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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

L. De Schepper, W. De Ceuninck, H. Stulens, L.M. Stals, R. Vanden Berghe and S. Demolder

A new method of studying the accelerated ageing of interconnection materials is applied to a high‐stability thick film resistor system (the Du Pont HS‐80 system). The new…

Abstract

A new method of studying the accelerated ageing of interconnection materials is applied to a high‐stability thick film resistor system (the Du Pont HS‐80 system). The new method, referred to hereafter as the in‐situ method, allows measurement of the electrical resistance of a thick film resistor to a resolution of a few ppm during accelerated ageing. With the in‐situ technique, the electrical resistance measurements are performed at the elevated ageing temperature during the ageing treatment, whereas with the conventional ageing method the resistance measurements are carried out at room temperature, between subsequent annealing steps. The measuring resolution obtainable with the in‐situ method is orders of magnitude better than with the conventional method. The ageing kinetics can therefore be studied on a shorter time scale and in greater detail than with the conventional method. In this paper, the authors use the in‐situ method to study the accelerated ageing of the Du Pont HS‐80 thick film resistor system, encapsulated with a proper glaze. It will be shown that kinetics of the resistance drift observed in this system cannot be described by an Arrhenius‐type equation. The ageing data can only be interpreted in terms of a kinetic model incorporating a spectrum of activation energies for the ageing process. Such a model is given, and is shown to provide a good explanation of the observed ageing behaviour. The physical process that causes the observed ageing is most probably diffusion of silver from the contacting terminals into the amorphous matrix of the thick film resistor.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Md. Zahurul Haq, Kazi Fahmida Farzana and Moniruzzaman Md

This paper aims to examine the validity of a state’s prohibition on virtual assets in the context of its global commitment to battle against money laundering.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the validity of a state’s prohibition on virtual assets in the context of its global commitment to battle against money laundering.

Design/methodology/approach

This was empirical legal research exploring how a general lack of expertise to apply a risk-based approach in anti-money laundering strategies might have implications for invoking the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) exclusion provisions in virtual asset regulation.

Findings

Invoking the exclusion provisions for banning virtual assets without meeting the prerequisites may put the financial system at risk and make a jurisdiction’s legal obligations appear breached.

Research limitations/implications

Anti-money laundering (AML) policymakers will take precautions and avoid misuse of the liberties they enjoy under FATF exclusion clauses/provisions.

Practical implications

The results of this study will help ensure more informed decision-making on the legal status and regulation of virtual assets.

Originality/value

The study helps ascertain the limits of privileges accorded to states under FATF exclusion provisions in applying global standards against money laundering.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Jelka Gersak

Presents the influence of rheological properties of a sewing thread on its dynamical loads in a stitch formation process, or on change of thread strength as a consequence…

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Abstract

Presents the influence of rheological properties of a sewing thread on its dynamical loads in a stitch formation process, or on change of thread strength as a consequence of dynamical loads in the sewing process, respectively. Research work shows the change in thread strength, as a result of the stitch formation process forming dynamic loads of a thread, as a function of rheological properties of a thread.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 7 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1973

ELDO C. KOENIG

Artificial automata replace, in part or in total, natural automata in systems, and properly disciplined models of natural automata become design models of artificial…

Abstract

Artificial automata replace, in part or in total, natural automata in systems, and properly disciplined models of natural automata become design models of artificial automata for replacement. In Part I, a summary of two sets of disciplines provided by a General Systems Theory is presented, and the importance of these disciplines to the modeling of three inherited abilities is indicated for a case study. A theorem is presented in the form of an algorithm to aid in the modeling of the ability to modify and extend knowledge structures. In Part II (appearing in the next issue), the proof of the theorem is given and the theorem is applied to the case study. Finally, the application of the disciplines of the General Systems Theory is indicated for a second casestudy of an industrial system of 10 interactive automata.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1979

A.Y. AULIN‐AHMAVAARA

A cybernetic theory of hierarchical social systems is given, starting from an extension of Ashby's general theory of regulation and control to amplifying regulation…

Abstract

A cybernetic theory of hierarchical social systems is given, starting from an extension of Ashby's general theory of regulation and control to amplifying regulation. Regulation and control in human society are then discussed and the conditions for the existence of social classes and social hierarchy examined.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

De-Xing Peng

To prolong engine life and reduce exhaust pollution caused by gasoline engines, the aim of this paper was to compare the lubrication properties of biofuel (ethanol) blends…

Abstract

Purpose

To prolong engine life and reduce exhaust pollution caused by gasoline engines, the aim of this paper was to compare the lubrication properties of biofuel (ethanol) blends and pure unleaded gasoline.

Design/methodology/approach

Biofuels with a concentration of 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 per cent were added to unleaded gasoline to form ethanol-blended fuels named E0, E1, E2, E5 and E10. Next, the ethanol-blended fuels and unleaded gasoline were used to power engines to facilitate comparisons between the pollution created from exhaust emissions.

Findings

Using ethanol as a fuel additive in pure unleaded gasoline improves engine performance and reduces exhaust emissions. Because bioethanol does not contain lead but contains low aromatic and high oxygen content, it induces more complete combustion compared with conventional unleaded gasoline.

Originality/value

Using biofuels as auxiliary fuel reduces environmental pollution, strengthens local agricultural economy, creates employment opportunities and reduces demand for fossil fuels.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Tourism, Trade and National Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-707-4

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Abstract

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Population Change, Labor Markets and Sustainable Growth: Towards a New Economic Paradigm
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44453-051-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1978

M. BRAAE and D.A. RUTHERFORD

This brief paper considers the various possible mathematical operations on fuzzy sets that are required to implement a set of control rules as a fuzzy logic control…

Abstract

This brief paper considers the various possible mathematical operations on fuzzy sets that are required to implement a set of control rules as a fuzzy logic control element. The influence that these operations have on the characteristics of the final control element is a factor that is used to select those operations most suitable in the control context.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1979

Donald Stewart

The first half In the first part (March) the idea was introduced of the metal adopting an electrical potential when it is placed in a solution. This happened because some…

Abstract

The first half In the first part (March) the idea was introduced of the metal adopting an electrical potential when it is placed in a solution. This happened because some of the metal atoms went into the solution forming positively charged particles called ions, and leaving behind electrons in the metal. In shorthand notation:

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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