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Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Amina Mohamed Buallay

The last chapter of this book grouped the studies that discusses and investigates the relationship between sustainability reporting and firm performance in three different…

Abstract

The last chapter of this book grouped the studies that discusses and investigates the relationship between sustainability reporting and firm performance in three different regions: Europe, Mena and Africa. In Europe, the findings deduced from the empirical results demonstrate that there is significant positive impact of ESG on the performance. However, the relationship between ESG disclosures varies if measured individually; the environmental disclosure positively affects the ROA and TQ, whereas the corporate social responsibility disclosure negatively affects the three models. However, the corporate governance disclosure negatively affects the ROA, ROE and positively affect the Tobin's Q. In Mena, the empirical results show that there are differences in the impact of sustainability reporting (ESG) on firm's operational performance (ROA), financial performance (ROE) and market performance (TQ) between the sectors. Lastly, the findings from Africa show that there is a significant relationship between ESG and operational performance (ROA) and market performance (TQ) with ROA and TQ varying directly with the level of ESG disclosure. However, there is no significant relationship between ESG and financial performance (ROE).

Details

International Perspectives on Sustainability Reporting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-857-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2022

Amir Gholami, John Sands and Syed Shams

This study aims to investigate not only the association between corporate environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance and the cost of capital (COC) but also its…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate not only the association between corporate environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance and the cost of capital (COC) but also its impact on the company’s idiosyncratic risk. Further, it highlights that companies could manage their risk through sustainability initiatives to achieve a cheaper cost of financing.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an extensive Australian sample for the 2007–2017 period from the Bloomberg database, this study conducts a panel (data) regression analysis to examine the impact of the corporate ESG performance disclosure score on the COC and idiosyncratic risk. The robustness of the findings is tested and confirmed in several ways, including a sensitivity test. Furthermore, the instrumental variable approach is used to address potential endogeneity issues.

Findings

A favourable association was found between a higher corporate ESG performance disclosure score and cheaper resources financing. The evidence also supports the mitigating impact of corporate ESG performance disclosure score on the company’s idiosyncratic risk as a strong complement for access to a cheaper source of funds. The findings strongly support both hypotheses of this study.

Research limitations/implications

This study extends the current body of knowledge addressing these associations. Further studies should expand the investigation to non-listed or small and medium-sized companies. Additionally, future studies could contribute to the literature by including other moderating variables, such as a country’s cultural environment and diverse economic situations.

Originality/value

An extensive literature review suggests that this study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first that simultaneously evaluates the impact of corporate ESG performance disclosure on a company’s COC and idiosyncratic risk.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2022

Ivan Balogh, Mohit Srivastava and Ladislav Tyll

Businesses nowadays face unprecedented pressures from stakeholder groups to become more transparent by issuing comprehensive reports describing their environmental, social…

Abstract

Purpose

Businesses nowadays face unprecedented pressures from stakeholder groups to become more transparent by issuing comprehensive reports describing their environmental, social and governance (ESG)-related activities, strategies and policies. This paper’s primary motivation is to understand which ESG disclosure factors are relevant for large Czech companies.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the above-stated goal, the total ESG disclosure index, consisting of three subindexes (ESG) was constructed and calculated for the 100 largest Czech companies. Furthermore, the relationships between firm-level factors and ESG disclosure indexes were estimated by using censored regression models.

Findings

This study found that revenue, number of employees and profitability positively influenced the total ESG disclosures. On the level of the three ESG components, this study found that revenue positively impacted environmental and governance disclosures while the number of employees positively affected social and governance disclosures. Moreover, profitability affected social and governance disclosures positively for large Czech companies. However, this study did not observe a significant relationship between board attributes and ESG disclosures.

Originality/value

This paper extends academic literature on ESG disclosures by verifying the significance of firm-level factors in the context of Czech business realities before the adoption and transposition of the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive. More specifically, this study has investigated the ESG reporting together and separately for ESG factors. This separation is vital as firms vary in reporting processes across these factors.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2021

Li Li Eng, Mahelet Fikru and Thanyaluk Vichitsarawong

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of sustainability disclosures and disclosure ratings on firm value. This paper compares the informativeness of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of sustainability disclosures and disclosure ratings on firm value. This paper compares the informativeness of sustainability disclosures in company reports versus environmental, social and governance (ESG) disclosure ratings. The authors examine the extent to which they provide incremental information.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of panel data from over 2,600 publicly-listed non-financial US companies for the period 2014–2018. The authors obtain sustainability disclosures from Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) Navigator and ESG disclosure scores from Bloomberg. The authors regress market value and/or stock price on sustainability disclosures and ESG scores to evaluate information content.

