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Article

E.W. STEINITZ

A STUDY of the published literature on I.C. engine lubrication during the last ten years leads one to the conclusion that we are in a state of crisis, with no final…

Abstract

A STUDY of the published literature on I.C. engine lubrication during the last ten years leads one to the conclusion that we are in a state of crisis, with no final solution for many of the problems involved. One reason for this may be due to over specialisation. The automobile engineer, for example, knows little of the intricate problems involved in refining and blending lubricating oils. At a meeting in the U.S.A. recently, a well known technical expert, describing his tests, said that he first used a “Medium Refined Straight Mineral Oil”. This he later replaced by a “Highly Refined Straight Mineral Oil”. Next he selected a “High Viscosity Index Straight Mineral Oil” and ended by using a “Heavy Duty Oil”, apparently believing that he moved always in the direction of oils of higher quality.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 1 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

E.W. STEINITZ

Part One of this article discussed the engine side of the crisis in i.c. engine lubrication. In this part, the author makes some suggestions that will be certain to…

Abstract

Part One of this article discussed the engine side of the crisis in i.c. engine lubrication. In this part, the author makes some suggestions that will be certain to instigate considerable discussion. He suggests that the darkening of normal petroleum i.c. engine oils is almost wholly due to the ageing of the oil itself and not to contamination with products of fuel combustion. The illustrations show a very clean engine after covering 12,000 miles without oil change and using a modern synthetic motor oil which, the author claims, was still transparent and free from carbon. Another suggestion concerns the modern lubrication system which the author suggests might be replaced with an oil mist lubricator in which the mist is produced external to the engine and therefore escapes its present ill effects of polymerisation in the crank case. Readers views upon these important matters will be welcomed.

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Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 1 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article

Frances Neel Cheney

Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Term. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here…

Abstract

Communications regarding this column should be addressed to Mrs. Cheney, Peabody Library School, Nashville, Term. 37203. Mrs. Cheney does not sell the books listed here. They are available through normal trade sources. Mrs. Cheney, being a member of the editorial board of Pierian Press, will not review Pierian Press reference books in this column. Descriptions of Pierian Press reference books will be included elsewhere in this publication.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article

IN 1946 there was in the British Isles a clear image of librarianship in most librarians' minds. The image depended on a librarian's professional environment which was of…

Abstract

IN 1946 there was in the British Isles a clear image of librarianship in most librarians' minds. The image depended on a librarian's professional environment which was of the widest possible range, not less in variation than the organisations, institutes or types of community which required library services. Generalisations are like cocoanuts but they provide for the quickest precipitation of variant definitions, after the stones have been thrown at them. A generalisation might claim that, in 1946, public librarians had in mind an image of a librarian as organiser plus technical specialist or literary critic or book selector; that university and institute librarians projected themselves as scholars of any subject with a special environmental responsibility; that librarians in industry regarded themselves as something less than but as supplementing the capacity of a subject specialist (normally a scientist). Other minor separable categories existed with as many shades of meaning between the three generalised definitions, while librarians of national libraries were too few to be subject to easy generalisation.

Details

New Library World, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

Heather Lea Moulaison and A. J. Million

This paper aims to, through an analysis of the current literature, explore the current state of the library e-publishing community and its approach to preservation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to, through an analysis of the current literature, explore the current state of the library e-publishing community and its approach to preservation. Libraries are increasingly proposing publishing services as part of their work with their communities, and recently, there has been a pronounced interest in providing electronic publishing (e-publishing) services. The library e-publishing community, however, has not systematically studied the need for the long-term preservation of the digital content they help create.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a reflective analysis of the literature, this paper explores the context and the evolution of e-publishing as a trend that aligns with public library missions; in doing so, it also explores implications for digital preservation in the context of these new services and identifies gaps in the literature.

Findings

Digital preservation is an important and worthwhile activity for library e-publishers; preservation of community-based author content cannot, however, be an afterthought and should be planned from the beginning. Future study should take into consideration the needs and expectations of community-based authors. Existing digital preservation guidelines also provide a point of reference for the community and researchers.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the understudied area of the importance of digital preservation to library e-publishing. In doing so, it also investigates the role of the library in supporting community-based authors when e-publishing through the library.

Details

OCLC Systems & Services: International digital library perspectives, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1065-075X

Keywords

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Article

Steven W. Kopp and Elyria Kemp

Research on death and dying in Western culture holds that individuals engage in a denial and repression of thoughts about death. However, this paper aims to propose that…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on death and dying in Western culture holds that individuals engage in a denial and repression of thoughts about death. However, this paper aims to propose that some individuals actively make attempts to exercise control over their eventual demise by engaging in decision-making to achieve an “appropriate death.” A framework is introduced that provides the basis for exploring aspects of decision-making for end of life.

Design/methodology/approach

Depth interviews were conducted with 18 consumers about their dispositions toward death and their decision-making regarding their own funerals.

Findings

An analysis of the consumer narratives suggests that individuals make efforts to prepare for end of life by reducing conflict and finishing business, enlisting identity management strategies and coming to terms with death itself. Unique consumption experiences and decisions accompany each of these efforts.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides understanding regarding how individuals cope with death by attempting to enlist control over a situation in which they have very little control. In doing so, these individuals make efforts to achieve an “appropriate death” by making explicit decisions for end of life.

