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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2013

Bryan G. Cook, Melody Tankersley and Timothy J. Landrum

The gap between research and practice in special education places an artificial ceiling on the achievement of students with learning and behavioral disabilities…

Abstract

The gap between research and practice in special education places an artificial ceiling on the achievement of students with learning and behavioral disabilities. Evidence-based practices (EBPs) are instructional practices shown by bodies of sound research to be generally effective. They represent a possible means to address the research-to-practice gap by identifying, and subsequently implementing, the most effective instructional practices on the basis of reliable, scientific research. In this chapter, we provide a context for the subsequent chapters in this volume by (a) defining and describing EBPs, (b) recognizing some of important limitations to EBPs, (c) introducing a number of ongoing issues related to EBPs in the field of learning and behavioral disabilities that are addressed by chapter authors in this volume, and (d) briefly considering a few emerging issues related to EBPs that we believe will become increasingly prominent in the near future.

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Evidence-Based Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-429-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Timothy J. Landrum and Lauren W. Collins

In this chapter, we consider a number of issues that impact or are related to the identification and promotion of evidence-based practice (EBP) for students with emotional…

Abstract

In this chapter, we consider a number of issues that impact or are related to the identification and promotion of evidence-based practice (EBP) for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Specifically, we offer (1) a brief overview of issues related to identifying EBP in special education generally; (2) some considerations about the prospects of identifying evidence-based practice for students with EBD in particular; (3) a discussion of the various sources from which information on EBPs can be drawn, and the issues and challenges associated with the search for EBPs; and (4) suggestions regarding reasonable expectations for practitioners in search of EBPs. We conclude with a discussion of several questions that must be addressed to ensure positive strides toward making EBPs available to practitioners in impactful ways for students with EBD.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2015

Joseph Calvin Gagnon and Brian R. Barber

Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve…

Abstract

Alternative education settings (AES; i.e., self-contained alternative schools, therapeutic day treatment and residential schools, and juvenile corrections schools) serve youth with complicated and often serious academic and behavioral needs. The use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and practices with Best Available Evidence are necessary to increase the likelihood of long-term success for these youth. In this chapter, we define three primary categories of AES and review what we know about the characteristics of youth in these schools. Next, we discuss the current emphasis on identifying and implementing EBPs with regard to both academic interventions (i.e., reading and mathematics) and interventions addressing student behavior. In particular, we consider implementation in AES, where there are often high percentages of youth requiring special education services and who have a significant need for EBPs to succeed academically, behaviorally, and in their transition to adulthood. We focus our discussion on: (a) examining approaches to identifying EBPs; (b) providing a brief review of EBPs and Best Available Evidence in the areas of mathematics, reading, and interventions addressing student behavior for youth in AES; (c) delineating key implementation challenges in AES; and (d) providing recommendations for how to facilitate the use of EBPs in AES.

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Transition of Youth and Young Adults
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-933-2

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2020

Scott McNamara, Melissa Bittner and Sean Healy

Physical activity professionals often lack the experience and knowledge to implement the pedagogical and behavioral strategies required to successfully work with people…

Abstract

Purpose

Physical activity professionals often lack the experience and knowledge to implement the pedagogical and behavioral strategies required to successfully work with people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To enable individuals with ASD to achieve the benefits of exercise, physical activity professionals must be knowledgeable and skilled in relation to delivering evidence-based practices (EBP). The recent worldwide coronavirus disease pandemic highlights the value and necessity of effective online learning. Recent research has suggested that online settings are a viable setting for professional learning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to assess an online course’s impact on physical activity professionals’ frequency of use and self-efficacy toward using EBPs with individuals with ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

The online program was developed to provide training for a wide-range of professionals interested in working with people with ASD. A survey was administered to participants prior to and after completion of the online course to collect data on sample demographics, and the participants’ perceived frequency and self‐efficacy in using EBPs. Eighty-six physical activity professionals participated in the study.

Findings

Overall, their self-efficacy toward EBPs and frequency at which participants reported to use EBPs increased significantly from pretest to posttest (p < 0.05). The participants also reported using three of the nine covered EBPs more frequently at post-course completion. In addition, participants’ self-efficacy toward eight of the EBPs was significantly higher post-intervention.