Findings

ESG scores are positively associated with market value and price. Sustainability disclosures in the form of metrics and company-tailored narratives provide incremental information content on market value and/or price. Boilerplate disclosures reduce market value and price. Sustainability disclosures and ESG scores provide incremental information, suggesting that it would be beneficial to harmonize standards for reporting sustainability disclosures.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation is that the authors have only considered sustainability disclosures for a sample of US companies from two sources – SASB Navigator and Bloomberg.

Practical implications

The paper provides some evidence that may be pertinent to the debate on whether to harmonize the guidance on reporting sustainability issues.

Social implications

The paper provides evidence on the benefits to firms for reporting sustainability issues.

Originality/value

This paper is among the first to analyze company sustainability disclosures obtained from two different sources – SASB Navigator and ESG disclosure ratings – and compare them for relevance for company valuation. With SASB Navigator, the authors obtain further refinement into the nature of the information provided in the sustainability disclosures, that is, boilerplate, company-tailored or metrics disclosures.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2018

Amina Buallay

Sustainability reporting has been widely adopted by firms worldwide given the need of stakeholders for more transparency on environmental, social and governance (ESG

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Abstract

Purpose

Sustainability reporting has been widely adopted by firms worldwide given the need of stakeholders for more transparency on environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between ESG and bank’s operational (Return on Assets), financial (Return on Equity) and market performance (Tobin’s Q).

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined 235 banks for ten years (2007-2016) to ends up with 2,350 observations. The independent variable is the ESG disclosure; the dependent variables are performance indicators (return on assets, return on equity and Tobin’s Q). Two type of control variables are utilized in this study: bank specific and macroeconomic.

Findings

The findings deduced from the empirical results demonstrate that there is significant positive impact of ESG on the performance. However, the relationship between ESG disclosures is vary if measured individually; the environmental disclosure found positively affect the ROA and TQ. Whereas, the corporate social responsibility disclosure is negatively affect the three models. However, the corporate governance disclosure found negatively affects the ROA, ROE and positively affects the Tobin’s Q.

Originality/value

The results of this study can be used to present a successful model for worldwide banks to concentrate on the role of ESG disclosure in performance.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2022

Ritab Al-Khouri and Abdul Ahad Abdul Basith

This research examines the bidirectional relationship between Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) voluntary disclosure engagement and financial performance of a…

Abstract

This research examines the bidirectional relationship between Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) voluntary disclosure engagement and financial performance of a panel of banks extracted from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) banking industry, covering a period of 11 years (2007–2017). We find that GCC banks, and in particular Islamic banks, voluntarily disclose low level of information related to ESG activities. Using system GMM methodology, we provide evidence that ESG disclosure adversely affects bank performance, regardless of the bank performance measure used. Thus spending on ESG turns out to be costly for GCC banks, a result that is consistent with the agency problem, where managers are likely to reduce long-term expenditures related to ESG actions in order to boost short-term profits. As managers' compensations often relate to short-term financial performance, managers tend to reduce their spending on ESG activities. Furthermore, contrary to previous research, our results indicate that the relationship between ESG and financial performance is bidirectional and dynamic. We also find evidence that ESG disclosure positively affects performance only for well-diversified banks. Finally, although conventional banks disclose significantly more information related to ESG activities, we do not find any significant differences between the two types of banks in the relationship between ESG disclosure and performance. Our suggestion is that these results are consistent with what we call “clientele” and “gravitation” effects, where a customer tends to choose to deal with the bank that reflects his religious beliefs (gravitation effect) and with the bank that provides him with the best services (clientele effect) regardless of its ESG disclosure.

Details

Empirical Research in Banking and Corporate Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-397-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Shaista Wasiuzzaman, Salihu Aramide Ibrahim and Farahiyah Kawi

The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which culture may affect the relationship between environmental, social and governance disclosure (ESGD) and firm…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which culture may affect the relationship between environmental, social and governance disclosure (ESGD) and firm performance (FP).

Design/methodology/approach

Data for testing the hypotheses are collected from 668 firms in the energy sector worldwide over a period of eight years from 2009 to 2016. The analysis is carried out using the instrumental variables regression technique to account for endogeneity. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions of power distance (PD), masculinity (MASC), long-term orientation (LTO), uncertainty avoidance (UNCAVOID) and individualism (INDV) are used as proxies for culture.

Findings

The results show that ESGD has a significant negative impact on the profitability of energy firms. When cultural dimensions are taken into account, PD and LTO are found to significantly moderate the relationship between ESGD and FP, whereas MASC, UNCAVOID and INDV have no significant effect on the relationship between ESGD and FP.

Practical implications

The findings of this study highlight the need for regulators to consider the importance of cultural dimensions when seeking to develop a single global standard for ESGD. In addition, regulators need to weigh both the costs and benefits of developing a global standard for it to be effective and acceptable.

