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Article

S. Daplyn and L. Lin

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains…

Abstract

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains, large advertising posters, flags and banners. As a result of the need for such inkjet printed products to have a greater durability, especially for outdoor applications, inks containing pigments as the colourants are gaining more interests. However, pigments may give rise to logistical problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. This paper reports methods for the preparation of pigment dispersions and of inkjet printing ink formulations and the methods for the evaluation of the suitability of pigmented ink formulations for jet printing on textile materials. In particular, the suitability of three magenta pigments for inkjet inks were assessed and reported.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article

Angel E. Muñoz Zavala, Arturo Hernández Aguirre, Enrique R. Villa Diharce and Salvador Botello Rionda

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a hybrid approach based on a modified ring neighborhood with two new perturbation operators designed to keep diversity. A constraint handling technique based on feasibility and sum of constraints violation is adopted. Also, a special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Findings

The paper shows that it is possible to improve PSO and keeping the advantages of its social interaction through a simple idea: perturbing the PSO memory.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed algorithm shows a competitive performance against the state‐of‐the‐art constrained optimization algorithms.

Practical implications

The proposed algorithm can be used to solve single objective problems with linear or non‐linear functions, and subject to both equality and inequality constraints which can be linear and non‐linear. In this paper, it is applied to various engineering design problems, and for the solution of state‐of‐the‐art benchmark problems.

Originality/value

A new neighborhood structure for PSO algorithm is presented. Two perturbation operators to improve PSO algorithm are proposed. A special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Article

Michael Behm and Poh Choon Hock

Singapore is transforming from a “garden city” to a “city‐in‐a‐garden”. Designing for safety is recognized by researchers and some governments as a best practice in…

Abstract

Purpose

Singapore is transforming from a “garden city” to a “city‐in‐a‐garden”. Designing for safety is recognized by researchers and some governments as a best practice in facilitating eventual worker safety within the built environment. The purpose of undertaking this research was to understand and describe the status of safe design for skyrise greenery in Singapore.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 41 rooftop and vertical greenery systems were observed with a focus on access, fall from height, and planting considerations.

Findings

Rooftop greenery systems in Singapore were found to be adhering to safe design principles. Vertical and ledge greenery systems, on the other hand, are newer arrangements and were found to be in need of design for safety guidance.

Originality/value

The results add to the body of knowledge in the area of safe design and skyrise greenery and will aid those seeking to understand from a policy and practice perspective.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article

Jiang Wu, Jingxuan Cai, Miao Jin and Ke Dong

Although interdisciplinary research is an increasing trend in scientific funding projects, they are suffering from a lower probability of being funded. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Although interdisciplinary research is an increasing trend in scientific funding projects, they are suffering from a lower probability of being funded. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situation on successful case of funding application and provides suggestions on how libraries can expand services to help scientific funding application.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes the co-occurrences of disciplinary application codes to construct an interdisciplinary knowledge flow network. Based on 193517 sponsored projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the authors study the interdisciplinary flow of knowledge and investigate the evolution of network structure using social network analysis.

Findings

Results show that the interdisciplinary knowledge flow network is not only a small-world network but also a scale-free network. Two main knowledge flow paths across scientific departments exist, showing the heterogeneity of knowledge distributions across scientific disciplines. The authors also find that if two disciplines in the same scientific department both have a wide influence to other disciplines, they are more prone to link together and create a knowledge chain.

Originality/value

Funding consultation currently has not occupied an advisory role either in library services or in the research team. This paper conducts a co-occurrences network analysis of interdisciplinary knowledge flow in scientific funding projects. Considering the complexity of funding application and the advantage of traditional library services on information collection, integration, and utilization, the authors conclude the possibility and necessity of embedding funding consultation in traditional library services.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Content available
Article

Fikadu Abera Garedow

The main objective of this study is to examine how political institutions affect economic performance in Ethiopia over the 1980–2019 time periods.

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this study is to examine how political institutions affect economic performance in Ethiopia over the 1980–2019 time periods.

Design/methodology/approach

Mainly, the impact of political institution indicators including, level of democracy, political violence, democratic accountability and regime durability have been examined using auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound test approach to co-integration and the error correction model.

Findings

This study confirms that level of democracy and democratic accountability has an adverse long effect on the economic performance of Ethiopia. On the other hand, political violence has a negative short-run causal effect on economic performance in Ethiopia. The study concluded that the deterioration of political institutions harmfully affected economic performance in Ethiopia.

