Search results

1 – 10 of 114
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robert Gaizauskas and Yorick Wilks

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a…

1278

Abstract

In this paper we give a synoptic view of the growth of the text processing technology of information extraction (IE) whose function is to extract information about a pre‐specified set of entities, relations or events from natural language texts and to record this information in structured representations called templates. Here we describe the nature of the IE task, review the history of the area from its origins in AI work in the 1960s and 70s till the present, discuss the techniques being used to carry out the task, describe application areas where IE systems are or are about to be at work, and conclude with a discussion of the challenges facing the area. What emerges is a picture of an exciting new text processing technology with a host of new applications, both on its own and in conjunction with other technologies, such as information retrieval, machine translation and data mining.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Accumulation of tolerances on components of sub‐assemblies has caused problems in automating assembly. Marposs has found a way round.

Abstract

Accumulation of tolerances on components of sub‐assemblies has caused problems in automating assembly. Marposs has found a way round.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Amit Majumder, Megnath Routh and Dipayan Singha

One of the noteworthy developments in the world economy is the cryptocurrency in general and the bitcoin in particular. Although several types of cryptocurrency are in…

Abstract

One of the noteworthy developments in the world economy is the cryptocurrency in general and the bitcoin in particular. Although several types of cryptocurrency are in operation in the current digital economy, the most prevalent is the bitcoin, which was launched formally in 2009 by an individual or group known under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. The value of bitcoin has increased to such an extend that it reached 19.7 billion US dollars by January 2, 2018 (Statista, 2018). As the bitcoin price touches a new high day by day, various terrorist organizations are using this cryptocurrency to anonymously finance their grotesque terrorist activities around the world by bypassing the surveillance mechanism of the banking system of the respective countries. Against this backdrop, this chapter aims to understand the mechanism of cryptocurrencies in general and the bitcoin in particular. Finally, it also endeavors to identify the trend of the bitcoin economy and its impact on nefarious activities in general and terrorism financing in particular. It has been revealed from the study that cryptocurrency economy has become so popular across the world that it has created an alternative virtual economy devoid of regulations from a specific country or a group of countries. By using vector error correction model (VECM), it had been observed that there exists a statistically significant long-run association between terrorist incidences and bitcoin transaction/circulation in the panel of 12 countries for 2010–2016. However, there is a huge concern over its way of operation and its unholy nexus with terrorism financing.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Nikita Céspedes Reynaga and Nelson R. Ramírez-Rondán

Job finding and separation are not well studied in economies with high labor informality. In this chapter, we contribute to filling the gap in the literature of labor…

Abstract

Job finding and separation are not well studied in economies with high labor informality. In this chapter, we contribute to filling the gap in the literature of labor turnover, proposing a methodology to estimate both indicators in an economy with high informality. To this end, we estimate indicators of job finding and separation rates for Peru's developing economy, in which labor informality stands at 70%. We find that, on average, these indicators in the formal sector are similar to those estimated in developed economies; however, in the informal sector, the calculated indicators are approximately two times higher than those of the formal sector. The two indicators show considerable heterogeneity in the informal sector according to several observable categories; in addition, the separation rate is countercyclical, and the finding rate is procyclical, this cyclicality being greater in the formal sector.

Details

Workplace Productivity and Management Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-675-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 December 2021

Brenda Silupu, Belen Usero and Ángeles Montoro-Sánchez

The formalization of a company is a process that requires compliance with standards established by government institutions. In developing countries, many businesses start…

Abstract

Purpose

The formalization of a company is a process that requires compliance with standards established by government institutions. In developing countries, many businesses start this process, but do not finish it, with different levels of formality. The objective of this research is to analyze how the perception of entrepreneurs about bureaucratic procedures and the sector determine the level of formality regarding an established company that has taken the first step to formality.

Design/methodology/approach

The National Survey of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) is used with a sample of 4,619 Peruvian MSEs with more than three years of operation within the manufacturing and services sector. The data are analyzed with the ordered logistic regression technique.

