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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1975

H.A. Holl

THE highest strength wrought aluminium alloys currently available are based on the aluminium‐zinc‐magnesium‐copper system, and such alloys offer considerable potential for…

Abstract

THE highest strength wrought aluminium alloys currently available are based on the aluminium‐zinc‐magnesium‐copper system, and such alloys offer considerable potential for weight savings in airframe structures. However, these alloys have presented problems in service, arising from deficiencies in fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation resistance together with a susceptibility to exfoliation corrosion and stress‐corrosion, which have led to restrictions being placed on their use by individual aircraft companies and by procurement authorities in a number of countries. This situation has led to the wide‐spread use in the UK and continental Europe of lower strength alloys of the aluminium‐copper‐magnesium‐silicon type, even though significant weight penalties are incurred in the process. There has been a more general acceptance of the high strength aluminium‐zinc‐magnesium‐copper alloys in the USA, where problems associated with their use have been partially alleviated by a willingness to replace components at short intervals, but even so during recent years a trend has developed there towards the use of lower strength versions of these alloys in attempts to improve airframe durability and reliability.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 10 September 2020

Chanki Moon and Ángel Sánchez‐Rodríguez

Antecedents and influences of workplace incivility have recently been studied in many areas of research but there is still a lack of consideration for the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Antecedents and influences of workplace incivility have recently been studied in many areas of research but there is still a lack of consideration for the impact of culture. Theoretical considerations for the present research are based on the cultural dimensions of power distance and tightness/looseness because the collective levels of power distance are similar between Korea and Spain, but the collective levels of tightness/looseness are different between the two countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether individuals’ occupational position affects their normative reactions to incivility differently.

Design/methodology/approach

Participant (victim)’s (those who react to uncivil behaviors) social power (low vs high) and perpetrator’s (those who exhibit uncivil behaviors) social power (low vs high) were experimentally manipulated; all participants were randomly assigned to one of four perpetrator × victim conditions in relation to hierarchical positions (Ntot = 467).

Findings

The results suggest that the level of social and personal acceptability was greater either among Koreans than Spanish at a collective level or among people who endorsed higher power distance and tightness values. All in all, the findings highlight cultural influences on the importance of social hierarchy as a factor that can impact the people’s normative reactions to incivility.

Originality/value

The findings broaden our understanding of the psychology of employees in relation to incivility, by simultaneously considering the influences of culture (power distance and tightness/looseness) and social power.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2017

Sarah Wolfolds, Markus Taussig, Bryan Hong and Kjell Carlsson

This chapter is motivated by a surprising empirical finding: During the 2008 economic crisis, leading global buyers of labor-intensive manufacturing goods were more likely…

Abstract

This chapter is motivated by a surprising empirical finding: During the 2008 economic crisis, leading global buyers of labor-intensive manufacturing goods were more likely to terminate contracts with suppliers based in countries with strong formal contract enforcement institutions than with those in countries where such institutions were weak. We develop a formal model that explains this counterintuitive finding as the result of heightened reliance on informal contracting when the formal contracting system is unreliable. This explanation contrasts with recent characterizations of outsourcing as an exercise of real options and adds to understanding of the effect of using relational contracting across multiple borders.

Details

Breaking up the Global Value Chain
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-071-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 October 2020

Mohammad Hendijani Zadeh

This study explores whether a firm's environmental and social (E&S) transparency affects corporate payout policies having two forms of dividend payout and stock repurchase…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores whether a firm's environmental and social (E&S) transparency affects corporate payout policies having two forms of dividend payout and stock repurchase payout.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on a large sample of S&P 500 firms, and utilizing Tobit estimators, the author examines whether a firm's environmental transparency and social transparency affect the levels of each dividend payout and stock repurchase payout. Transparency reflects comprehensive scores compiled by Bloomberg, capturing both the quantity (in terms of the number of data points) and the quality (with respect to objective and industry-relevant data points) of verified E&S information attributed to a firm's E&S practices.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that transparency, both environmental and social, relates to higher corporate payouts (i.e. higher dividend payout and higher stock repurchase payout). These positive relationships are magnified for firms suffering from high information asymmetry, low financial reporting quality and for those with weak governance. Moreover, the author finds that dividend payout is more stable in high E&S transparent firms than in low E&S transparent firms. The study findings continue to hold after a battery of robustness and sensitivity checks such as alternative measures, specifications, estimators, use of the instrumental variable regression approach and mitigation of omitted variable bias