Originality/value

Findings from this study suggests that a well-structured online intervention has promise for preparing physical activity professionals to work with people with ASD.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Angeliki Kallitsoglou

Despite their documented benefits, evidence-based practices (EBPs) for early childhood social learning are not systematically implemented. Teachers are key players in the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite their documented benefits, evidence-based practices (EBPs) for early childhood social learning are not systematically implemented. Teachers are key players in the implementation process of intervention programs and instructional practices. This is a viewpoint about teachers’ attitudes towards EBPs and their role in the successful implementation of EBPs for early childhood social learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The viewpoint draws on theoretical models of intervention implementation and innovation adoption to explore the importance of individual factors for EBPs implementation and to inform the understanding of the relationship between teachers’ attitudes and EBPs implementation in the context of early childhood social learning. Additionally, it is informed by the literature on research-informed teaching to identify novel opportunities of cultivating positive views towards EBPs for early childhood social learning.

Findings

According to implementation science, in addition to macro-level social and organisation factors, micro-level individual factors that pertain to professionals’ attitudes towards EBPs are related to successful adoption and implementation of EBPs in organisations. Hence, it is important that the investigation of the adoption and implementation of EBPs for early childhood social learning considers the role of teachers’ attitudes towards EBPs. A conceptual model is proposed to explain that research-informed teaching could contribute to fostering positive attitudes towards EBPs for early childhood social learning by raising awareness of the value and potential of research to transform pedagogy.

Originality/value

This viewpoint draws on EBPs implementation science to identify important factors of EBPs adoption and implementation for early childhood social learning that have not been considered extensively and offers a conceptual framework to help understand how research-informed teaching could be an innovative avenue of promoting EBPs implementation in education.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2018

Katerina Gonzalez and Christoph Winkler

The purpose of this paper is to provide a process view into moments of entrepreneurial crisis within the venture formation process caused by environmental stressors. A new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a process view into moments of entrepreneurial crisis within the venture formation process caused by environmental stressors. A new construct is conceptualized, the entrepreneurial breaking point (EBP), as a critical and potentially insurmountable moment of crisis caused by an entrepreneur’s appraisal of environmental threats during a new venture’s formation.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop the EBP within a process model, this study builds upon previous environmental frameworks by expanding upon and infusing a situated social cognitive approach with a stress perspective.

Findings

The theoretical framework developed sheds light on the complex person-environment interaction that can create an EBP, the process of experiencing an EBP, how individuals vary in their activation of coping resources to respond to an EBP and how an EBP can ultimately result in new venture exit, sustained performance or growth.

Practical implications

The paper discusses implications for entrepreneurs during these moments of crises, including suggesting the use of trusted, impartial third-parties to overcome individual weaknesses, increasing awareness of the various environmental threats and finding a balance between goal-related commitment and adaptation.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature by operationalizing and contextualizing a special case of socio-cognition under duress, filling an identified need for process work, exploring some reasons for EBP response variation across different entrepreneurs and elaborating on how the behavioral outcomes of an EBP may affect venture performance.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Gregory A. Aarons, Rachel A. Askew, Amy E. Green, Alexis J. Yalon, Kendal Reeder and Lawrence A. Palinkas

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify the types of adaptations made by service providers (i.e. practitioners) during a large-scale US statewide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to identify the types of adaptations made by service providers (i.e. practitioners) during a large-scale US statewide implementation of SafeCare®, an evidence-based intervention to reduce child neglect; and second, to place adaptations within a taxonomy of types of adaptations.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 138 SafeCare providers and supervisors. Grounded theory methods were used to identify themes, specific types of adaptations and factors associated with adaptation.

Findings

Adaptations were made to both peripheral and core elements of the evidence-based practice (EBP). The taxonomy of adaptations included two broad categories of process and content. Process adaptations included presentation of materials, dosage/intensity of sessions, order of presentation, addressing urgent concerns before focusing on the EBP and supplementing information to model materials. Content adaptations included excluding parts of the EBP and overemphasizing certain aspects of the EBP. Adaptations were motivated by client factors such as the age of the target child, provider factors such as a providers’ level of self-efficacy with the EBP and concerns over client/provider rapport. Client factors were paramount in motivating adaptations of all kinds.

Research limitations/implications

The present findings highlight the need to examine ways in which adaptations affect EBP implementation and sustainment, client engagement in treatment, and client outcomes.

Practical implications

Implementers and EBP developers and trainers should build flexibility into their models while safeguarding core intervention elements that drive positive client outcomes.