Findings

The results show that the more favorable the perception of entrepreneurs about the ease of bureaucratic procedures, the higher the level of business formality; and companies in the manufacturing sector are less formal than those in the services sector. In addition, the perceptions of entrepreneurs positively moderate the level of formality in the case of companies in the manufacturing sector.

Originality/value

Levels of formality in established companies are analyzed, defined by the compliance degree with the requirements to be a formal company. The literature on business informality in emerging countries is expanded, particularly in Latin America, incorporating the analysis of the formalization process.

Propósito

La formalización de una empresa es un proceso que exige el cumplimiento de normas establecidas por las instituciones de gobierno. En países en desarrollo, muchas empresas empiezan este proceso, pero no lo terminan, existiendo diferentes niveles de formalidad. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar cómo la percepción de los empresarios sobre los trámites burocráticos y el sector determina el nivel de formalidad de una empresa establecida que ha dado el primer paso hacia la formalidad.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se utiliza la Encuesta Nacional de la Micro y Pequeña Empresa con una muestra de 4.619 micro y pequeñas empresas peruanas de los sectores de manufactura y servicios con más de tres años de operación. Los datos son analizados con la técnica de regresión logística ordenada.

Hallazgos

Los resultados muestran que cuanto más favorable es la percepción de los empresarios sobre la facilidad de los trámites burocráticos mayor es el nivel de formalidad empresarial, y las empresas del sector manufactura son menos formales que las del sector servicios. Además, las percepciones de los empresarios moderan positivamente en el nivel de formalidad para el caso de las empresas del sector manufactura.

Originalidad/valor

Se analizan niveles de formalidad en empresas establecidas, definidas por el grado de cumplimiento de las exigencias para ser una empresa formal. Se amplía la literatura sobre informalidad empresarial en países emergentes, particularmente en América Latina, incorporando el análisis del proceso de formalización.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Anam Javaid and Noman Arshed

Money laundering is an activity where illegal proceeds are hidden. This often leads to a reduction in government revenue and loss of government control of public funds…

Abstract

Purpose

Money laundering is an activity where illegal proceeds are hidden. This often leads to a reduction in government revenue and loss of government control of public funds. This study aims to identify the important sources of growing demand for money laundering in developing countries. Further, it identifies the factors that reduce the impact of sources of demand for money laundering.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used the panel approach of feasible generalized least square to investigate the growing demand for money laundering in 62 developing countries and provides a moderation-based solution for managing the demand factors.

Findings

The empirical results of this study indicate that there are two sources that increase the demand for money laundering in developing countries. This includes a high tax rate on profit linked with private firms and businesses and diversion of public funds related to government officials and politicians. The results indicate that profit tax and diversion of funds increase the demand for money laundering. The profit tax-based money laundering can be moderated by the quality of the education system and the diversion of public funds and money laundering can be moderated using bureaucracy quality.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to empirically estimate the impact of two important sources (i.e. diversion of public funds by government officials and politicians and a high tax rate) that create demand for money laundering in developing countries. The findings help developing countries’ governments formulate policies and curb the growing demand for money laundering.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Stephen Esaku

In this paper, the authors examine how economic growth shapes the shadow economy in the long and short run.

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors examine how economic growth shapes the shadow economy in the long and short run.

Design/methodology/approach

Using annual time series data from Uganda, drawn from various data sources, covering the period from 1991 to 2017, the authors apply the ARDL modeling approach to cointegration.

Findings

This paper finds that an increase in economic growth significantly reduces the size of the shadow economy, in both the long and short run, all else equal. However, the long-run relationship between the shadow economy and growth is non-linear. The results suggest that the rise of the shadow economy could partially be attributed to the slow and sluggish rate of economic growth.

Practical implications

These findings imply that addressing informality requires addressing underlying factors of underdevelopment since improvements in economic growth also translate into a reduction in the size of the shadow economy in the short and long run.