Practical implications

Government policymakers should primarily pay attention to promoting and changing those political institutions that harm economic performance. Additionally, better management of political violence has important implications for fostering the economic performance of Ethiopia.

Originality/value

Originality: This study provides some valuable evidence on the nexuses between political institutions and economic performance in Ethiopia. Likely, this is the first investigation on the subject under the consideration to use time analysis and will vigorously contribute to the literature as well by employing the ADRL bound test. Previous studies have examined the impact of the institution on economic growth on a cross-country basis. Further analysis is required to understand the effects of institutions such as level of democracy, political violence and democratic accountability on economic development.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

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Book part

Ezebuilo R. Ukwueze, Henry T. Asogwa, Oliver E. Ogbonna and Chisom Emecheta

Nigeria has been ravaged by terrorist activities which has made the country unsafe for Nigerians and foreign investors. The motivation of this study arises from the dearth…

Abstract

Nigeria has been ravaged by terrorist activities which has made the country unsafe for Nigerians and foreign investors. The motivation of this study arises from the dearth of research applying quantitative empirics to the determinants of terrorism in a specific country. To achieve this goal, vector autoregressive (VAR) model was applied using data from Global Terrorism Database (GTD), International Country Risk Guide (ICRG) data, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) data, and Transparency International. Stata 13 software was used for estimation. The results show that ethnic violence, absence of good governance, presence of corruption, and rises in military expenditure are part of the causes of terrorism in Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that internal security should be maintained to minimize the occurrence of ethnic violence and ethnoreligious biases (sentiments) in the discussion of issues concerning Nigeria. Also, politicians should stop the proliferation of arms, as this will cease the violent reactions before and after elections. Finding lasting solutions to corruption using constitutional means will improve the quality of governance, which will improve the welfare state of the people and reduce restiveness.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part

Mariangela Bonasia and Rosaria Rita Canale

The aim of this chapter is to show the limits of the European policy model and to support the existence, through straightforward empirical analysis, of an inverse…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to show the limits of the European policy model and to support the existence, through straightforward empirical analysis, of an inverse relationship both in the short run and in the long run between trust in institutions and unemployment. The empirical methodology relies on dynamic panel data techniques allowing measuring in a single equation both the long-run relationship and the short-run speed of adjustment among variables. This connection appears to be valid both in the Eurozone considered as a whole and in particular in peripheral countries, where the macroeconomic dynamics have been, under this respect, much more divergent from the average. This outcome allows proofing that to consolidate the European process of integration in the long run, institutions should have as main objective not only inflation but especially unemployment.

Details

Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Article

Mahieddine Adnan Ghecham

This study aims at increasing the authors’ understanding how and why the oil curse takes place.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at increasing the authors’ understanding how and why the oil curse takes place.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a structural equation model (SEM) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) in order to underline the mechanism under which the oil curse operates.

Findings

The study shows that oil abundance could lead to inefficient resource allocation. This inefficiency is strongly correlated with a weak institutional setting which would lead to accumulated external debt and ultimately to poor economic performance.

Research limitations/implications

The quality of institutions and governance plays a major role in defining government success in allocating public resources efficiently. In a weak institutional setting, characterized with lack of accountability oil rents can promote rent-seeking behavior of public agents; a type of behavior that promotes misallocation and waste of resources. This in turn undermines public finances and leads to external debt accumulation. Debt per se is not necessarily a bad thing, but it has a turning point beyond which it can be a source of economy for countries (particularly countries with limited diversified source of revenue and inefficient public sector). It is to note that the authors work does not refute the positive impact that the increase in oil value has on economic growth (e.g. Nusair, 2016). However, it reminds policy makers that in order to sustain this impact over long term, it is necessary to build a strong institutional framework that prevents inefficient use of resource allocation as it could result in rapid accumulation of debt over short period of time. The adoption of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) by a number of oil rich countries has helped them to manage adverse oil shocks. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of these funds could be limited in a country whose institutions are not very strong. Characterized by a mediocre institutional setting, Algeria's sovereign fund, for example, has lost 67% of its reserves over just two years (2014–2015) before reaching the level zero by February 2017 following the drop of oil prices in 2015 (see Central Bank of Algeria, 2017). Also, the foreign exchange reserves of the country experienced a drop of more than 72% over a short period of time (2014–2020), leading to the resurgence of the idea of contracting external debt. Similarly, following the sharp drop in oil prices in 2015, the Saudi Arabia's external debt (% of GDP) has jumped by more than 150% over three years only, reaching a level of 28.85% in 2020 compared to a 10.62% in 2015 (https://Fred.stlouisfed.org/series/SAUDGDPGDPPT). The positive correlation of weak institutions with inefficiency can lead to fiscal policy procyclicality. Inefficient public spending tends to be procyclical compared to productive public spending (Makin, 2014). This procyclicality is apparent in developing countries, particularly those characterized by corrupted and weak institutional environment (Alesina et al., 2008; Frankel et al., 2013). This is conducive to output fluctuations where booms and busts are exacerbated (Frankel et al., 2013).

