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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Steve Carlton-Ford

Purpose – This chapter examines the impact of armed conflict and three forms of militarization on child mortality rates cross-nationally. Previous theorizing argues that…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines the impact of armed conflict and three forms of militarization on child mortality rates cross-nationally. Previous theorizing argues that praetorian militaries create conditions particularly adverse to the well-being of civilians, but the effects of praetorian militarization are likely confounded both by economic and social militarization, and by armed conflict, economic development, and political regime.

Methodology – This study conducts a cross-national panel study of the impact of armed conflict and militarization on civilian life chances using data from 175 countries with populations 200,000 or larger. Analyses employ a fixed-effects model, which controls for stable country characteristics; the analyses also control for time-varying characteristics of countries that influence the impact of armed conflict and militarization on life chances.

Findings – Praetorian militarization appears to increase child mortality, as does social militarization (particularly during years of internationalized internal armed conflict), once stable country effects and other variables are controlled. This chapter is the first to systematically examine the impact of praetorian militarization on social development (indexed by child mortality rates).

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2007

Anna M. Agathangelou and Tamara L. Spira

As triumphantly announced in journals and magazines, a la Fukuyama, late capitalism and its contingent logic of neoliberalism (ostensibly) reigns supreme, exploiting each…

Abstract

As triumphantly announced in journals and magazines, a la Fukuyama, late capitalism and its contingent logic of neoliberalism (ostensibly) reigns supreme, exploiting each site it encounters with precision. According to this fantasy of capitalism's seamless and ultimate triumph, domination is produced as inevitable, social struggle and revolution, a utopian dream. Yet, what many have seen since the 1990s is that this narrative requires military mobilizations of different kinds (i.e., “the war on terror” has become of late the reason thousands are being killed daily in Afghanistan and Iraq).

Details

Sustainable Feminisms
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1439-3

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Yvonne A. Braun

The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersections of gender, development and globalization through an investigation of the ways in which a large‐scale…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersections of gender, development and globalization through an investigation of the ways in which a large‐scale, internationally financed multi‐dam development project, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP), impacts gender relations through its physical presence in the highlands of Lesotho, Southern Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

Field research including interviews with men and women impacted by the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) in Lesotho in 1997 and 2000‐2001.

Findings

The paper finds that, by positioning themselves as sex workers for foreign development workers, non‐elite women are able to access development monies indirectly. The devaluation of women's labor on farms and in the household excludes them as legitimate receivers of “development”, reproducing male ownership and patriarchal authority, and ultimately pushing some women into work that is precarious, low wage, risky, and often demeaning.

Research limitations/implications

This research highlights the complicated and contradictory gendered gains and losses in the development context and how they mirror larger globalization processes and their effects on gender inequality. Further research with sex workers is needed.

Originality/value

Feminist inquiries into globalization, particularly those focused on militarization and economic restructuring, have revealed the gendered effects of globalizing processes as they take place in particular locales (military bases, industries, corporations, factories). The ways in which the presence of sites of development creates particular gendered dynamics have been understudied. Incorporating analysis of the presence of large‐scale development projects in local areas offers opportunities to link the investigation of development in a larger context of globalization, and reveals a more nuanced reading of the gendered politics of development.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Abstract

Details

The Peace Dividend
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-482-0

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Jeffrey Kentor and Andrew Jorgenson

Recent sociological research highlights the growth of military expenditures in hi-tech, capital-intensive armaments and technology. The purpose of this paper is to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent sociological research highlights the growth of military expenditures in hi-tech, capital-intensive armaments and technology. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of these capital-intensive expenditures on two related health outcomes: under-five mortality and life expectancy.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes a series of cross-national panel models estimated for a diverse sample of developed and less-developed countries from 1975 to 2000.

Findings

The authors find that hi-tech military expenditures increase under-five mortality and reduce life expectancy over the period studied, by reducing the number and type of soldiers able to take advantage of increased health-related resources obtained in the military and indirectly, by increasing income inequality, which negatively impacts these health outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This cross-national study should be supplemented by case studies to better understand the processes being examined.

Practical implications

The increase in capital-intensive military expenditures found worldwide reduces the total number of soldiers in the military and raises their enlistment requirements. This makes it difficult for people with limited human capital to take advantage of the military’s traditional pathway for upward mobility. New pathways for mobility will have to be developed to avoid the creation of a new permanent underclass.

Social implications

There are significant social policy implications for the findings. Hi-tech military expenditures have a significant negative impact on the short- and long-term health outcomes of children and adults, in both developed and less-developed countries, which must be addressed by public policy planners.

