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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Terence Ping Ching Fan

The rise of Emirates, Etihad, and Qatar Airways in the Middle East (collectively referred to as “ME3”) has been absolutely dramatic. How should other full-service carriers…

Abstract

The rise of Emirates, Etihad, and Qatar Airways in the Middle East (collectively referred to as “ME3”) has been absolutely dramatic. How should other full-service carriers respond? This study takes a look at how one carrier, Singapore Airlines, has responded and may offer clues to how others may choose to respond. Facing ME3’s ascent in service quality and rapid capacity expansion, Singapore Airlines stuck to its niche as a premium carrier and refrained from tit-for-tat type competition. It managed to command a fare premium in select markets even in the presence of ME3, but had to sacrifice growth in its passenger count. This offers valuable lessons for other full-service carriers.

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Modelling the Riskiness in Country Risk Ratings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-837-8

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Colin C. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the nature of undeclared work in South East Europe and the rest of the European Union and in doing so, to evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the nature of undeclared work in South East Europe and the rest of the European Union and in doing so, to evaluate critically the validity of depicting the character of undeclared work as being the same everywhere.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2007 survey of undeclared work is reported, conducted in 27 European Union (EU) member states involving 26,659 face‐to‐face interviews. This paper focuses on the results of the 2,432 interviews conducted in five South East European countries, namely Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Romania and Slovenia.

Findings

In South Eastern Europe, more undeclared work is found to be waged employment and conducted by marginalised population groups out of necessity compared with other EU regions. Nevertheless, and similar to other EU regions, most undeclared work is conducted on an own‐account basis, rather than as waged employment, for close social relations, rather than anonymous employers, and out of choice rather than necessity, although different mixtures prevail in different places and populations both within South Eastern Europe and across the EU as a whole.

Research limitations/implications

This recognition of the multifarious work relations and motives involved in undeclared work, and different mixtures in varying populations, displays the need to move beyond treating undeclared work as everywhere the same and towards nuanced spatially sensitive representations.

Practical implications

Given the proportion of undeclared work conducted on an own‐account basis and for closer social relations, this paper reveals that if South East European governments continue to seek its eradication, they will deter with one hand precisely the entrepreneurship and mutual aid that with another they are seeking to nurture.

Originality/value

This is the first evaluation of undeclared work in South East Europe and the EU.

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Employee Relations, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Marilyn M. Helms

Reports a recent international study trip (a group of universityprofessors and scholars) giving an opportunity to experience first‐handthe changes involved in unifying the…

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Abstract

Reports a recent international study trip (a group of university professors and scholars) giving an opportunity to experience first‐hand the changes involved in unifying the two Germanies, and extending the realm of capitalism and a free‐market system to Russia and to witness examples of the systematic gap between East and West caused by decades of social, political and economic value systems. The visit included the German Chamber of Commerce, a tour of a former East German machine tool factory, Treuhandanstalt – the government organization responsible for privatizing East German businesses, the Free University and Humboldt University, and numerous talks by educational and governmental leaders. Outlines the findings and adds comments from speakers, further analysis on the unification progress to date, and information on future challenges.

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European Business Review, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2015

Graham Baldock

– This paper aims to examine the perception of corruption across Europe, Middle East and Africa across a small population of Compliance employees within a global organisation.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the perception of corruption across Europe, Middle East and Africa across a small population of Compliance employees within a global organisation.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey consisting of 18 open and closed style questions and those using the Likert scale to measure perceptions was used in this research. Some of the questions were designed to enable supporting commentary to be provided.

Findings

This paper has only compounded the general published view of non-governmental organisations and academics that corruption is real and widespread and affects society, irrespective of age, culture or geographic location.

Research limitations/implications

This study was targeted at a Compliance function within one organisation. Even though all the respondents would have had the same training, their perception might not be the same as individuals in the same country who were not employed within the same organisation.

Practical implications

This may benefit companies from a training perspective, as it demonstrates the variety of opinions that exist within one organisation. It may also be of interest to organisations such as Transparency International, who conduct periodic research into the perception of corruption.

Social implications

This research highlights the differences of opinion just within one organisation and thereby demonstrates the difficulties faced in tackling corruption.

Originality/value

As this research was conducted from an internal perspective within one organization, it provides a unique insight into the views and opinions of employees across Europe, Middle East and Africa.

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Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2004

Ming‐Tien Tsai and Yung‐Ming Cheng

This study examines the entry mode and ownership strategies in China, South‐East Asia and Western Europe made by manufacturing firms in Taiwan. The results find that when…

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1862

Abstract

This study examines the entry mode and ownership strategies in China, South‐East Asia and Western Europe made by manufacturing firms in Taiwan. The results find that when the larger, high R&D and high advertising intensive Taiwanese manufacturing firms invest in China, South‐East Asia and Western Europe, they would be likely to choose the greenfield‐WFOE entry. On the other hand, when these firms have the most foreign investing experiences and the longest investing history in China, South‐East Asia and Western Europe, the acquisition‐WFOE entry would tend to be preferred. Finally, this study proposes relevant implications for practice in the conclusion.

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International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 14 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

V. Duwicquet, E.M. Mouhoud and J. Oudinet

The aim of this paper is to estimate the dynamic of international migration between the different regions of the world for 2030 and to measure the impact of different kind

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to estimate the dynamic of international migration between the different regions of the world for 2030 and to measure the impact of different kind of migration policies on the economic and social evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

The change and migration forecasting are estimated for regions of the world using macroeconomic Cambridge Alphametrics Model.

