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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2017

Hasan Ghura, Xiaoqing Li and Arezou Harraf

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that illustrates how resource-based countries, such as those in the Gulf Cooperation Council, can move their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that illustrates how resource-based countries, such as those in the Gulf Cooperation Council, can move their economies towards a more sustainable diversified model, through creating and fostering institutions that are conducive for opportunity entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Several key variables pertaining to formal and informal institutions which impact opportunity entrepreneurship are presented in a conceptual framework based on a comprehensive, non-systematic literature review.

Findings

Findings from the comprehensive literature review suggest that institutions play a moderating role between opportunity entrepreneurship and economic development. Institutions can stimulate entrepreneur’s behaviour leading to economic growth and subsequently development. Proposals worth pursuing in empirical studies in the future are presented based on the review of the literature.

Practical implications

This framework offers a model for oil-based countries in resolving structural problems in fostering entrepreneurship when responding to economic challenges.

Originality/value

The proposed framework in this study takes into consideration a comprehensive set of formal and informal institutional factors, rarely discussed in the existing literature, that link opportunity entrepreneurship and economic growth and development. Insights offered by this study have implications for government policy changes in developing effective institutions.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Senem Kurt Topuz and Hülya Erkanlı

The purpose of this study is to present a detailed picture of the poverty conditions of women in Turkey in the context of the capability approach. In other words, it is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a detailed picture of the poverty conditions of women in Turkey in the context of the capability approach. In other words, it is to analyze their perception of how much women in Turkey can benefit from economic opportunities, political freedoms and social opportunities and to what degree they can have protective security services and transparency assurance.

Design/methodology/approach

The field study was conducted in seven cities across Turkey with 741 women. Data from the field study were gathered by using the survey method. A 5-point Likert scale that was developed by the researchers and comprised of 39 statements.

Findings

According to the scale means of the instrumental freedoms obtained from the survey study, it cannot be claimed that women in Turkey have a completely negative perception of all of the instrumental freedoms. However, if the instrumental freedoms are compared to each other, it is seen that the participants have different perceptions of these instrumental freedoms.

Originality/value

This study basically discusses the issues of women's poverty and freedom in Turkey. In this context, the capability approach by Amartya Sen and capability deprivation; in other words, “being deprived of capabilities”, that is prominent in this approach form the basis of the study. The issue of women's poverty in Turkey is dealt with through deprivations in this study in contrast to the poverty conceptualizations through the individuals' income or expenditure levels.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2012

J. Robert Mitchell, Ronald K. Mitchell, Benjamin T. Mitchell and Sharon Alvarez

In this study we focus on how conditions of uncertainty shape the entrepreneurial action that underlies opportunity creation. We utilize the basic structure of economic

Abstract

In this study we focus on how conditions of uncertainty shape the entrepreneurial action that underlies opportunity creation. We utilize the basic structure of economic exchange in the context of opportunity creation theory to further investigate the conditions under which an entrepreneur might be expected to act to bring an opportunity into existence. Specifically, we suggest that uncertainty, that is manifest as relational uncertainty and resource uncertainty, shapes the entrepreneurial actions that underlie the creation of opportunities. In a laboratory experiment we test this hypothesis by observing 56 three-person groups engaged in an opportunity creation-focused exchange task. The results of the experiment support the hypothesis that variability in the conditions of uncertainty (relational uncertainty and resource uncertainty) affects the entrepreneurial action that results in opportunity creation. These results lead us then to propose that there exists a theoretically specifiable set of key entrepreneurial actions (one that is others-focused and another that is works-focused). From this analysis we suggest potential directions for future research in the areas of entrepreneurial action and opportunity creation.

