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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 September 2018

Ahmed ElBassoussy

This paper aims to explore the international response to the discovery and development of gas fields in the East Mediterranean basin.

3628

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the international response to the discovery and development of gas fields in the East Mediterranean basin.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies key concepts into a framework and explores the strategies used by nations for developing their influence in the region.

Findings

The key nation states (the USA and Russia) and the supranational EU are notable in their divergent approaches to obtaining access to and influence regarding the gas fields.

Practical implications

The development of the strategies used by the international rivals for access to the resources available from the offshore oil fields is set to be an area for further study.

Originality/value

This paper offers insight into a developing rivalry over energy security, which will a platform for further investigation throughout the exploitation of the “New Gulf” gas fields.

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Athanasios Michalis and Vassiliki Costarelli

The paper aims to investigate food security research in Southern Europe and selected Eastern Mediterranean countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate food security research in Southern Europe and selected Eastern Mediterranean countries.

Design/methodology/approach

An electronic literature search was conducted using Medline/PubMed and Scopus, to identify articles and reviews that were published in the English language, between January 2014 and December 2019. Thirty-three publications met the criteria for review.

Findings

Depending on the population sample and the measurement tool, reported food insecurity differed significantly between and within countries. In Portugal, food insecurity ranged from 11 to 70%; in France, from 6.3 to 77.7%; and in Greece, from 17.3 to 82%.

Research limitations/implications

Research investigating food insecurity issues and its true prevalence across southern European and Eastern Mediterranean countries are relatively limited.

Originality/value

Food insecurity levels in the above countries vary significantly, and the different methodologies often used render the results difficult to compare.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2022

Anastasia Zabaniotou, Aigli Tsirogianni, Monica Cardarilli and Massimo Guarascio

Gender competence as part of engineering education can better prepare men and women to work on sustainable solutions that benefit entire societies. This chapter describes…

Abstract

Gender competence as part of engineering education can better prepare men and women to work on sustainable solutions that benefit entire societies. This chapter describes the framework and lessons learned of a community of practice (CoP) for gender equality facilitated by the Mediterranean Engineering Schools Network. Faculty and students from Mediterranean European, North African and Middle Eastern countries came together in this CoP, which was supported by the TARGET project, to develop a practical plan using a reflexive approach. The transfer of knowledge between generations is achieved by using participatory learning processes, facilitating mindful awareness, widening experiences, deepening understandings and building a gender-sensitive mindset. Students embarked on the journey to become change agents. The process led to the consolidation of gender equality knowledge, competence building and the development of change agents for gender equality. This CoP can inspire other institutions to undertake a participatory path towards gender equality – at local, regional, or global level.

Details

Overcoming the Challenge of Structural Change in Research Organisations – A Reflexive Approach to Gender Equality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-122-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Robert E. Looney and Peter C. Frederiksen

This paper examines the relationship between defense spending and budgetary allocations to various programs for twelve Middle Eastern and North African/Mediterranean

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between defense spending and budgetary allocations to various programs for twelve Middle Eastern and North African/Mediterranean countries in an attempt to see if spending patterns vary systematically with changes (both anticipated and unanticipated) in the budget deficit or defense expenditures. Detailed results are presented for Syria and Oman although general patterns are discussed for all countries. Not surprisingly, we found that budget tradeoffs are complex and reflect different priorities across countries. Increases in deficits can either offset or reinforce changes in defense spending. Defense and socio-economic tradeoffs vary considerably depending on whether the country spends relatively a lot or little on defense. We conclude that there are probably some long-run costs associated with sample countries cutting growth intensive programs to accommodate defense.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2018

Anna Dimitrova and Dora Triki

Following the Arab Spring turmoil, Middle East and North African (MENA) countries’ overall instability has significantly increased which resulted in the decrease of…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the Arab Spring turmoil, Middle East and North African (MENA) countries’ overall instability has significantly increased which resulted in the decrease of foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the research on determinants of FDI inflows to the MENA region by examining the relationship between state fragility and FDI.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel data analysis was conducted to study the impact of Fragile States Index (FSI) and its components, namely economic, social and political/military state fragility, on FDI inflows to seven MENA countries situated in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region over the period 2006-2016.

Findings

The results show that the increase of political state fragility deters FDI inflows to SEMED countries. By contrast, their economic and social state fragilities are insignificant for FDI. This could be explained by the fact that investors are usually attracted by government stability and a strong investment profile.

Research limitations/implications

Given the fact that previous research has not yet validated FSI as a new FDI determinant, the results should be interpreted with some caution. It may also be worth examining the impact of FSI on FDI by industry sector in future studies.

Practical implications

The results reveal that FSI could help MNEs investing in the MENA region assess and better manage the economic, social and political/military risks they face.

Originality/value

This study introduces a new FDI determinant and stresses the importance of state fragility in attracting FDI.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Ali Kazemi Karyani, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Abolghasem Pourreza and Faramarz Shaahmadi

Health can be influenced by many factors. One of the factors is the political context of the country and democracy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of…

Abstract

Purpose

Health can be influenced by many factors. One of the factors is the political context of the country and democracy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of freedom in press and polity index in overall, public, private and out of pocket health expenditures.

Design/methodology/approach

A long-term panel data approach has been used to examine the relationship between democracy and health expenditures. The authors inserted polity and freedom into press indexes in the health expenditure model.

