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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Michael R. Edelstein and Catherine McVay Hughes

The City of New York was suddenly and deliberately attacked on September 11, 2001, killing thousands of people and leaving unbelievable destruction. Thirty-eight buildings…

Abstract

The City of New York was suddenly and deliberately attacked on September 11, 2001, killing thousands of people and leaving unbelievable destruction. Thirty-eight buildings and structures were destroyed or damaged, including seven buildings in the World Trade Center site completely leveled. Almost five years later, two very large contaminated buildings, Deutsche Bank at 130 Liberty Street and Fiterman Hall of Borough of Manhattan Community College, have yet to be cleaned up and demolished. Some 30 million square feet of commercial space was lost. Transportation was disrupted, including the loss of the World Trade Center PATH station, the 1/9 subway line and portions of Route 9A and Church Street. Cars were not allowed south of Canal Street for a week. For Americans this was a terrorist attack and a crime. It was a time for mourning losses and responding to disaster. There was the shock that something like this could happen. And there was more. The destruction of the WTC also posed competing environmental, economic and social threats.

Details

Cultures of Contamination
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1371-6

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2007

Daniel H. Cole

Government agencies have endeavored, with limited success, to improve the methodological consistency of regulatory benefit–cost analysis (BCA). This paper recommends that…

Abstract

Government agencies have endeavored, with limited success, to improve the methodological consistency of regulatory benefit–cost analysis (BCA). This paper recommends that an independent cohort of economists, policy analysts and legal scholars take on that task. Independently established “best practices” would have four positive effects: (1) they would render BCAs more regular in form and format and, thus, more readily assessable and replicable by social scientists; (2) improved consistency might marginally reduce political opposition to BCA as a policy tool; (3) politically-motivated, inter-agency methodological disputes might be avoided; and (4) an independent set of “best practices” would provide a sound, independent basis for judicial review of agency BCAs.

Details

Research in Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-455-3

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Denise Baker and David Robertshaw

This paper reflects on changes to end-point assessment (EPA) brought about as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and considers how proposed future change will impact on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reflects on changes to end-point assessment (EPA) brought about as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and considers how proposed future change will impact on training providers and employers of health apprentices.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an analysis of apprenticeship policy, the role of EPA and consideration of assessment strategies used in higher education and health professions. Implications for policy, training providers and clinical practice are proposed.

Findings

These changes will bring the completion of EPA closer to education providers and allow them to take a more direct role within the process. Education providers will need to be issued with clear guidance to ensure regulatory compliance. The pedagogical value of EPA is questioned.

Originality/value

Training providers and policymakers will need to review their processes and guidance appropriately. This paper provides a summary of salient points needing consideration.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the…

1025

Abstract

The Equal Pay Act 1970 (which came into operation on 29 December 1975) provides for an “equality clause” to be written into all contracts of employment. S.1(2) (a) of the 1970 Act (which has been amended by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975) provides:

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

S. Rajendran, B.V. Apparao and N. Palaniswamy

The inhibition efficiencies of ethyl phosphonic acid (EPA) and 2‐chloroethyl phosphonic acid (2‐Cl EPA) in the presence of Zn2+, in controlling the corrosion of mild steel…

Abstract

The inhibition efficiencies of ethyl phosphonic acid (EPA) and 2‐chloroethyl phosphonic acid (2‐Cl EPA) in the presence of Zn2+, in controlling the corrosion of mild steel in a neutral aqueous environment containing 60ppm Cl have been evaluated by weight‐loss method and compared. It is observed that 2‐Cl EPA‐Zn2+ system has more inhibition efficiency than an EPA‐Zn2+ system. It is due to the electron withdrawing power of the Cl atom and its size. The nature of the protective film formed on the surface of the metal has been analysed by X‐ray diffraction, uv‐visible reflectance and luminescence spectra.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Charles Swenson

The employment impacts of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) brownfield grant sites are examined. Such sites are eligible for tax incentives which can provide…

Abstract

The employment impacts of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) brownfield grant sites are examined. Such sites are eligible for tax incentives which can provide additional funds for cleanup. Using establishment data, employment within close proximity to such sites is found to increase during cleanup periods following grants. The employment increase was from non-brownfield establishments, i.e., a “spillover” effect. These employment effects were concentrated in certain industries. This chapter adds to the literature on brownfield redevelopment which has focused on property values. Beyond being the first empirical chapter to systematically investigate such employment effects, the chapter’s results are important in light of the current US administration’s intent to cut EPA funding.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-293-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