Details

Entrepreneurial Action
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-901-1

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Elena Bárcena-Martín, Samuel Medina-Claros and Salvador Pérez-Moreno

Institutional environment plays a crucial role in determining the nature of entrepreneurship that prevails in an economy. In this paper, the authors address how business…

Abstract

Purpose

Institutional environment plays a crucial role in determining the nature of entrepreneurship that prevails in an economy. In this paper, the authors address how business, labour and credit regulations contribute differently to both the overall prevalence of opportunity-driven entrepreneurship (ODE) and its gender gap in high-income and emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of an unbalanced panel of 41 countries over the period 2005–2016, the authors estimate system generalised method of moment models. The authors also perform an ordinary least square analysis to address gender differences in ODE.

Findings

The authors find that higher credit market liberalisation is especially associated with more entrepreneurship by opportunity. Nevertheless, while credit market regulation stands out as a key element to promote opportunity-based entrepreneurship in both high-income and emerging countries, in the emerging world business regulation is also largely related to the prevalence of opportunity entrepreneurship. In terms of gender gap, business and labour market freedom seem to exert an equalising effect on the divide in entrepreneurship by opportunity, specifically in emerging economies.

Originality/value

Findings allow the identification of regulatory policy reform priorities to enhance the prevalence of ODE depending on the level of a country's development. They also identify which specific areas of economic regulation would speed up closing the gender gap in opportunity entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Matthew S. Wood, Per Bylund and Steven Bradley

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate effects of policy initiatives on entrepreneurs’ opportunity evaluation decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate effects of policy initiatives on entrepreneurs’ opportunity evaluation decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Factors were selected from real world policy initiatives. The model pricing power as a traditional economic base rate attribute and then considering how variance in use fees and reporting requirements changes the base rate relationship. The factors served as decision attributes in a conjoint analysis experiment. A total of 126 entrepreneurs made 2,268 opportunity evaluation decisions.

Findings

While increases in pricing power result in a positive upward base rate opportunity evaluation, government mandated use fees and reporting requirements diminish the base rate toward the negative. This suggest that that even though the likely profits are much higher with the significant pricing power opportunity, entrepreneurs heavily discount these opportunities because they view the combination of economic costs of paying high use fees and the non-pecuniary costs of reporting requirements as unappealing. Further, the authors find entrepreneurs’ disproportionately discount higher margin opportunities when the regulatory burden is higher revealing the importance of policy factors in new product introduction decisions.

Practical implications

Policy has traditionally focussed on the macro-level effects of initiatives and how they directly affect issues like economic growth. This study reveals that this is only part of the equation because changes in government policy impact entrepreneurs’ opportunity evaluation decisions that underpin macro trends. In order to be effective, policy makers need to pay greater attention to not only the economic, but also the non-pecuniary costs that policy changes evoke. This is especially true for those policies like reporting requirements that may be perceived as threats to entrepreneurs’ sense of autonomy.

Originality/value

This research brings to the foreground the relationship between the policy environment and the cognitions and decision of individual entrepreneurs whose collective actions move the economy. The net effect is new insight regarding how policy factors coalesce to influence entrepreneurs’ assessments of opportunities, often in ways that negatively affect these assessments beyond what simple economic calculations would suggest.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2019

Vahideh Golzard

This paper aims to explore the extent to which the internet has created new opportunities for Iranian women in Tehran. It analyses both challenges and opportunities

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the extent to which the internet has created new opportunities for Iranian women in Tehran. It analyses both challenges and opportunities offered to Iranian women by the internet as a means of economic empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a qualitative approach and based on 13 semi-structured interviews with female internet users between the ages of 20 and 55 years. The qualitative data was collected through open-ended questions in face-to-face interviews. This study uses ethnography as a research tool to explore the question of whether the internet has made a difference in the economic lives of Iranian women.

Findings

Result reveals that the internet and working online have significant impact on the economic lives of Tehrani women by enabling them to engage in new forms of online business. This technology is being used for online advertising to attract more clients, to establish business contacts with peers and to manage households positively.

Research limitations/implications

The result of the research cannot be regarded as applicable to all women in Iran, as the opportunity to access online economic activities is only available to those women who are highly trained and well-educated. In addition, the result of the research may not reflect the barriers that women from different social classes and ethnic groups have faced in the achievement of economic empowerment online.