Originality/value

These findings reveal that the low level of economic growth is an issue because it spurs informal sector activities in the short run. However, as the economy improves, it becomes an incentive for individuals to operate in the informal sector. Additionally, tackling shadow activities in the short run could help improve tax revenue collection.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Oluyemi Theophilus Adeosun, Ayodele Ibrahim Shittu and Stellamaris Ifunanya Aju

This paper aims to explore how women entrepreneurs in informal settings, especially in the fishing sub-sector in rural communities, relate to different dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how women entrepreneurs in informal settings, especially in the fishing sub-sector in rural communities, relate to different dimensions of innovation. Specifically, this paper examines how women entrepreneurs engage in process, managerial and technological innovations. This paper also examines how they fund their business, develop their products across the value chain innovatively and how it influences their business output and welfare.

Design/methodology/approach

A face-to-face structured interview was administered among 100 women entrepreneurs in the fishing agriculture sub-sector in the Anam community, Anambra East LGA, in Anambra State. The study uses the multiple logistic regression model, descriptive analysis technique and it is quantitative in approach. The research is situated within the Local Innovation Systems and adopts diffusion innovation theory.

Findings

The study established the following: level of education and learning capabilities are significant predictors of process innovation capabilities among women-owned enterprise in informal settings; level of education, years of fishing experience and learning capabilities are significant predictors of technological innovation capabilities among women-owned enterprise in informal settings; and level of education is the only significant predictor of management innovation capabilities among women-owned enterprise in informal settings.

Originality/value

This paper focuses attention on the issue of innovation by women who operate in the informal sector of the fishing sub-sector in the agricultural value chain with attention for their productivity and welfare.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Debasish Roy

Over one and half years have passed since the demonetization of Indian economy had occurred on November 8, 2016. The drastic step was initiated by the Prime Minister…

Abstract

Purpose

Over one and half years have passed since the demonetization of Indian economy had occurred on November 8, 2016. The drastic step was initiated by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi with an intention to curb the “huge” circulation of illicit or “black” money of Indian economy by means of withdrawal of high value denominations of Rupees 500 and Rupees 1,000 from the supply of broad money (M3). This step helped to demonetize around 86 per cent value of total money supply leading to an unprecedented chaos in the economy and public life. The long delays in issuing fresh currency notes at the banks and ATMs further deteriorated the sudden economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper is aimed at exploring the proclaimed “efficacy” of demonetization policy as proposed by Reserve Bank of India by means of a mathematical approach and critically examines the effects of demonetization on the illicit money supply of Indian economy on the basis of macroeconomic theory.

Findings

From the mathematical model and related estimates, it may be easily deduced that the Indian policymakers deliberately hurled the masses in one of the gravest economic crises with a clear-cut intention of creating a political gimmick, when in reality, the proportion of illegitimate money supply was not even 1 per cent of total legitimate supply of money.

Originality/value

The analyses and findings related to this paper are based on mathematical modeling and logical interpretations. This paper is free of plagiarism as all the necessary sources and references are properly cited.

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Biswajit Mandal and Alaka Shree Prasad

This paper aims to strive to model virtual trade resulting from time zone differences in an otherwise Heckscher–Ohlin set up which is absent in the literature. So, the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to strive to model virtual trade resulting from time zone differences in an otherwise Heckscher–Ohlin set up which is absent in the literature. So, the paper adds some value to the existing literature on time zones (TZ) and trade.

Design/methodology/approach

A competitive general equilibrium model is developed first to capture the effect of TZ differences on virtual trade. Then the authors examine, in brief, if distance can be accommodated in such framework. Finally, the authors extend the model to incorporate informality.

Findings

It is seen that exploitation of time zone difference benefits skilled labor and hurts capital under reasonable assumption. In what follows, time zone difference exploiting sector expands, whereas the other sector contracts. Then, the model has been extended to examine how distance may also lead to similar outcomes. In addition, the model is further modified to explore the effect of virtual trade in an informality and associated extortion ridden economy. Interestingly, virtual trade turns out to be beneficial to unskilled workers as well, and leads to a fall in the number of extortionists, though informal production is augmented.

Research limitations/implications

This model is a competitive model that may not clearly reflect the realistic world. However, interestingly this may form the basis of looking into some other appealing dimensions of the real world.

Originality/value

TZ and related communication-cost-driven trade arguments are relatively less explored theoretically. Therefore, the work adds some value to the theoretical understanding of outsourcing in service trade that uses day-night differences across the globe.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

1 – 10 of 114