Research limitations/implications

The study findings suggest that investors' interests (demanding for high corporate payouts) and other stakeholders' interests (demanding for high E&S transparency) are not necessarily in conflict, and investors' demands can be met while maintaining commitment to high E&S transparency. In addition, the study results imply that higher E&S transparency complements higher corporate payouts and signals to the market both a firm's commitment to E&S transparency and its ability to have high corporate payouts. In this line, the study findings clarify the high value of E&S transparency screening in investors' decision-making process as such transparency leads to higher corporate payouts for investors (i.e. facilitating wealth transfer to shareholders). Finally, the study findings are relevant to standard setters and regulators who emphasize the importance of E&S transparency.

Originality/value

By integrating two distinct streams of literature on corporate finance and corporate social responsibility (CSR), the author introduces E&S transparency as a novel nonfinancial driver of corporate payout policies. Finally, the study findings are in line with the notion that firm transparency (reflected in E&S transparency) can be a crucial element in justifying a firm's corporate payout policies and, in an overall view, firm policies.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Khusnul Prasetyo and Damai Nasution

This study aims to reconcile conflicting empirical results from prior studies on the association between political connections (PCs) and firms’ performance. Furthermore…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to reconcile conflicting empirical results from prior studies on the association between political connections (PCs) and firms’ performance. Furthermore, it investigates whether the contradictory findings were moderated by the different types of both PCs and firms’ performance measures. This study also makes a cross-country comparison of the empirical evidence to provide more insight.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used meta-analysis to integrate the previous studies’ findings on the association between PCs and firms’ performance and further investigated the moderators of such association.

Findings

The findings show that PCs have a positive association with firms’ performance. This result is apparent for both democratic and authoritarian countries, which suggests PCs’ beneficial consequences toward firms’ performance should not be disregarded in both contexts. This study also finds PCs and firms’ performance measures moderate the association between PCs and firms’ performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the stream of research that investigates the association between PCs and firms’ performance. To the best of our knowledge, it is among the first to implement statistical meta-analysis on the aforementioned literature while incorporating a cross-country comparison.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2016

Arch G. Woodside

The introductory chapter includes how to design-in good practices in theory, data collection procedures, analysis, and interpretations to avoid these bad practices. Given…

Abstract

The introductory chapter includes how to design-in good practices in theory, data collection procedures, analysis, and interpretations to avoid these bad practices. Given that bad practices in research are ingrained in the career training of scholars in sub-disciplines of business/management (e.g., through reading articles exhibiting bad practices usually without discussions of the severe weaknesses in these studies and by research courses stressing the use of regression analysis and structural equation modeling), this editorial is likely to have little impact. However, scholars and executives supporting good practices should not lose hope. The relevant literature includes a few brilliant contributions that can serve as beacons for eliminating the current pervasive bad practices and for performing highly competent research.

Details

Bad to Good
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-333-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

K. Horio and H. Yanai

I‐V characteristics of GaAs n‐i‐n structures are calculated by considering impact ionization of carriers. Impact ionization at reverse‐biased n‐i junction becomes a cause…

Abstract

I‐V characteristics of GaAs n‐i‐n structures are calculated by considering impact ionization of carriers. Impact ionization at reverse‐biased n‐i junction becomes a cause of steep current rise when an acceptor density in the i‐layer is high. It is shown that an optimum acceptor density exists to keep a good isolation. Photoconduction transients of GaAs n‐i‐n structures are also simulated, and are shown to be strongly affected by existence of n‐i junctions.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 18 February 2022

Sean Sands, Colin L. Campbell, Kirk Plangger and Carla Ferraro

This paper aims to examine how consumers respond to social media influencers that are created through artificial intelligence (AI) and compares effects to traditional…

4142

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how consumers respond to social media influencers that are created through artificial intelligence (AI) and compares effects to traditional (human) influencers.

