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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Edmund Booth

Introduction The 1985 earthquake in Mexico City served as a sobering reminder of the destructive effects that earthquakes can have on well‐constructed and engineered…

Abstract

Introduction The 1985 earthquake in Mexico City served as a sobering reminder of the destructive effects that earthquakes can have on well‐constructed and engineered buildings. The collapse of some 120 tall buildings in steel and reinforced concrete, many designed to a modern earthquake building code, and serious damage in several hundred more, might suggest that modern methods are powerless to prevent catastrophe in an extreme event. Less informed observers even concluded (erroneously) from the generally good performance of 18th and 19th century masonry buildings in the earthquake that we have somehow lost the art of earthquake resistant design which our fore‐fathers knew. The reasons for the selectiveness of attack and the poor performance of modern construction in the Mexico earthquake have been widely discussed (for example, Booth et al.1) and are reasonably well understood.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2012

Naill M. Momani and Asad Salmi

The purpose of this study is to measure the willingness of general education schools (governmental and private) in the Mecca region to deal with the threat of earthquakes

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the willingness of general education schools (governmental and private) in the Mecca region to deal with the threat of earthquakes through the identification of the preparedness of school buildings, the differences in the willingness of schools, and examine the relationship between the exposure to previous crises and readiness for future crises.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a survey method to explore and determine the readiness range of schools by distributing a questionnaire to school principals. The questionnaire measures the readiness range of the institutions to counter earthquake threat through six main fields which were developed based on Federal Emergency Management Agency Resources (www.fema.gov) and were used in developing an earthquake consequences model (Al Momani), namely: previous emergencies measures, previous earthquake experience measures, earthquake mitigation measures, earthquake preparedness measures, earthquake response measures and earthquake recovery measures.

Findings

It is apparent that schools are not prepared to deal with future earthquakes regardless of their types (public vs private) and levels (primary, elementary, secondary) which require establishing a department for disaster and crisis management within the public administration of Education headed by a specialist in disasters and crises management to make sure that current school campus, under construction campus, or leased buildings be prepared to deal with disasters and crises as they occur in non‐hazardous locations, compatible with building codes, and equipped with safety means. It is important to prepare a public emergency plan for disasters and crises and to train school administrators and teachers to prepare contingency plans for disaster management in school. Finally, there is a need to prepare disasters awareness programs benefiting from public and private media, internet, and workshops through utilizing experiences of other developed countries in disasters and crises management especially for schools.

Originality/value

This research could be used to augment the need of developing education system preparedness in Jeddah Province through implementing effective mitigation, preparedness, and response, as well as recovery options.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Gary Gibson

Investigates the effects of earthquakes in the Victoria region of Australia. Looks at how they can be predicted by the use of seismology, and how this information can be…

Abstract

Investigates the effects of earthquakes in the Victoria region of Australia. Looks at how they can be predicted by the use of seismology, and how this information can be used to protect buildings from major damage. Examines a system developed by the Seismology Research Centre, Bundoora, Australia, to provide alarm, damage scenario and response information after moderate or large earthquakes.

Details

Information Management & Computer Security, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-5227

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Hemanth Kumar Chinthapalli and Anil Agarwal

Earthquake tremors not only increase the chances of fire ignition but also hinder the fire-fighting efforts due to the damage to the lifelines of a city. Most of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Earthquake tremors not only increase the chances of fire ignition but also hinder the fire-fighting efforts due to the damage to the lifelines of a city. Most of the international codes have independent recommendations for structural safety against earthquake and fire. However, the possibility of a multi-hazard event, such as fire following an earthquake is seldom addressed.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an experimental study of Reinforced Concrete (RC) columns in post-earthquake fire (PEF) conditions. An experimental approach is proposed that allows the testing of a column instead of a full structural frame. This approach allows us to control the loading and boundary conditions individually and facilitates the testing under a variety of these conditions. Also, it allows the structure to be tested until failure. The role of parameters, such as earthquake intensity, axial load ratio and the ductile detailing of the column on the earthquake damage and subsequently the fire performance of the structure, is studied in this research. Six RC column specimens are tested under a sequence of quasi-static earthquake loading, followed by combined fire and axial compression loading conditions.

Findings

The experiment results indicate that ductile detailed columns subjected to 4% or less lateral drift did not lose significant load-carrying capacity in fire conditions. A lateral drift of 6% caused significant damage to the columns and reduced the load-carrying capacity in fire conditions. The level of the axial load acting on the column at the time of earthquake loading was found to have a very significant effect on the extent of damage and reduction in column load capacity in fire conditions. The columns that were not detailed for a ductile behavior observed a more significant reduction in axial load carrying capacity in fire conditions.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to columns of 230 mm size due to the limitations of the test setup. The applicability of these findings to larger column sections needs to be verified by developing a numerical analysis methodology and simulating other post-earthquake-fire tests available in the literature.

Originality/value

The experimental procedure proposed in this paper offers an alternative to the testing of a complete structural frame system for PEF behavior. In addition to the ease of conducting the tests, the procedure also allows much better control over the heating, structural loading and boundary conditions.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Jaime Santos-Reyes and Tatiana Gouzeva

Studies on human behaviour during a seismic emergency in tall buildings are scant. During such emergencies, occupants need to reach a safe place. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies on human behaviour during a seismic emergency in tall buildings are scant. During such emergencies, occupants need to reach a safe place. The purpose of this paper is to address some of the emotional and behavioural responses of the occupants of three multi-storey buildings during the 19 September earthquake that hit Mexico City in 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional and non-probability study was conducted using a questionnaire-based survey; the sample size was n = 352, and the study was conducted from 4 October to 20 November 2017.

