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Book part
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Chibuzo Ejiogu and Ikedinachi Ogamba

At the end of this chapter, learners should be able to:

  • Explain the major components of executive compensation.
  • Understand the role of objectives, costs and risk in…

Abstract

Learning Objectives

At the end of this chapter, learners should be able to:

  • Explain the major components of executive compensation.

  • Understand the role of objectives, costs and risk in designing executive compensation packages.

  • Explain the influence of transparency, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility practices on executive compensation in an organisation.

Explain the major components of executive compensation.

Understand the role of objectives, costs and risk in designing executive compensation packages.

Explain the influence of transparency, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility practices on executive compensation in an organisation.

Details

Financial and Managerial Aspects in Human Resource Management: A Practical Guide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-612-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Meiwu Liu, Lijuan Peng, Rui Huang, Hanxiao Liu, Yunlong Duan and Shanwei Lin

The purpose of this study is to examine whether and how independent director-CEO friendliness has an impact on the enterprise's sustainable growth capability and further…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether and how independent director-CEO friendliness has an impact on the enterprise's sustainable growth capability and further explore how corporate social responsibility (CSR) and executive compensation affect the relationship in the Chinese context.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of Chinese-listed companies from 2010 to 2020, the study adopts fixed effects models to empirically analyze the effect of independent director-CEO friendliness on the enterprise's sustainable growth capability and the roles of CSR and executive compensation.

Findings

This study finds that independent director-CEO friendliness is significantly positively correlated with the sustainable growth capability of an enterprise, and this effect is enhanced with the improvement of the degree of CSR fulfillment. What is more, the positive relationship between independent director-CEO friendliness and the enterprise's sustainable growth capability becomes stronger with higher executive compensation.

Originality/value

Given that the existing research on sustainable growth capability mainly focused on the macroeconomic field, this study is of great theoretical significance in exploring the relationship between independent director-CEO friendliness and the enterprise's sustainable growth capability from the micro-level, contributing to the research on the enterprise's sustainable growth capability. In addition, this study considers the boundary conditions of CSR and executive compensation from internal and external perspectives, respectively, as it is innovative to elucidate organizational development from the perspective of internal and external balance.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2022

Franziska M. Renz and Julian U. N. Vogel

Aligning interests of principals and agents is the most efficient way to reduce the agency conflict. Yet, the literature on executive compensation reveals inefficiencies…

Abstract

Purpose

Aligning interests of principals and agents is the most efficient way to reduce the agency conflict. Yet, the literature on executive compensation reveals inefficiencies in providing executives with legal ownership. Thus, the authors go beyond legal ownership and posit that executives' psychological ownership further aligns the interests of executives as agents and shareholders as principals.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ sophisticated methodology, including dynamic panel data regressions, static panel data regressions and propensity score matching. External validity is achieved through the large-scale sample of 22,179 firm-quarters spanning 24 quarters from 2013 to 2018 of the S&P 1500.

Findings

Psychological ownership aligns the interests of executives and shareholders since this mindset makes executives perceive the company as “theirs”. Executives' psychological ownership decreases firms' fraud and financial performance. The decrease in financial performance is related to an observed increase in executives' risk-aversion. Investors recognize this ownership mindset in executives and reward it with a positive market reaction.

Originality/value

The study is the first to consider psychological ownership of executives in relation to firm outcomes such as financial performance or fraud. The findings are of interest to scholars and practitioners, as this study establishes both theoretically and empirically a way to align the interests of principals and agents beyond executive compensation.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 September 2022

Dongmei Hu, Yang Peng, Tony Fang and Charles Weizheng Chen

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of executives’ overseas education and work experience on enterprise digital as executives’ overseas background is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of executives’ overseas education and work experience on enterprise digital as executives’ overseas background is critical to the development of enterprises. It also explored the mediating role of enterprise digital transformation on the relationship between executives’ overseas background and enterprise growth.