Design/methodology/approach

Across two empirical studies, the authors examine the efficacy of AI social media influencers. With Study 1, the authors establish baseline effects for AI influencers and investigate how social-psychological distance impacts consumer perceptions. The authors also investigate the role of an influencer’s agency – being autonomous or externally managed – to test the boundaries of the results and determine the interactive effects between influencer type and influencer agency. Study 2 acts as an extension and validation of Study 1, whereby the authors provide generalisability and overlay the role of need for uniqueness as a moderated mediator.

Findings

The authors show that there are similarities and differences in the ways in which consumers view AI and human influencers. Importantly, the authors find no difference in terms of intention to follow or personalisation. This suggests that consumers are equally open to follow an AI or human influencer, and they perceive the level of personalisation provided by either influencer type as similar. Furthermore, while an AI influencer is generally perceived as having lower source trust, they are more likely to evoke word-of-mouth intentions. In understanding these effects, the authors show that social distance mediates the relationship between influencer type and the outcomes the authors investigate. Results also show that AI influencers can have a greater effect on consumers who have a high need for uniqueness. Finally, the authors find that a lack of influencer agency has a detrimental effect.

Research limitations/implications

The studies investigate consumers’ general response to AI influencers within the context of Instagram, however, future research might examine consumers’ response to posts promoting specific products across a variety of category contexts and within different social media platforms.

Practical implications

The authors find that in some ways, an AI influencer can be as effective as a human influencer. Indeed, the authors suggest that there may be a spill-over effect from consumer experiences with other AI recommendation systems, meaning that consumers are open to AI influencer recommendations. However, the authors find consistent evidence that AI influencers are trusted less than traditional influencers, hence the authors caution brands from rushing to replace human influencers with their AI counterparts.

Originality/value

This paper offers novel insight into the increasingly prominent phenomenon of the AI influencer. Specifically, it takes initial steps towards developing understanding as to how consumers respond to AI influencers and contrast these effects with human influencers.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Swee Hoon Ang

Parallel imports are authentic products that challenge those sold through authorized dealers. Such imports are fast becoming popular, especially in Asia. Authorized…

2393

Abstract

Parallel imports are authentic products that challenge those sold through authorized dealers. Such imports are fast becoming popular, especially in Asia. Authorized dealers need to find ways to combat against parallel imports. One such means is to first understand consumer perceptions of parallel imports. A survey among respondents from an Asian country, Singapore, showed that perception and not demography or past product experience influence purchase intention of parallel imports. Perception of beneficial and image properties, more so than perception of physical properties, influenced purchase intention. The factors influencing the magnitude of discount expected from parallel importers were different from those for purchase intention. Women expected higher discounts than men, while an inverse relationship was observed for income. The unique properties for each product category also influenced purchase intention and expected discount. Managerial implications are discussed together with directions for future research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1987

Edgar S. Lower

Many vegetable drying, semi‐drying, and non‐drying oils and also marine oils have the property of being able to absorb oxygen as such, or from the air, to varying degrees…

Abstract

Many vegetable drying, semi‐drying, and non‐drying oils and also marine oils have the property of being able to absorb oxygen as such, or from the air, to varying degrees and thereby become thickened and viscous, and soluble in mineral oils, the commercial acceleration of the process being known as “blowing”, giving blown, oxidised and polymerised oils. Thus blown oils are oils that have been agitated vigorously by having a current of air or oxygen passed through them whilst in a heated state, temperatures of the order of 70/120°C being usually involved, such oils having a long history of application. The degree of oxidation of an oil and degree of reduction in unsaturation depends upon the amount of air/oxygen passed through an oil, the length of time of blowing and temperature, and is in direct proportion to the air/oil interface, and whether or not a catalyst is used. Blown oils are characterised chemically by the presence of C‐O‐C links and C‐C links, with useful terminal groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl. The products of the air oxidation in blown oils, whilst still polymeric, etc, in nature, are quite different from those in oils whose properties have been changed by application only of heat and catalysts i.e. heat‐bodied oils, for use in resin and paint manufacture, the former oils containing hydroxy groups, etc., the films of which are less resistant to alkalies and to water. Many oils which show a tendency to “gumming” are free of this defect after blowing.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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