Findings

(1) In the 11 storey-building, women, age (18–49 years old [yo]) and participants with higher education exhibited flight behaviour, and those of the six storey-building within the age category 18–49 yo also exhibited a similar behaviour; (2) Women and age (18–49 yo) in the six and 11-storey buildings were significantly associated with fear of the earthquake; (3) Women were significantly more fearful and felt more intense the tremors than men in the 11-storey building; (4) Women were significantly more fearful of the 11-storey building collapsing; (5) The taller the building, the more fearful were the occupants of the building collapsing.

Research limitations/implications

First, the sample considered in the study was no probability; consequently, the results should not be generalised to the existing high-rising buildings in Mexico City. Second, some of the variables considered herein were of the Likert-type scale but have been assumed as continuous; in fact, some future work could be the design of a valid and reliable questionnaire to address human behaviour during earthquakes in tall buildings.

Practical implications

The presented results may be the great value to key decision-makers on how to address the lack of earthquake preparedness during a seismic emergency. Further, the results have shed light on the negative emotions (fear) experienced by the occupants of tall buildings.

Social implications

Gaining a better understanding of human behavioural in tall buildings is essential in devising measures to mitigate the impact of earthquake disasters.

Originality/value

Research on human behaviour during a seismic emergency in high-rise buildings is scant. To gain a better understanding of human emotional and behavioural response to earthquakes in tall buildings, it becomes necessary to conduct research such as the present case study. This may help decision-makers to devise measures so that the impact of earthquake disasters may be limited.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Coping with Disaster Risk Management in Northeast Asia: Economic and Financial Preparedness in China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-093-8

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2014

Tomoko Kubo, Toshiki Yamamoto, Michihiro Mashita, Misao Hashimoto, Konstantin Greger, Tom Waldichuk and Keisuke Matsui

Drawing on a case study in Hitachi City, Ibaraki prefecture, this chapter aims to analyze the relationship between community support and the behavior of residents after…

Abstract

Drawing on a case study in Hitachi City, Ibaraki prefecture, this chapter aims to analyze the relationship between community support and the behavior of residents after the Tohoku Pacific Earthquake in the regions affected by the disaster. The chapter will examine residents’ behavior and the community’s roles by way of the following process: (1) We will review Japan’s natural disaster prevention regimes; (2) we will examine the result of a field survey conducted in Hitachi City detailing the city’s natural disaster prevention procedures and the operation of some neighborhood evacuation sites; (3) the behavior of residents following the earthquake is analyzed. In this part, questionnaires were sent to 2000 households, of which 492 (24.6%) were collected and used for this analysis. The earthquake and tsunami destroyed lifelines such as water supply for several days in the city. According to the city, a total of 65 buildings were judged to be in dangerous condition, 251 as requiring care, and 478 were only partially damaged. The most serious damage was found mainly in the city’s coastal areas, where a total of 85 houses were entirely or partly damaged, and 483 houses were flooded above the floorboards by the tsunami. On March 11, a total of 69 evacuation sites opened, and 13,607 residents rushed into them. After the disaster, residents initially tried to go back to their homes. Depending on the damage done, they either stayed there or moved to a relative’s or friend’s house, or to a neighborhood evacuation site. Due to the failure of the lifelines, transportation systems, and the damage caused by the disaster, most residents had to stay within an area more limited than usual, around which they could walk or ride by bicycle. Residents had only the human and physical resources of their neighborhoods. Therefore, the characteristics of their local communities affected how residents behaved during and after the earthquake.

Details

Risks and Conflicts: Local Responses to Natural Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-821-1

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2018

Gregory Coutaz

Abstract

Details

Coping with Disaster Risk Management in Northeast Asia: Economic and Financial Preparedness in China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-093-8

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Abstract

Details

Social Media in Earthquake-Related Communication
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-792-8

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Book part
Publication date: 13 September 2017

Yingying Sun

This chapter focuses on the experiences and processes of earthquake recovery to discuss the general state of disaster recovery in Japan. In this way, it is expected that…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the experiences and processes of earthquake recovery to discuss the general state of disaster recovery in Japan. In this way, it is expected that the outcome and discussion can provide effective insights for both domestic and international disaster-related efforts. First, the characteristics of natural disasters in Japan are summarized using statistical data. Quantitative and qualitative methods are flexibly used to analyze published data, materials, and semistructured interview data. Published data and materials are collected from various sources. Interview data were gained from diverse interviewees. Then, four case studies of earthquake recovery are introduced and the application of their recovery experiences to future disaster risk reduction is proposed. Finally, conclusions have been drawn from these case studies to show the practical influence of disaster-recovery experiences to regions that are currently experiencing or are likely to experience natural disasters in the future. More specifically, the chapter illustrates what challenges and influences past earthquakes can have on our present preparedness against a Nankai Trough Earthquake, which is predicted to occur in the near future.

Details

Recovering from Catastrophic Disaster in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-296-5

Keywords

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