangements. Just as the loss of bio‐diversity has focused attention on the interface between human socio‐economic and ecological systems, so too can the interaction between these systems give us insights into the reasons for the loss of diversity in socio‐economic systems. Examines the assumptions and valuation concepts underlying economic theory and the ways in which mainline economic theory contributes to the loss of socio‐economic diversity. The analysis draws on ecologically relevant concepts and proposes that the base for economic theory and valuation be expanded to include five categories identified as relevant to sustain bio‐diversity. These are: context, participation, place, limits and temporality. These categories point to the need to expand, diversify and make concrete economic theory and methodology.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Roger L Burritt and Lome S Cummings

The purpose of this paper is to address, via a case study, some of the key measurement issues within environmental accounting, in particular the methods used to measure…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to address, via a case study, some of the key measurement issues within environmental accounting, in particular the methods used to measure threatened and endangered wildlife. This study examines the accounts of Earth Sanctuaries Ltd, a listed conservation company in Australia over a seven year financial reporting period beginning in 1995 and ending in 2001, a period both prior and subsequent to, the implementation of Australian Accounting Standard AASB 1037 — Self Generating and Re‐Generating Assets (SGARA s), which sought to recognise the value of biological assets within financial statements. In particular the study examines these values in light of the conceptual framework qualitative characteristics of relevance and reliability. The study concludes that because of the current Commonwealth policy of non‐trade in wildlife, and the consequent absence of an active and liquid market for trade in these assets, efforts to provide legitimacy to the environmental cause are hampered, and questions raised over the surrogate measurement base used to value the assets.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Massimiliano Mazzanti

This paper presents the results of a choice experiment carried out from August to October 2000 on the visitors of the Galleria Borghese Museum, a worldwide known heritage…

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a choice experiment carried out from August to October 2000 on the visitors of the Galleria Borghese Museum, a worldwide known heritage site located in Rome. The main objective of this work is to study the relevancy of choice experiment techniques as a tool aimed at measuring economic values and assessing user preferences concerning the multi‐attribute and multi‐value services as supplied by cultural institutions. A set of alternative incremental changes in service attributes showing improvements in supply are designed and presented to visitors. Alternative conditional logit specifications are used for analysing stated choices over the hypothetical incremental changes in museum attributes. Willingness to pay for incremental variations concerning site attributes is positive and statistically significant for most changes. Conditional logit specifications, which incorporate heterogeneity by adding interaction socio‐economic terms, are generally robust and do not violate the IIA assumption. In addition, in the present case study, non‐IIA models do not outperform conditional logit models. Choice experiments confirm as being a practical and effective tool for non‐market valuation, and they should be used to provide information to decision makers for justifying demand led policies.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2011

John Dorchester

This paper seeks to consider a significant market misconception and related errors commonly made by valuers, financial decision makers, and other users of valuation

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to consider a significant market misconception and related errors commonly made by valuers, financial decision makers, and other users of valuation services. Its purpose is to focus on the importance of relating the explicit requirements of market value and fair value definitions to the evidence required for a supportable opinion of either.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides conceptual foundations for the terms “market value” and “fair value” and reviews their meanings and applications in a historical context. Business cycles and the recent recession are used as foundations for illustrating how prices, such as for real estate, vary with cycles, but are not always directly indicative of either market value or fair value. The latter term has a long history, but has undergone recent definition and revision by the US Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) that are shown to closely align fair value with market value. A current controversy over the use of transactions as prima fascie, or perhaps the only indication of market value is discussed and the “market” of “market value” is examined.

Findings

The paper offers a new look at market evidence concepts that are time‐honored, yet have been largely lost or forgotten. The principal finding is that duress is not consistent with conventional definitions of market value or fair value, yet significant market evidence exists that duress is often ignored or improperly considered in valuations and financial decisions. The paper also concludes that the FASB's focus on “market participants” (sellers and buyers) as the prime source of Fair Value evidence is akin to the rules which have applied to market value for many decades. The paper concludes with a discussion of why transactions may be evidence of “a market,” but are not necessarily representative of the “market” or of fair value.

Originality/value

Market Value is a market protection against fraud, misrepresentation, and misunderstanding. Valuations must be performed in accordance with that definition – not as it is interpreted for personal gain or for any other interpretations of convenience, misunderstanding, or special purpose.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 29 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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