Findings

The crisis and its aggravation thus clearly favour scenarios of immigration policy along the “zero migration” or “constant migration”. These choices of migration policies reinforce the deflationary process resulting in reduced opportunities for renewed growth in industrial areas and are not offset by the dynamism of growth in emerging countries. Paradoxically, the developed countries which are most durably affected by the crisis are also those that have ageing population and are in high need of skilled and unskilled labor.

Practical implications

Three options are possible: one going along the depressive process by espousing restrictive immigration policies that remain expensive. The second involves a highly selective immigration policy. Under these conditions the demographic revival already appearing would be reinforced by a rejuvenation of the population brought about by a more open immigration policy. Political and institutional factors play a fundamental role in the emergence of this optimistic assumption and the rise of isolationism in Europe and the ghettoization of suburban areas can hinder the application of such a policy of openness to migration. The third scenario, the mass migration scenario, allows letting go of the growth related constraints and getting out of the deflationist spiral. This pro-active approach could cause public opinions to change in line with public interest. This scenario of mass migration has more of a chance to see the light under a growth hypothesis. However, restrictive policies weaken the prospects of sustainable recovery causing a vicious cycle that can only be broken by pro-active policies or by irresistible shocks.

Originality/value

From specific estimations, four immigration regimes have been built that cut across the major regions of the model: the “core skill replacement migration regime” based on selective policies using migration to fill high-skilled labor needs (United Kingdom, West and Northern Europe, Canada, Australia, and USA), “mass immigration and replacement” applies to South Europe, East Asia High Income, and part of West Asia (Gulf countries), “big fast-growing emerging regions of future mass immigration,” notably China, India and “South-South migration” based on forced migration much of it by climate change, which may likely occur in South Asia, part of West Asia, and, most of Africa (without South Africa). Migrations in transit countries (Central America to USA, and East Europe to UK and West Europe) are based on low skilled migrants in labor-intensive sectors.

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Foresight, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

A. Coskun Samli and Wladyslaw Jermakowicz

Analyzes the development of marketing in East European countries. Traces the growth of East Europe's trade with the West from $12.3 billion in 1970 to $37.6 billion in…

Abstract

Analyzes the development of marketing in East European countries. Traces the growth of East Europe's trade with the West from $12.3 billion in 1970 to $37.6 billion in 1979. Highlights eastern Europe as one of the most promising markets to the US. Discusses the broad spectrums of marketing development between eastern countries. Examines the emergence of marketing through four key stages – authoritative systems, directive systems, mixed‐middle systems and integrative systems. Analyzes the differences in the standards of key marketing factors between East and West – e.g. range of products, pricing and advertising. Concludes that due to variations in starting points and differences in development patterns, East European countries are divided between centralization and decentralization. Affirms that unless US international marketers understand the peculiarities of eastern Europe, the US trade record with these potential markets is unlikely to improve.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Anupam Agrawal and Caroline Rook

This study compares multi-rater leadership evaluations of 1,748 executives in 10 national clusters to determine whether leaders in the East and West display different…

Abstract

This study compares multi-rater leadership evaluations of 1,748 executives in 10 national clusters to determine whether leaders in the East and West display different global leadership behavioral patterns. Data were collected via the Global Executive Leadership Inventory (GELI), which measures 12 dimensions of global leadership behaviors. The 360-degree GELI also provided feedback data from the executives’ 13,166 superiors, peers, and subordinates. Based on multilevel modeling analysis of self-ratings and observer ratings, findings indicated that the executives generally display similar patterns of global leadership behavior, but there are significant cultural differences on some leadership dimensions.

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Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-479-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 December 2010

Grzegorz Ekiert

This chapter offers a few stylized observations about the middle class and its role in the fall of communist regimes in East Central Europe. I claim that successive East

Abstract

This chapter offers a few stylized observations about the middle class and its role in the fall of communist regimes in East Central Europe. I claim that successive East European modernization projects during the 20th century (intrawar, communist, and postcommunist) were essentially middle-class “revolutions from above.” They occurred in a backward region among late modernizers keenly aware of their peripheral position and were based on and carried out by the state. Both a product of the state and dependent on it, the middle class was the main actor and supporter of these modernization efforts. I also argue that the Solidarity movement in 1980/81 and the 1989 collapse of communism were the last successful middle-class revolutions. Hopes for another political rebellion against postcommunist authoritarianism may be misplaced, since the transformational potential of the East European middle class, produced by the peculiarities of communist rule, has been exhausted. Fast progressing modernization, segmentation, and fragmentation of identity of the postcommunist middle class brought about by the economic, cultural, and political integration with the West undercut its mobilizational potential and its role as an agent of political transformations. The East European middle-class revolution against communist rule can offer four basic lessons. First, the middle class is a cultural and historical not economic phenomenon. Second, it is extremely rare for the middle class to become a collective actor, the class for itself. Third, the main competitors of middle-class identity are nationalism, ethnicity and religion. Finally, postmodernity with its fluidity, uncertainty, fractured identities, fragmented lifestyles, consumption patterns, and status configuration does not provide facilitating conditions for middle-class solidarity and mobilization, making it politically feeble.

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Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-326-3

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