Originality/value

Instead of actively engaging in defense mechanisms to deny and repress thoughts of death, this research demonstrates that individuals may recognize the inevitability of death as fulfillment of life. In doing so, they may subscribe to positive illusions regarding end of life and make attempts to exercise control over the event.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article

Heather Moulaison Sandy, Beth M. Brendler and Karen Kohn

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate characters and scenarios reflecting varied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identities in fiction in two library…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate characters and scenarios reflecting varied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identities in fiction in two library acquisitions platforms: a traditional library vendor (Coutts’ OASIS) and a freely available platform for self-published eBooks (Smashwords).

Design/methodology/approach

Using intersectionality as an approach, 200 LGBT fiction titles were examined in OASIS and in Smashwords with the goal of assessing the characters and scenarios represented. The hypothesis was that Smashwords’s titles, because they were self-published, would include more variety.

Findings

The titles in both platforms were roughly similar, with a pronounced focus on white gay males.

Research limitations/implications

This research relied on limited metadata provided in each system. Additional research should evaluate the quality of the titles and the nature of the publishers.

Practical implications

Although the Smashwords eBook platform provides access to eBooks, a convenient way to consume genre fiction, the titles available do not represent more diverse LGBT identities than the titles available through a traditional library vendor platform, OASIS.

Originality/value

As libraries struggle with practical implications for selecting materials representing varied viewpoints, the question of self-published or indie eBooks has emerged as a potential option for providing these perspectives. The findings of this study indicate, however, that instead of reflecting a more diverse readership, the sample of Smashwords LGBT fiction eBooks examined largely resembles the materials that a library vendor provides.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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Article

Chen Kun Chung

The purpose of this paper is to find the possibility of extending the capacity of urban drainage in highly urbanized cities with limited available space for flood…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the possibility of extending the capacity of urban drainage in highly urbanized cities with limited available space for flood management, while the anticipated increase in extreme rainfall is expected to raise the demand for higher capacity of water drainage or storage systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of the three-layer approach is introduced to identify the crucial factors which had impacted the historical change of natural water system. These factors can further help identifying potential spaces for new designs of flood management based on the spatial context of local history.

Findings

In Pingtung case, a roadway surface drainage design is found as a complementary strategy by this method, which could effectively and practically extend the capacity of urban drainage without the need for requisitioning private lands or rearranging the complicated underground pipe and cable systems.

Research limitations/implications

This is an initial exploration from the perspective of urbanism to respond to hydrological problems under the impact of extreme rainfall. The more precise hydrologic simulation need to be further established.

Practical implications

This concept could be applied in delta cities to improve urban drainage by three steps: first, clarify the flooding problems; second, identify the available space; third, redesign hydrologic instrument with a multi-use of urban space.

Originality/value

This research provides hydrologists and urban planners with a practical collaboration base for the issues of extreme storm events.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Content available
Article

Sven Stremke and Sören Schöbel

The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the body of knowledge on research through design (RtD) methods that can be employed by landscape architects and others working on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the body of knowledge on research through design (RtD) methods that can be employed by landscape architects and others working on (but not limited to) sustainable energy transition.

Design/methodology/approach

A specific approach to RtD – qualitative landscape structure analysis (QLSA) – is introduced and illustrated by means of diagrams and photographs. Two case studies showcase the application of QLSA for research on solar parks in the Netherlands and research on wind turbines in the Alpine foothills in Southern Germany.

Findings

The case studies show how RtD can help to define design principles for large solar parks and arrangement of wind turbines in particular landscape types in the Netherlands and Germany, respectively. In doing so, RtD can help to expand the breadth of spatial research beyond well-established methods such as multi-criteria decision analysis and environmental impact assessment.

Originality/value

The paper provides insights into contemporary RtD in two countries and affirms the importance of such research with regard to landscape transformations while starting to define a research niche for landscape architects and other environmental designers working on the topic of sustainable energy transition.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

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Article

Jen (J.L.) Pecoskie and Heather Hill

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of contemporary publishing, specifically the realms of fanfiction and self-publishing, for the ways in which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the state of contemporary publishing, specifically the realms of fanfiction and self-publishing, for the ways in which readership is represented in conjunction with authors and publishers within the publication process. The structure of this process is then compared with Robert Darnton’s communications circuit in order to propose a new model for the publication. As the publication process has a profound impact on the teaching and practice of collection development and reader studies in LIS, the discipline must be aware of any changes to the publication process.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the case study approach, this research examines the cultural product, Fifty Shades of Grey (FSOG). Evidence included fanfiction and self-published manuscripts, reader reception of these texts, and a timeline of how the texts developed.

Findings

Evidence gathered from the case study illustrate a variety of players and infrastructure present in the development and trajectory of FSOG. Throughout the entire development of the cultural product, readers were found to be active agents in the publication process promoting strong connections between reader and author. Findings focus on the themes of textual development and their publicity.

Originality/value

Proposes a new model for the publication process that includes fanfiction and self-publishing.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

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