Originality/value

This study is unique in examining and enumerating both process and content types of adaptations in a large-scale child neglect implementation study. In addition, such adaptations may be generalizable to other types of EBPs.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Tricia Jane Bingham, Josie Wirjapranata and Shirley-Ann Chinnery

This paper outlines a teaching and learning collaboration between information literacy (IL) professionals and a social work academic at The University of Auckland. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper outlines a teaching and learning collaboration between information literacy (IL) professionals and a social work academic at The University of Auckland. The collaboration was developed for the purpose of introducing evidence-based practice (EBP) and related IL skills to a third-year social work cohort preparing for their first practicum. Embedding the research–practice connection in the minds of students at this level of study is essential, as using evidence in practice is considered to be a fundamental professional objective. Despite this perspective, it is not uncommon for research to be viewed as an ancillary, if not discretionary skill in social work, with the research–practice gap well recognised in the social work literature. EBP offers students a clearly defined, systematic research framework imminently suited to the novice learner which emphasises the importance of research for practice. Research skills, in particular IL and the ability to find, evaluate and apply information, are essential to the development of effective EBP. Apart from the practical skills of being able to find evidence, critical thinking and reflective skills are key skills also inherent to IL processes and practice, and mastery of the evidence-based approach is impossible without mastery of these key IL competencies. Taking a solution-focused frame, theoretically underpinned by a constructivist teaching philosophy, we detail specific EBP and IL teaching practices, challenges and the remedies applied. The paper concludes with key lessons learned and future directions for teaching EBP and IL skills to social work students at The University of Auckland.

Design/methodology/approach

A solution-focused frame is theoretically underpinned by a constructivist teaching philosophy.

Findings

This paper offers insights derived from seven years of teaching EBP and IL skills to social work students and investigates specific teaching challenges and details the remedies applied.

Research limitations/implications

As a case study, this article deals with one instance of EBP and IL teaching. Focusing specifically on EBP in the social sciences, this may not be relevant for other disciplines.

Practical implications

This paper offers insights into methods for merging EBP and IL skills teaching in the social sciences, providing practical examples of activities which can be used in teaching, underpinned by relevant theory.

Social implications

To be effective practitioners, social workers must understand the importance of research to practice, in particular how this can improve their professional knowledge and practice. Forging the research–practice connection aids the development of competent practitioners and enhances the well-being of social work clients.

Originality/value

The authors outline constructivist–connectivist learning activities that can be used to advance students’ IL skills, develop research capacity and enhance the importance of the research-practice connection in social work practice. While much research has been done on EBP and IL connections in the medical and nursing literature, there is limited literature discussing EBP and IL integration in social work.

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Khalil Kalavani, Rafat Mohebbifar and Sima Rafiei

Nowadays health systems in most of the countries are trying to build their healthcare provision system based on scientific knowledge based evidence. Evidence-based…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays health systems in most of the countries are trying to build their healthcare provision system based on scientific knowledge based evidence. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a crucial factor for quality improvement focusing on compliance with clinical standards. The purpose of this paper is to assess evidence-based knowledge and skills among healthcare providers in Qazvin hospitals in 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a descriptive study conducted among 300 health professionals working in hospitals affiliated by Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2016. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on health providers’ attitude, knowledge and skill regarding EBP. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze data using SPSS 16 software.

Findings

A total of 254 participants (84.6 percent) completed the questionnaire in which their attitude, knowledge and skill toward EBP were assessed at a low level. Study results indicated that among different occupational groups, physicians and those with greater awareness toward EBP terminology had a more positive attitude compared with others. Furthermore, a higher level of knowledge and skill toward EBP was associated with being a physician and having a positive attitude toward the issue.

Practical implications

Given the importance of EBP and due to insufficient knowledge of healthcare providers about the issue, it is necessary to hold appropriate educational courses to empower health workforce in implementing EBP principles.

Originality/value

The authors applied a self-administered questionnaire to assess health workforce knowledge and skills toward EBP. The results obtaining from the analysis not only highlights weaknesses related to service providers’ knowledge and capabilities to implement EBP but also reveals facilities required for realization of the subject in hospital settings.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2010

Frederick J. Brigham

Quantitative research is based on epistemic beliefs that can be traced back to David Hume. Hume and others who followed in his wake suggested that we can never directly…

Abstract

Quantitative research is based on epistemic beliefs that can be traced back to David Hume. Hume and others who followed in his wake suggested that we can never directly observe cause and effect. Rather we perceive what is called “constant conjunction” or the regularities of relationships among events. Through observing these regularities, we can develop generalizable laws that, once established, describe predictable patterns that can be replicated with reliability. This form of reasoning involves studying groups of individuals and is often called nomothetic and is contrasted with idiographic research that focuses on the uniqueness of the individual. It is clear that large-scale experiments with random assignment to treatment are based on nomothetic models, as are quasi-experimental studies where intact groups of people (e.g., students in a particular classroom) are assigned to treatments.

Details

Current Issues and Trends in Special Education: Research, Technology, and Teacher Preparation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-955-8

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