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Article

Pirjo Ståhle, Sten Ståhle and Carol Y.Y. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent national intangible capital (NIC) explains GDP growth and to assess its impact on GDP formation in different…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent national intangible capital (NIC) explains GDP growth and to assess its impact on GDP formation in different countries. The paper brings a new perspective to explaining hidden economic drivers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces a new theoretically and computationally justified method, so-called ELSS model that is based on expansion and augmentation of the Cobb-Douglas production function with a wide range of NIC indicators. The method is applied by using the database that contains NIC indices for 48 countries covering the period from 2001 to 2011.

Findings

The results show that intangible capital accounts for 45 per cent of world GDP. The figure for the USA is 70.3 per cent and for the European Union 51.6 per cent. The Nordic countries stand out with a higher figure at 64.7 per cent, with NIC contributing to 72.5 per cent of GDP in Sweden, 69.7 per cent in Finland and 67.6 per cent in Denmark.

Research limitations/implications

The expanded Cobb-Douglas production function is sensitive to valuations of capital inputs and sensitive to estimates of production shares for various augmenting and expanding inputs. Therefore further work is needed to develop and test methodologies for the assessment of all of these.

Practical implications

ELSS production function helps to give a realistic picture of the value and impact of NIC and accordingly gives evidence for accurate investment decisions for the future.

Social implications

The method will help policy makers figure out what steps are needed to reduce the cross-country NIC differences.

Originality/value

The authors have uncovered the value of NIC beyond monetary inputs, and at the same time taken account of country specifics. The ELSS formula is comprehensive yet not too complicated to replicate. The approach significantly contributes to the development of the current research tradition into intangibles.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article

Carol Y.Y. Lin

The purpose of this paper is to uncover the national intellectual capital (NIC) of South Africa by making comparisons with Poland and Romania.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to uncover the national intellectual capital (NIC) of South Africa by making comparisons with Poland and Romania.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a database of an NIC measurement model spanning 2001-2015, this study plotted the development trend of the NIC and its component capitals – human, market, process and renewal capitals. Their correlations with GDP per capita (ppp) (GDP hereinafter) were also presented.

Findings

The NIC of South Africa is lower than that of both Poland and Romania. Except for the increase of its human capital together with its GDP, the other capitals have lower relevance. Poland experienced highly correlated growth for its NIC and GDP, shedding light for South Africa. The qualitative findings are also reported.

Research limitations/implications

The IMD database carries South African data only for the African continent. Therefore, this paper cannot cover other countries from the continent.

Practical implications

There are three implications from both the quantitative and qualitative analyses: initiate national transformation from the two core issues of education and health; invite and provide attractive incentives for South African returnees from abroad and members of local private sectors to take part in the national transformation efforts; and learn from the NIC development pattern of Poland and Romania by investing in market capital and process capital as soon as possible for faster results.

Social implications

The research findings of this paper unveil the root of the social problems in South Africa, including education, health, high unemployment and so on. Suggestions are provided for mid-term and long-term potential solutions.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the value of an NIC in the economically successful Poland whose growth and GDP growth occurred at a similar pace.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article

Anindya Chakrabarty, Rameshwar Dubey and Anupam De

This paper aims to propose an innovative approach to risk measurement for the abolition of selection bias arising from the specious selection of different horizons for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose an innovative approach to risk measurement for the abolition of selection bias arising from the specious selection of different horizons for investment and risk computation of equity-linked-saving schemes (ELSS).

Design/methodology/approach

ELSS has a lock-in period of three years, but shorter horizons’ (daily/weekly/monthly) return data are preferred, in practice, for risk computation. This results in horizon mismatch. This paper studies the consequences of this mismatch and provides a noble solution to diminish its effect on investors’ decision-making. To accomplish this objective, the paper uses an innovative methodology, maximal overlap discrete wavelet transformation, to segregate the price movements across different horizons. Risk across all horizons is measured using Cornish-Fisher expected shortfall and Cornish-Fisher value-at-risk methods.

Findings

The degree of consistency of risk-based rankings across horizons is examined by means of the Spearman and Kendall’s rank correlation tests. The risk-based ranking of ELSS is found to vary significantly with the change in investor’s horizon. Precisely, the rankings formulated using daily net asset values are significantly different from the rankings developed using fluctuations over longer horizons (two-four and four-eight years).

Originality/value

This finding indicates that the ranking exercise may mislead investors if horizon correction is not done while developing such rankings.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article

Jadranka Švarc, Jasminka Lažnjak and Marina Dabić

This study, an exploratory one, aims to empirically investigate the association of national intellectual capital (NIC) with the national digital transformation readiness…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, an exploratory one, aims to empirically investigate the association of national intellectual capital (NIC) with the national digital transformation readiness of the European Union's (EU’s) member states. Apart from building the conceptual model of NIC, this study explores the role of NIC dimensions in the digital divide between European countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the literature review and the available EU statistical data and indexes, the theoretical framework and conceptual model for NIC were developed. The model explores the relation of NIC and its dimensions (human, social, structural, relational and renewable/development capital) on the readiness of European countries for digital transformation and the digital divide. Significant differences between EU countries in NIC and digital readiness were tested. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the association of each NIC dimension with digital transformation and digital divide within the EU.