Social implications

This study emphasizes the need to take into account the cultural orientation of the society in which firms operate when devising strategies to fulfill societal expectations and achieve business goals.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that addresses the role of culture in affecting the impact of ESGD on FP.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2022

Nejla Ould Daoud Ellili

This study aims to examine the impacts of environmental, social and governance (ESG) disclosure and financial reporting quality (FRQ) on investment efficiency.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impacts of environmental, social and governance (ESG) disclosure and financial reporting quality (FRQ) on investment efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

Several econometric models have been applied to estimate the impacts of ESG disclosure and FRQ on investment efficiency, using the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a sample in 2010–2019. Estimations considered subsamples of underinvestment, overinvestment and low and high FRQ values.

Findings

Empirical results show a positive relationship between ESG disclosure, FRQ and investment efficiency, and that this relationship is more important in the underinvestment and high FRQ sub-samples. Results suggest that ESG disclosure improves transparency, mitigates information asymmetry and enhances investment efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

The findings could help UAE regulators incorporate ESG information into reporting and implement effective mechanisms to increase the extent of ESG information to improve investment efficiency. This study only examined UAE traded companies. Future research should investigate other factors influencing investment efficiency and conduct comparative studies across Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

Social implications

This study reveals the significant positive impact of ESG disclosure and FRQ on investment efficiency. These findings will help companies optimize their ESG information disclosure, improve the quality of their financial reports and comply with ESG standards. The study aims to develop knowledge that will not only benefit companies regarding the potential impact of ESG disclosure but also help national and international society create a better social environment and reduce climate change.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the relationship between ESG disclosure, FRQ and corporate investment efficiency. The research contributes to understanding the financial impacts of ESG disclosure and FRQ and supports regulators’ efforts to enforce ESG disclosure and improve FRQ.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Burcu Gurol and Valentina Lagasio

This study aims to investigate the relationship between banks’ board structure and sustainability performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between banks’ board structure and sustainability performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical quantitative paper covers a sample of 35 European banks that are listed at the EUROSTOXX 600. Regression analysis techniques were used in the analyses.

Findings

Results indicate that board size, women ratio and independent directors ratio on board are positively and significantly related to environmental social governance (ESG), E and S disclosure scores. Also, we find that ESG disclosure is related to bank profitability.

Practical implications

Findings have implications for both policymakers and practitioners (bankers and investors). Large bank boards, which have women and independent members, could perform better in terms of ESG disclosure. The results also show that large banks and banks with high borrowing care more about sustainability. For banks to reach resources, they should perform well in terms of sustainability disclosure to their stakeholders.

Social implications

Banks should observe academic findings on corporate governance (CG) practices, which lead to a better ESG disclosure to structure their CG to improve at the best their disclosure policies: they should prefer larger boards with a high level of women and independence. In addition, we attach importance to the ESG performance of the banking sector due to its fund transfer functions. Banks transfer the deposits they collect to those in need of funds as loans. For this reason, it is important to which sector and which business they give credit. The importance of banks on ESG and their adoption of sustainability dimensions also affect their credit decisions.

Originality/value

This study examines the relationship between banks’ board structure variables and their effect on ESG, E and S scores separately. This study thinks that the G score can be a handicap for ESG-CG relations. Because chosen CG variables (women ratio, independent ratio, board size) affect G scores positively and can reason for positive ESG-CG relation. The environmental and social impact of women ratio, independent ratio and board size can be seen in this study.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Giuseppe Nicolò, Giovanni Zampone, Giuseppe Sannino and Serena De Iorio

Recent regulatory changes in Europe have promoted non-financial reporting practices (e.g., Directive, 2014/95/EU) and gender diversity in decision-making positions…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent regulatory changes in Europe have promoted non-financial reporting practices (e.g., Directive, 2014/95/EU) and gender diversity in decision-making positions. Special attention is devoted to promoting the gender balance on corporate boards as a key mechanism to enhance corporate governance effectiveness and better address multiple stakeholders' needs. With this in mind, this study intends to examine the impact of boardroom gender diversity on Environmental Social Governance (ESG) disclosure practices in the European listed firms' context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applies different panel data models on an extended sample of 1,392 firms from 21 European Union (EU) countries for six years (2014–2019).

Findings

Findings allow to spotlight the positive role exerted by the presence of women directors on the boards in enhancing ESG disclosure, both at the overall and specific (individual ESG scores) level.

Research limitations/implications

Policymakers and regulators might consider the study's evidence as a stimulus to continue in promoting strategic actions and reforms that foster gender equality and balance in corporate decision-making positions.

Practical implications

Creating a heterogeneous and diversified board of directors may support implementing a “sustainable corporate governance” recently claimed by the EC.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature by disentangling the links between gender diversity and ESG disclosure over a period that covers a long season of European regulations and measures that affected both non-financial reporting practices and the board of directors' composition. Accordingly, it can contribute to enhancing the practical and theoretical understanding of the pivotal role that gender diversity may exert in strengthening corporate governance and, in turn, corporate transparency and accountability behaviours about non-financial issues.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

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