Originality/value

This is one of a handful of sociological studies on the impact of military establishment on society. These findings highlight the importance of “bringing the military back in” to the forefront of sociological research.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1984

John E. Elliott

According to the traditional Soviet view, the Soviet economic society, based essentially on governmental and collective farm property and overall national planning, is…

Abstract

According to the traditional Soviet view, the Soviet economic society, based essentially on governmental and collective farm property and overall national planning, is “socialist”, and has been so since Stalin's proclamation to that effect in the 1930s. Most Western observers, Marxist and non‐Marxist, recognise these two socio‐institutional features of the Soviet politico‐economic system and ascribe substantial importance to them. Beyond this point, interpretations differ considerably. Five alternative views may be distinguished. These contending perspectives argue that Soviet economic society is:

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2019

Erin Thomas

The Republic of Palau in the Micronesian region of the Pacific illuminates the complexities of how the political geography of development is shaped through diplomacy…

Abstract

Purpose

The Republic of Palau in the Micronesian region of the Pacific illuminates the complexities of how the political geography of development is shaped through diplomacy, defense and migration policy. The Compact of Free Association (COFA) between Palau and the US has been a topic of debate and for some resistance.

Design/methodology/approach

Through discursive analysis of grey literature and post-development and political geography frameworks, this paper analyzes the way in which development, through unconventional pathways, is used to exert power by Palau’s largest donor, the US.

Findings

The donor–recipient, government-to-government framework fails to explore the ways in development is used as power through military operations, zonal capitalism, redefined citizenship and tourism as new aid modalities. These graduated sovereignties in Palau show that political geography is taking shape through new pathways of development, which has resulted in more actors, institutions and discourses.

Originality/value

With limited research on the region of Micronesia and particularly the politics of development, this paper contributes important analysis to the lead up to the COFA renewal negotiations between the US and Palau in 2024.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Oleh M. Omelchuk, Ihor Yo. Haiur, Olena G. Kozytska, Anna V. Prysiazhna and Natalia V. Khmelevska

The purpose of this study is to analyse the activities of law enforcement bodies in the field of combating crime and corruption offences.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the activities of law enforcement bodies in the field of combating crime and corruption offences.

Design/methodology/approach

In modern conditions in Ukraine, effective cooperation between law enforcement bodies and authorities at all levels, as well as with partner organisations and agencies at the national, regional and international levels to effectively combat crimes related to organised crime and corruption is of particular importance. Improving the investigative and detective capacity of the criminal justice system, combined with efforts to intensify cooperation, contributes to a deeper understanding of the role of joint struggle in this area, thus helping to deter, detect, punish and prevent crime and corruption offences. They must be directly part of a sustainable, long-term and comprehensive strategy to reduce the scope for corruption and open the political and economic system to greater competition.

Findings

The results of this study allow substantiating that the Ukrainian leadership understands the seriousness of corruption and organised crime: the state takes decisive legislative measures based on international experience.

Originality/value

The obvious mechanisms for reducing the level of corruption and organised crime in Ukraine can be: implementation of measures to ensure business freedom; the formation of anti-corruption business strategies; introduction of special methods of anti-corruption education; approbation in Ukraine of positive normative legal acts and practices of law enforcement of preventive nature of the European Union for joint activity of law enforcement bodies and civil society in the field of combating crime and corruption offences.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

J.S. Eades

Historically, sex, tourism, and the labor market have long been inextricably linked, but media concerns about sex as the main purpose of tourism, and its effects on the…

Abstract

Historically, sex, tourism, and the labor market have long been inextricably linked, but media concerns about sex as the main purpose of tourism, and its effects on the host group and its sex workers, date from the mid-1990s, in the wake of the spread of HIV, the collapse of communism, the rise of the Internet, and the increasing influence of NGOs concerned with women's and children's welfare. This chapter argues that in order to understand fully the relationship between tourism, sex, and the labor market, we need to adopt a broader perspective and look at the various intersections between the three factors, and how they blend into and influence each other. It conceptualizes the three domains of tourism, sex, and work as intersecting circles and analyzes the forms of activity typical of each. “Sex tourism,” as popularly defined, is the space where all three overlap, but there are significant areas of sexual activity associated with tourism that are not commercial, and yet that generate significant and increasing business activity in some destinations. There is also a tendency for partners in commercial sex to define their relationships in terms of other sectors, as “love” or “romance.” The chapter concludes that with economic development, there is a tendency for roles in the sex industry to become increasingly professionalized and differentiated, and that as the industry is unlikely to disappear, regulation should focus on the empowerment and welfare of sex workers rather than abolition and suppression.

Details

Economic Development, Integration, and Morality in Asia and the Americas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-542-6

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2022

Mohamed Mousa

This paper aims to theoretically answer the question: why might business schools in Egypt fail to develop responsible leaders?

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theoretically answer the question: why might business schools in Egypt fail to develop responsible leaders?

Design/methodology/approach

The author starts by discussing modernization theory (Lipset, 1959) – which highlights the idea that the more educated people there are in a given society/nation, the more calls for democracy, social citizenship and social justice will be launched – to address the strong association between the quality of business learning and the development of responsible leadership norms. Moving forward by focusing on the theory of education (Dewey, 1916) and institutional theory (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983), the author finds the main conditions needed to develop responsible leadership norms among business school students.

Findings

The author identified the following three necessary conditions: implementing responsible management education, sustaining management learning and ensuring that a purposive hidden curriculum is well-planned in business schools. The author sees these as the main priorities for developing responsible leadership skills among business school students in Egypt and similar post revolution countries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling a gap in responsible leadership, public administration and higher education literature, in which conceptual studies on the role of business schools in post-revolution periods and conflict zones has been limited until now.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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