Findings

Increase in freedom of the press and democracy will increase the overall, public and private health expenditures while they decrease out of pocket health expenditures.

Originality/value

Polity and freedom index has a significant impact on all the health expenditure models.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Rosalia Castellano and Antonella Rocca

This paper investigates the causes of the gender gap in the labour market that cannot be explained by classical human capital theory.

1343

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the causes of the gender gap in the labour market that cannot be explained by classical human capital theory.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the authors integrate the Gender Gap in the Labour Market Index (GGLMI), a composite index developed in previous research, with further information on some social aspects that could affect the female work commitment, directly or indirectly. In particular, the authors want to verify if family care and home duties, still strongly unbalanced against women, and the welfare system play a significant role in the gender gap.

Findings

Results highlight a very complex scenario, characterized by the persistence of gender inequalities everywhere, even if at different degrees, with very strong imbalances in the time spent at work in response to the family commitments.

Research limitations/implications

The actual determinants of gender disparities in the labour market are very difficult to identify because of the lack of adequate data and the difficulties in measuring some factors determining female behaviour. The additional information used in this research can only partially accomplish this task.

Originality/value

However, for the first time, this paper uses information on different aspects and causes of the gender gap, including proxies of mainly unobservable aspects, in order to achieve at least partial measurement of this phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Andreea Hancu-Budui and Ana Zorio-Grima

Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) examine and supervise the activity of public institutions. The study aims at contributing to the existing literature on public sector…

Abstract

Purpose

Supreme audit institutions (SAIs) examine and supervise the activity of public institutions. The study aims at contributing to the existing literature on public sector audit by providing a classification of 29 European SAIs – 28 national SAIs and the European Court of Auditors (ECA) – based on a broad range of attributes varying from the SAIs' environment to its structure, activity, resources or transparency.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply quantitative methodology for clustering by means of multidimensional scaling and regressive ordinary least square (OLS) and logistic models.

Findings

The authors' results show that SAIs from veteran EU member states (MSs) are more similar amongst them and the same applies to SAIs from Nordic countries, Baltic countries, Western Mediterranean countries and Eastern countries. The authors also perform additional analysis focussing on currently relevant issues such as gender equality, age, environment or the sustainable development goals (SDGs), concluding that the younger the institutions' staff, the more transparent the institutions are. The authors also find that more transparent SAIs report on environmental audits, more prone to cover the SDGs in their audits.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited in purpose and scope because data cover only Europe. Given the limited number of observations (29), it does not have prospective purposes but only explanatory ones. The authors' findings are interesting for researchers because they offer original insights on public audit in Europe and cover matters of current interest such as environment, transparency or gender equality.

Practical implications

The research is also of interest for public auditors because it offers them information that may help them improve their activity and find institutional synergies, as the dataset is available to public auditors.

Social implications

From a social view point, the paper shows that public auditors perform work on topics of interest for the citizens.

Originality/value

The dataset compiled for the research offers extensive data and a wide variety of attributes defining European SAIs and may offer future opportunities for research from different perspectives.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Konstantinos D. Patlitzianas, Haris Doukas and John Psarras

To contribute to the design of the energy service companies (ESCOs)' environment in the Mediterranean countries, mainly focusing on the constraints this company's…

Abstract

Purpose

To contribute to the design of the energy service companies (ESCOs)' environment in the Mediterranean countries, mainly focusing on the constraints this company's environment face and the actions that can fulfil its needs and aims, taking also into consideration the opportunities and threats emerging from the energy liberalization and climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology that was followed (based in a large part on the context of two projects targeted to the Mediterranean region and funded by the European Commission) incorporated four steps, the desk analysis for energy efficiency potential in the Mediterranean, the data collection, the assessment of the constraints and the final assessment of the ESCOs' environment.

Findings

Provides information regarding the current status of ESCOs' development, in the dimensions of the ESCOs' environment (political/legal, economical/financial, social/cultural and technological), both in the European Union (EU) (Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain) and non‐EU (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey) Mediterranean countries.

Originality/value

There are no papers investigating the activation environment of ESCOs in a coherent and integrated way in the Mediterranean. This paper provides to decision makers a supportive framework for policy design and formulation of policy priorities for ESCOs development in the region.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Ram Herstein, Kalanit Efrat and Eugene D. Jaffe

The aim of this paper is to discuss the import of private branding strategy for retailers, manufacturers and customers. It seeks to focus on private branding strategies in…

1992

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to discuss the import of private branding strategy for retailers, manufacturers and customers. It seeks to focus on private branding strategies in the emerging MEDA markets, and, using Israel as a case study, aims to identify why the huge potential of private brands has not been exploited in these countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Both secondary data and empirical studies of Israeli exporters and chain store managers were conducted to determine what strategies are used to market private brands in developed, emerging and developing MEDA countries. Also included is a case study based on an analysis of four separate periods of the marketing of private brands in Israel, which are very similar to those seen in other emerging MEDA countries such as Greece and Turkey.

Findings

A review of private branding strategies in the MEDA countries reveals three different markets, each one managed differently: developing, emerging, and developed. The most attractive MEDA markets with regard to private brands for retailers and manufacturers are the emerging countries, which have the most rapid growth potential in this region.

Originality/value

Few studies are to be found in the literature that are based on the development of private labels in emerging countries. Moreover, the paper is the first to survey such development in Israel, one of the most developed countries in the Mediterranean.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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