Findings

Despite a positive association between all dimensions of NIC and digital transformation readiness, the proposed model of NIC was not confirmed in full. Regression analysis proved social capital and working skills, a dimension of human capital, to be the predictors of digital transformation at a national level, able to detect certain elements of digital divide between EU member states. Structural capital, knowledge and education, as dimensions of human capital, were predictors of the digital divide in terms of the integration of digital media in companies.

Research limitations/implications

This research has a limited propensity for generalisation due to the lack of common measurement models in the field of NIC exploration.

Practical implications

This research offers policy makers an indication of the relationships between NIC and digital transformation, pointing out which dimensions of NIC should be strengthened to allow the EU to meet the challenges of digital economy and to overcome the digital divide between EU member states.

Social implications

The use of digital technologies is key in creating active and informed citizens in the public sphere and productive companies and economic growth in the business sphere.

Originality/value

This study provides an original theoretical framework and conceptual model through which to analyse the relationship between NIC and digital transformation, which has thus far not been explored at the level of the EU. This research makes an original contribution to the empirical exploration of NIC and produces new insights in the fields of digital transformation and intellectual capital.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Content available
Article

Alan Mustafa

In this study, reasons for proving the relevancy of personalisation of e-learning systems to act as a knowledge management system in which tacit to tacit type of knowledge…

Abstract

In this study, reasons for proving the relevancy of personalisation of e-learning systems to act as a knowledge management system in which tacit to tacit type of knowledge (socialisation) can be delivered, are being provided. Nonaka’s knowledge conversion model is being used as the basis of the investigation. The relationship between ‘the strategic knowledge conversion model’ drawn from the ‘identifying list of strategies’ and ‘an individual’s decision-making method’ has been investigated in relation to knowledge transferring systems and individual’s learning styles. The outcome of the qualitative as well as quantitative investigation defines a set of frameworks in which different types of e-learning systems utilizing different learning philosophies and learners learning preferences to support the learner’s learning curve.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article

The inspection of food labellings is a long and monotonous routine but nonetheless, a cornerstone of consumer protection. For many years complaints have been made of the…

Abstract

The inspection of food labellings is a long and monotonous routine but nonetheless, a cornerstone of consumer protection. For many years complaints have been made of the loopholes and anomalies in the statutory requirements for labelling, particularly in descriptive names and declarations of ingredients. The long‐awaited report of the Food Standards Committee on Food Labelling has now appeared and been reviewed at some length in the present and previous issues of the B.F.J. The Committee have taken a long time over their subject, but their review of it has been most thorough. Their recommendations are in the main reasonable and whilst some are new and others, if adopted, could have a not inconsiderable influence on manufacturing practice, they do not disturb the present structure of food labelling set up by the Order of 1953, which was quite a landmark in its day.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 66 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article

Teck-Soon Hew and Sharifah Latifah Syed Abdul Kadir

Cloud computing technology is advancing and expanding at an explosive rate. These advancements have further extended the capabilities of the virtual learning environment…

Abstract

Purpose

Cloud computing technology is advancing and expanding at an explosive rate. These advancements have further extended the capabilities of the virtual learning environment (VLE) to provide accessibility anywhere, anytime where educational resources can be saved, modified, retrieved and shared on the cloud. The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of instructional effectiveness of cloud computing VLE by extending the Self Determination and Channel Expansion Theory with external constructs of VLE interactivity, content design, school support, trust in website, knowledge sharing attitude and demographic variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Random sampling data were collected in two waves of nation-wide survey and analyzed with artificial neural network approach.

Findings

SDT, CET, content design, interactivity, trust in website, school support and demographics significantly predict instructional effectiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The study has provided a new paradigm shift from investigating the behavioral intention and continuance intention to the effectiveness of an information system. It advocates that quality of research may be improved by adhering to the basic research methodology starting from rigorous instrument development and validation to future research direction.

Practical implications

The research provides implications to Ministry of Education, the VLE content and service providers, scholars and practitioners.

Social implications

The findings of the study may further improve the quality of living of the society when the instructional effectiveness of the cloud-based VLE is further enhanced.

Originality/value

Existing grid computing VLE studies have focussed on the acceptance of students and teachers and not its instructional effectiveness. Unlike existing studies that examined extrinsic motivational factors (e.g. TAM, UTAUT), this study uses intrinsic motivational factors (e.g. relatedness, competence and autonomy) as well as perceived media richness. Malaysia is the first nation to implement the VLE at a national scale and the findings from this study will provide a new insight on the determinants of instructional effectiveness of the VLE system.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article

Kaitlin Light Costello and Diana Floegel

In this paper, we introduce feminist technoscience as an approach that will advance theory in information behavior and practice.

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, we introduce feminist technoscience as an approach that will advance theory in information behavior and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

In this conceptual paper, we identify four common assumptions in information behavior and information practice research that limit theory development to date. Existing models and theories tend to rely on extractive logic, focus on a person-in-situation, depend on binary definitions and assume that information interaction changes people's lives for the better. This leads to extractive ways of discussing information interactions and limits our ability to fully theorize embodiment and affect in our discipline.

Findings

Feminist technoscience offers distinct ways of thinking about people, technology, bodies and power; in doing so, it responds to some perennial limitations in our research to date.

Originality/value

Feminist technoscience is a robust research paradigm that has not yet been fully applied in our discipline. Assumptions in information behavior and information practice research have led to models and theories that reflect a logic of extraction and are limited in their potential for characterizing both embodiment and affect. Feminist technoscience provides a way to conduct research that challenges these assumptions and addresses these limitations.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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