Design/methodology/approach

Chinese A-share companies listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges for the period 2018–2020 were analyzed using regression analysis and bootstrapping to verify hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Executives’ overseas study and work experience both enhanced enterprise digital transformation significantly, thus improving enterprise growth. The level of employee education moderated the mediating role proposed in the theoretical model. Moreover, the promoting effect of executives’ overseas background on enterprise digital transformation was more significant for non-state-owned enterprises and those in eastern China.

Practical implications

The findings provide reference for the formulation and optimization of companies’ human resource structure and have implications on the improvement of enterprise digital transformation and enterprise growth.

Originality/value

This study explored the factors influencing enterprise digital transformation at the microlevel of corporate human capital, thereby providing microlevel empirical evidence for research on the factors influencing enterprise digital transformation. Its findings shed light on the mechanism and context under which executives with overseas backgrounds may enhance enterprise digital transformation and growth.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Bernard Dadario and Bret Sanner

The paper aims to improve students' job placements, higher education institutions invest considerable resources and their students spend considerable time in academic…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to improve students' job placements, higher education institutions invest considerable resources and their students spend considerable time in academic clubs. Yet, quantitative findings on the effect of students' academic club involvement on job placements are mixed. This paper aims to help resolve ambiguity regarding the effect of academic clubs on job placements.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two studies. The first developed an inductive theoretical model by interviewing recruiters and managers and extending status characteristics theory. The second study is an experiment that tested the first study's inductive model and increased the model's generalizability.

Findings

The results of both studies show that executive board membership, but not general membership, increases perceptions of applicants' emotional control and public speaking ability, and thereby increases applicants' chances of getting an interview.

Practical implications

Administrators should consider shifting resources away from academic clubs that only benefit a few students and toward programs that help more students develop transferable skills. Students should prioritize joining clubs in which students think students can become executive board members. Academic clubs should require general members to have responsibilities that help members develop transferable skills. Industry may need to make more competitive offers to hire executive board members.

Originality/value

The two studies contribute to research on academic clubs by suggesting that the results of previous academic club membership studies are mixed, because only executive board members are more likely to get interviews. The results also highlight the importance of applying status characteristics theory to future academic club research.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Ya-ru Yang, Xiao-lin Han, Xin Wang and Jing-yi Yu

Based on the principal–agent and stakeholder theories, this study aims to put forward an intermediary model to verify the intermediary role of corporate social…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the principal–agent and stakeholder theories, this study aims to put forward an intermediary model to verify the intermediary role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in executive equity incentives and corporate innovation performance to improve corporate innovation performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The 2012–2018 A-share listed companies’ disclosure of executive equity incentives data was used as the research sample. This study used CSR as an intermediary to explore the relationship between executive equity incentives and corporate innovation performance. A verification analysis was carried out.

Findings

The research results show that: a positive correlation exists between executive equity incentives and corporate innovation performance, and executives’ reasonable equity incentives can promote the growth of corporate innovation performance. A positive correlation exists between executive equity incentives and CSR. Implementing equity incentives for executives can stimulate their motivation to assume CSR. A positive correlation exists between CSR and corporate innovation performance. The more a company fulfills its social responsibility, the more it can promote the improvement of corporate innovation performance. CSR plays a mediating role between executive equity incentives and corporate innovation performance. CSR promotes executive equity incentives’ impact on corporate innovation performance and exerts a “complete mediating effect” between the two.

Research limitations/implications

The number of samples and the time span of samples can be expanded in the future. This research has tested the mediating effect of CSR, but other mediating variables may play a role in the process of executive equity incentives in promoting corporate innovation performance. Further research should be conducted to explore the mediating effect of financing constraints and media attention on corporate innovation performance. This study only verifies the influence of equity incentives on CSR and innovation performance of senior executives. In the future, other incentive methods should be explored, such as salary incentives.