Practical implications

The study highlights that due to a generally lack of computer proficiency, women in these areas are unable to effectively maximise their participation in the online economic sphere. This barrier must be removed by enhancing women’s computer literacy and ICT (information, communication and technologies) and establishing development networking programme centres for internet skills training.

Originality/value

The internet has created opportunity for Iranian women to expand their participation in the online economic sphere. However, research in the field of online economic activities in Iran, especially concerning women working online, is scant. The key contribution of this paper is to fill the gap in this area of study, in particular offering insights into the ways in which women use the internet to overcome the boundaries of physical space and become empowered.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Robert J. Tosterud

Economic development as a public initiative is traditionally designed to assist designated members of a society in their efforts to adjust to structural change and economic

Abstract

Economic development as a public initiative is traditionally designed to assist designated members of a society in their efforts to adjust to structural change and economic dislocation. The goal of a typical economic development program, while a public interventionist initiative, is to stimulate private sector economic activity, thereby alleviating the stress and damage associated with structural change and economic dislocation; in other words, to help fellow citizens and perhaps neighbours through an economic transition. These are honourable and worthy goals, but even here compassion, empathy, innovative thinking, and resources — especially resources — have their limits.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Susan Clark Muntean

While numerous comparative studies have measured women's participation in starting or owning a business, the factors stimulating their engagement in highly productive…

Abstract

Purpose

While numerous comparative studies have measured women's participation in starting or owning a business, the factors stimulating their engagement in highly productive entrepreneurial activity have been understudied. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This study compares country‐level data on the institutional and cultural factors that affect a woman's decision to start and grow a business with country‐level measures of the entrepreneurial environment, innovative activity and access to opportunity.

Findings

It was found that three institutional and cultural factors influence the decision calculus of women to found and expand enterprises: legal and social status; institutional presence; and economic empowerment. Women who have the requisite support exploit market opportunities and translate their ideas, creativity and skills into high potential, high growth ventures. This in turn generates entrepreneurial activity, job creation and prosperity at the country level.

Research limitations/implications

Comparable data on variables of interest, including the number of female‐founded high‐growth businesses and child care support, for example, are not available across countries. This study uses proxies and indices where data are missing and makes recommendations on improving data collection for future scholarship.

Practical implications

Improving access to collateral by strengthening the property rights of women, increasing the representation of women in banking, business, government and academia, and providing greater economic empowerment of all women produces more productive entrepreneurial activity and prosperity for the entire population.

Originality/value

Women entrepreneurs are a missing link that explains variation among countries in the quality and quantity of entrepreneurial activity.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2017

Rick Colbourne

Indigenous entrepreneurship and hybrid venture creation represents a significant opportunity for Indigenous peoples to build vibrant Indigenous-led economies that support…

Abstract

Indigenous entrepreneurship and hybrid venture creation represents a significant opportunity for Indigenous peoples to build vibrant Indigenous-led economies that support sustainable economic development and well-being. It is a means by which they can assert their rights to design, develop and maintain Indigenous-centric political, economic and social systems and institutions. In order to develop an integrated and comprehensive understanding of the intersection between Indigenous entrepreneurship and hybrid ventures, this chapter adopts a case study approach to examining Indigenous entrepreneurship and the underlying global trends that have influenced the design, structure and mission of Indigenous hybrid ventures. The cases present how Indigenous entrepreneurial ventures are, first and foremost, hybrid ventures that are responsive to community needs, values, cultures and traditions. They demonstrate that Indigenous entrepreneurship and hybrid ventures are more successful when the rights of Indigenous peoples are addressed and when these initiatives are led by or engage Indigenous communities. The chapter concludes with a conceptual model that can be applied to generate insights into the complex interrelationships and interdependencies that influence the formation of Indigenous hybrid ventures and value creation strategies according to three dimensions: (i) the overarching dimension of indigeneity and Indigenous rights; (ii) indigenous community orientations and (iii) indigenous hybrid venture creation considerations.

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