Originality/value

Originality of the study resides in the idea that external debt is an important element that could help to explain why oil curse could take place. The transmission mechanism that underpins the oil curse hypothesis is yet to be fully understood. In doing so, the paper, with the use of two sophisticated statistical techniques, reconciles between the concept of debt overhang and oil curse hypothesis. Similar research efforts are scant.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part

Marco Minciullo and Matteo Pedrini

This article aims at investigating knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) between founder firms and corporate foundations (CFs), looking at mechanisms able to enhance CFs…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims at investigating knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) between founder firms and corporate foundations (CFs), looking at mechanisms able to enhance CFs’ orientation of effectiveness.

Methodology/approach

We analyze 50 questionnaires collected through a survey of CFs based in Italy (redemption of 42.7% of the total). We use a number of regressions to verify the change of explained variance moving from a basic model with control variables (enter method) and a model including KTE mechanisms with an impact on orientation to effectiveness (stepwise method).

Findings

The analysis produced a model which underlines the influence of knowledge transfer mechanisms in stimulating orientation to effectiveness. The adoption of specific knowledge transfer mechanisms by founder firms can have a significant influence on how CFs manage their effectiveness. Three mechanisms emerge from the study as elements with a positive impact.

Practical implication

The results apply to nonprofit or public bodies, especially if we consider partnerships or organizational networks. The individuated criteria for selecting a positive KTE could drive similar choices of other nonprofit bodies.

Social implication

The study individuates a set of practices that are potentially able to influence positively the orientation to effectiveness of CFs, and the capacity to perform their activities and respond to social needs more successfully.

Originality/value

This research considers CFs as founder firms’ subsidiaries, with a growing strategic importance. This research reveals how KTE mechanisms can foster the development of orientation to effectiveness if implying interaction, firms’ commitment, autonomy, and alignment with the firms’ strategy and CFs’ purposes.

Details

Mechanisms, Roles and Consequences of Governance: Emerging Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-706-1

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Article

Waliu Olawale Shittu, Nor Asmat Ismail, Abdul Rais Abdul Latiff and Hammed Oluwaseyi Musibau

Amongst the major concerns of sub-Sahara Africa are the rising external debt and poor performances in governance. This paper aims to lend a voice to the relevance of…

Abstract

Purpose

Amongst the major concerns of sub-Sahara Africa are the rising external debt and poor performances in governance. This paper aims to lend a voice to the relevance of governance on the relationship between external debt and economic growth in selected five sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using available data from the World Governance and Development Indicators, between 1996 and 2016, the study uses the fully-modified OLS technique after establishing the absence of unit root and existence of long-run relationship amongst the variables of the model.

Findings

The findings confirm a non-linear relationship between external debt and economic with a positive net effect of $5.05 increase in economic performance for a US$ rise in external debt. While the index of governance depicts a negative association with economic growth, the indicators show mixed results. The interaction effect of external debt and governance on economic performance explain that improved governance quality reduces its negative effect on economic performance by US$1.288 (with a total effect of –4.180 + 1.288*EXDBT); it equally enhances the (net) positive impact of external debt by US$1.288 (with a total effect 5.05 + 1.288*IQ).

Practical implications

The governments of the selected countries are, therefore, advised to seek other means of financing their expenditure while curbing financial mismanagement and its long-term impacts on growth. Also, governance infrastructures should be improved to restore both domestic and foreign investors’ confidence so that more private capitals may be attracted in lieu of excessive borrowings.

Originality/value

The research is the first to comprehensively examine the nexus between external debt, governance and economic growth in the selected countries, given their external debt position in SSA. This includes examining the impacts of each of the governance indicators and the comprehensive index of governance on growth. Furthermore, the study adds to the literature by examining the interaction effects of external debt and governance on economic growth of these countries. This gives both the partial and total estimates of the effects of external debt and governance on economic growth in the countries under consideration.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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