Practical implications

Foreign research on equity incentives has matured, but the experience of foreign countries cannot necessarily produce the expected effect in China. More than ten years have passed since the China A-share market began implementing equity incentives on December 31, 2005. As of December 31, 2017, about one-third of enterprises in the high-tech industry that had introduced equity incentives had stopped implementing the policy. Data from 2012 to 2018 were selected to analyze the relationship between executive equity incentives, CSR and corporate innovation performance to explore the influence mechanism of equity incentives. This study provides a comprehensive theoretical framework to examine the interaction among executive equity incentives, CSR and corporate innovation performance. Because most previous studies have focused on the relationship between executive equity incentives, CSR and corporate innovation performance, they are rarely been used as an intermediary variable to explore the impact of executive equity incentives on corporate innovation performance. This study explores the impact of executive equity incentives on corporate innovation performance under the influence of CSR. Moreover, this study explores the mediating role of CSR in corporate governance, which provides a new perspective for CSR research and verifies relevant literature on the mediating effect model.

Social implications

Research countermeasures and suggestions: the research results are significant for enterprises implementing executive equity incentives, fulfilling CSR, enhancing corporate reputation, improving corporate innovation performance and ultimately obtaining market competitiveness. Therefore, the following suggestions are proposed: establish and improve the executive equity incentive mechanism and strengthen the promotion effect of executive equity incentives in CSR and corporate innovation performance. Strengthen the awareness of enterprises to actively fulfill CSR and give full play to the role of CSR in promoting corporate innovation performance. Improve the profitability of enterprises and focus on the promotion effect of enterprise profitability on corporate innovation performance.

Originality/value

This study focuses on executive equity incentives and introduces CSR as an intermediary variable to explore the influence path of executive equity incentives on corporate innovation performance. Based on the research results, this study takes targeted measures to improve corporate innovation performance and maintain its healthy growth of corporate innovation performance. This is significant in enhancing enterprises’ core competitiveness and promoting the enterprise economy’s sustainable development. Meanwhile, the enterprise has significant reference value in actively fulfilling its CSR and realizing its stable and healthy development.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2022

Xi Zhong, Liuyang Ren and Ge Ren

The phenomenon of defamilization of family firms is gradually increasing for the growth of family firms, that is, nonfamily executives are increasingly present in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The phenomenon of defamilization of family firms is gradually increasing for the growth of family firms, that is, nonfamily executives are increasingly present in the executive teams of family firms. Although previous scholars have identified various determinants of family firms' defamilization, whether and when innovation underperformance affects the decision to defamilize family firms has not been explore. This study aims to fill the aforementioned research gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

This study empirically tests the theoretical view based on the data of Chinese A-share family listed companies from 2009 to 2017.

Findings

The authors found that innovation underperformance drives family companies to increase the percentage of nonfamily executives in their executive teams. Further, the authors found that family firms are less willing to hire nonfamily executives with an increase in socioemotional wealth, particularly when founders of such businesses serve as directors or are major shareholders, even when they are not directors.

Originality/value

This study shows that innovation underperformance and socioemotional wealth are important predictors of family firms’ defamilization decisions.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2022

Hongji Xie, Zhen Yang and Shulin Xu

Economic policy uncertainty (EPU) has huge impact and harm on real economy, so the economic logic and other economic effects behind this must be further studied. By…

Abstract

Purpose

Economic policy uncertainty (EPU) has huge impact and harm on real economy, so the economic logic and other economic effects behind this must be further studied. By constructing the “China Economic Policy Uncertainty Index” to capture the degree of EPU faced by Chinese companies, the authors empirically test whether and how EPU affects the level of executives' perquisite consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates the relationship between EPU and executive perquisite consumption based on a sample of 3,185 publicly listed firms in China. To examine the relationship between EPU and executives' perquisite consumption, a mixed least squares method was used for regression. To alleviate the problem of missing variables that do not change over time and control the influence of unobservable individual heterogeneity at the firm level, the firm fixed effects model is used for regression.

Findings

The study finds that EPU is positively associated with executive perquisite consumption. This positive association is stronger for firms with smaller size, lower management shareholding and higher levels of separation of ownership and control. Effective external governance (i.e., analyst coverage, media coverage, auditor and market competition) can mitigate the relationship between EPU and executive perquisite consumption. Further analysis reveals that EPU increases executive perquisite consumption by holding more cash and decreasing firm risk taking. EPU hurts market value of firms by boosting executive perquisite consumption and tunneling.