S. Rajendra, B.V. Apparao and N. Palaniswamy

The synergistic effect of sodium salt of 2‐chloroethyl phosphonic acid (2‐Cl EPA) and Zn2+, in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in a neutral aqueous environment…

Abstract

The synergistic effect of sodium salt of 2‐chloroethyl phosphonic acid (2‐Cl EPA) and Zn2+, in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in a neutral aqueous environment containing 60ppm Cl, was evaluated by weight‐loss and electrochemical methods. A formulation consisting of 300ppm 2‐Cl EPA and 300ppm Zn2+ was observed to deliver 95 percent inhibition efficiency. A suitable mechanism of corrosion inhibition has been proposed which is based on the results obtained from polarization study and uv‐visible absorption and reflectance spectra. 2‐Cl EPA‐Zn2+ system appears to function as a mixed inhibitor. The protective film consisted of Fe2+ ‐2‐Cl EPA complex, Zn(OH)2 and oxides of iron. The film was found to be semiconducting in nature.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Adowa Boatemaa Darko‐Mensah and Chukwumerije Okereke

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse Ghana's AKOBEN programme which is the first environmental performance rating and public disclosure programme in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse Ghana's AKOBEN programme which is the first environmental performance rating and public disclosure programme in Africa. Furthermore, by means of a SWOT analysis, the article assesses the suitability of AKOBEN as a veritable tool for promoting good environmental governance in Ghana specifically and Africa in general.

Design/methodology/approach

The description of the design, scope and operation of the AKOBEN programme is based on 42 semi structured interviews and series of informal interactions with officials of Ghana's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – the organisation that runs the AKOBEN project, industry participants, civil society representatives and other stakeholders. This extensive interaction with relevant actors and stakeholders and the analysis of extant literature on environmental disclosure projects provided the basis for a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat (SWOT) analysis of Ghana's AKOBEN programme.

Findings

AKOBEN possesses several elements that make it capable of being an effective environmental governance tool in Ghana. These include inter alia high level political support, comprehensive rating criteria and transparency in the design of the programme. However, certain weaknesses such as the absence of a specific legal and institutional framework among others could undermine the chances of the programme attaining its full potential. Other African countries can reasonably copy the AKOBEN model with success.

Originality/value

Assessment of Africa's first ever environmental rating programme provides insight that can help Ghana to consolidate on the strengths while addressing the weaknesses of the rating programme. Other African governments considering the establishment of a similar rating programme can learn a lot from the analysis of Ghana's EPA's AKOBEN programme.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Susai Rajendran, B.V. Apparao and N. Palaniswamy

The synergistic effect of sodium salt of ethyl phosphonic acid (EPA) and Zn2+ on the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in neutral aqueous environment containing 60 ppm…

262

Abstract

The synergistic effect of sodium salt of ethyl phosphonic acid (EPA) and Zn2+ on the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in neutral aqueous environment containing 60 ppm Cl has been evaluated by the weight‐loss method. The formulation consisting of 300 ppm EPA and 300 ppm Zn2+ has 88 per cent inhibition efficiency. The nature of the protective film formed on the metal surface has been analysed by x‐ray diffraction, FTIR, uv‐visible and luminescence spectra. The protective film is found to be luminescent and to consist of Fe2+EPA complex, Zn (OH)2 and a very thin film of oxides of iron.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Louis Dodson

The entry into force of the EU-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) marks the beginning of a new era of trade relations, from preferential treatment to…

Abstract

Purpose

The entry into force of the EU-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) marks the beginning of a new era of trade relations, from preferential treatment to reciprocity, between the member states of the European Union (EU) and the Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states. In light of the controversy regarding the impact of the agreement, an assessment is made on the static welfare impact it is likely to generate on consumers in Guyana.

Design/methodology/approach

The assessment is done through the application of a partial equilibrium model to the 2008 import and tariff data of Guyana. The model captures the static welfare effect that will be occasioned by a change in tariff on imports.

Findings

The study finds that there will be a static net welfare loss to the tune of US$31.01 million or 2.2 percent of Guyana's GDP obtained for 2008. The loss is due to a large trade diversion effect which is the product of the fact that over the years Guyana imported little from the EU relative to the rest of the world minus CARIFORUM sources.

Originality/value

Unlike its forerunner, the import data used in this study is for the year immediately before the entering into force of the EU-CARIFORUM EPA and reflects the exact amount of imports that will be liberalized by Guyana. In addition, the study is broader in scope as it focusses on the EU-27, which is the exact number of EU member states with whom Guyana has signed the aforementioned agreement. Subject to its exactness, the study is better positioned in having its findings be used as a yardstick, given the periodic mandatory review of the EU-CARIFORUM EPA.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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