Practical implications

In an environment with high EPU, the board of directors should reduce managers' compensation performance sensitivity to ease the agency conflict caused by uncertainty. Firms should improve their governance mechanisms and standard and pay attention to their environmental changes. Policymakers should pay attention to maintaining the continuity and predictability of policies, stabilizing the economic policy expectations of market entities and avoiding frequent changes in policies that can harm economic and firm value. The regulatory authorities should actively guide listed companies to increase active information disclosure during periods of high policy uncertainty.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the research on corporate governance by showing how EPU influences executives' behaviors. The authors advance relative studies by showing that this uncertainty embedded in a firm's external environments influences executive perquisite consumption. This study also contributes to the literature on how internal and external governances influence corporate behavior during uncertainty. These findings extend this line of research by suggesting that effective external governance is an attribute that can alleviate the effect of uncertainty on managers' opportunistic behaviors.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2022

Rishi Kappal and Dharmesh K. Mishra

This paper aims to explore the interlinkage and association of executive isolation at the workplace faced by Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a not-for-profit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the interlinkage and association of executive isolation at the workplace faced by Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a not-for-profit organizations (NPOs) and its impact on the attrition at the C-Suite Professionals (CXO), Direct reports of CEO levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Executive isolation at top management with reference to the CEO level has emerged as a major challenge that is faced by NPOs with the effect being multiplied by the pandemic and remote working. This paper intends to examine the relevance of the impact of executive isolation experienced by top management leading to increase in the attrition at the CXO levels in NPOs due to their increasing dissatisfaction. To make a thorough study, a detailed literature review has been done followed by qualitative research methods of individual interviews, group interviews and surveys to ascertain the implications of CXO-level executive isolation on the CXOs attrition in NPOs.

Findings

The executive isolation experienced by CEOs makes them develop certain preconceived set of beliefs. By being isolated from the direct report CXOs and action on the ground and working from a remote location, they tend to inculcate their own decisions into the direct reports, thereby depriving them of authority and autonomy. This starts leading to the high level of CXO attrition.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has tried to study the linkage of the executive isolation at top management with the levels of CXO dissatisfaction leading to attrition at NPOs. This topic appears to be much-needed to be understood, especially when the new normal of work is being redefined.

Practical implications

The paper enumerates that the NPOs can attempt to deal with the challenges of engaging CXOs through virtual working; however, the mindfulness can be impacted by the experiences of executive isolation at management levels. This, in turn, can lead to lower morale, compromised performance resulting in CXO-level dissatisfaction and attritions.

Originality/value

With the limited awareness about executive isolation and its multiplier effect due to the pandemic, NPOs, like other enterprises, had to resort to virtual working. However, executive isolation at management levels apparently leads to reduction in the CXO-level engagement with the teams under them and with the CEO to which they report. This aspect can lead to the NPOs not being able to achieve their impact objectives during the outward turbulence and inward challenges of CXO-level attritions because of the CXO-level dissatisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Jiyeun Hong and Su-In Kim

This study aims to examine the moderating effect of co-CEO power gaps on the impact of female executives on firm value. Several studies have suggested that female…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the moderating effect of co-CEO power gaps on the impact of female executives on firm value. Several studies have suggested that female executives have a positive effect on improving firm value. The authors would like to examine whether this relationship changes because of co-CEO power gaps.

Design/methodology/approach

For empirical analysis, 426 non-financial companies are selected from companies listed in the Korean securities market from 2013 to 2018. The relationships between dummy variables of female CEOs, outside directors, registered executives and Tobin’s Q are examined, and the moderating effect of co-CEO power gaps that scored various factors is verified.

Findings

The results of this study show that female executives have a positive impact on firm value, but the larger the co-CEOs power gap is, the weaker that impact is.

Practical implications

The mutual monitoring of co-CEOs substitutes for governance mechanisms, but if there are power gaps between co-CEOs, then the leadership cannot be equitably shared and the mutual monitoring effect can be weakened.

Originality/value

This study contributes to research on corporate executives by analyzing the relationship between female executives related to shared leadership and firm values in Korean companies. Especially, this study finds that the role of female executives is differentiated according to co-CEO power gaps by using the CEO power index that reflects the characteristics of Korean corporate governance.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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