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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2019

Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron

In this chapter, we assume the following: (1) the root cause of most organizational problems is culture and leadership, (2) executives seldom want to deal with these root…

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In this chapter, we assume the following: (1) the root cause of most organizational problems is culture and leadership, (2) executives seldom want to deal with these root causes, (3) because life is uncertain, organizational change is an emergent process, (4) most change processes unfold by reconstructing social reality, (5) the change process is inherently relational, (6) effective change efforts are enhanced by increasing the virtue of the actors, (7) change is embedded in the learning that flows from high-quality relationships, and (8) change agents may have to transcend conventional, economic exchange norms in order to demonstrate integrity and to build trust and openness. Drawing on the field of positive organizational scholarship, we focus on the change agent. We review the literature on self-change and offer several paths for becoming a positive leader.

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Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-554-3

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Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2017

Brenda Jones Harden, Brandee Feola, Colleen Morrison, Shelby Brown, Laura Jimenez Parra and Andrea Buhler Wassman

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to…

Abstract

Children experience toxic stress if there is pronounced activation of their stress-response systems, in situations in which they do not have stable caregiving. Due to their exposure to multiple poverty-related risks, African American children may be more susceptible to exposure to toxic stress. Toxic stress affects young children’s brain and neurophysiologic functioning, which leads to a wide range of deleterious health, developmental, and mental health outcomes. Given the benefits of early care and education (ECE) for African American young children, ECE may represent a compensating experience for this group of children, and promote their positive development.

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African American Children in Early Childhood Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-258-9

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Developing Leaders for Positive Organizing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-241-1

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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2020

Alice M. Brawley Newlin

Small businesses are dominant in most economies and their owners likely experience high levels of distress. However, we have not fully explored how these common businesses…

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Small businesses are dominant in most economies and their owners likely experience high levels of distress. However, we have not fully explored how these common businesses meaningfully differ with respect to the stress process. Understanding the meaningful variations or subgroups (i.e., heterogeneity) in the small business population will advance occupational health psychology, both in research and practice (e.g., Schonfeld, 2017; Stephan, 2018). To systematize these efforts, the author identifies five commonly appearing “heterogeneity factors” from the literature as modifiers of stressors or the stress process among small business owners. These five heterogeneity factors include: owner centrality, individual differences, gender differences, business/ownership type, and time. After synthesizing the research corresponding to each of these five factors, the author offers specific suggestions for identifying and incorporating relevant heterogeneity factors in future investigations of small business owners’ stress. The author closes by discussing implications for advancing occupational health theories.

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Entrepreneurial and Small Business Stressors, Experienced Stress, and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-397-8

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2015

Kristin L. Scott and Michelle K. Duffy

We explore the antecedents of workplace ostracism and delineate possible organizational interventions to deter ostracism. Under the lens of evolutionary psychology we…

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We explore the antecedents of workplace ostracism and delineate possible organizational interventions to deter ostracism. Under the lens of evolutionary psychology we argue that individuals deemed capable of contributing to social and organizational goals become valued group members while those who threaten group stability and viability risk being shunned or ostracized. Specifically, we review empirical evidence and present the results of a pilot study suggesting that those who are perceived to violate injunctive and descriptive norms, as well as threaten one’s self-concept are at increased risk for ostracism. In terms of intervention, we propose mindfulness techniques and organizational support as a route to deter employees’ inclinations to ostracize coworkers. Thus, a primary goal of this chapter is to explicate a framework for identifying the predictors and deterrents of workplace ostracism in order to generate additional research on this important topic.

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2015

Jennifer Stone and Susan Bray

Children experience trauma more often than many early childhood educators realize. As many as 26% of children experience multiple trauma events such as abuse, neglect…

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Children experience trauma more often than many early childhood educators realize. As many as 26% of children experience multiple trauma events such as abuse, neglect, parental substance abuse, parental incarceration, and so forth. Trauma impacts brain development in many negative ways that may have serious consequences on the child’s ability to learn, grow socially and emotionally, and develop physically. These brain changes also change how the child will play in the early childhood classroom, and information is given to help recognize the signs of trauma in children. The early childhood educator can make trauma-sensitive modifications in the classroom to assist the traumatized child’s ability to play out the problem. School counselors can be a resource for assisting early childhood teachers when working with traumatized children. A brief description of the importance of play therapy as a developmentally appropriate method to help traumatized young children is provided.

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Discussions on Sensitive Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-293-1

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Developing Leaders for Positive Organizing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-241-1

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

J. Gwinner

This contribution discusses a continuum model of large discrete networks in planar domains. For this model, the Kirchhoff law, boundary conditions and capacity constraints…

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This contribution discusses a continuum model of large discrete networks in planar domains. For this model, the Kirchhoff law, boundary conditions and capacity constraints lead in a system optimisation approach to a infinite dimensional constrained optimisation problem and to “mixed” variational inequalities. Mixed finite element methods can be formulated for these variational inequalities such that computable discretizations of the continuum problem are obtained.

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Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Quinetta M. Roberson

To keep pace with the changing business environment, researchers have studied diversity from a number of disciplines, theoretical perspectives and levels. As such, there…

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To keep pace with the changing business environment, researchers have studied diversity from a number of disciplines, theoretical perspectives and levels. As such, there is a substantive body of research that investigates the concept of diversity, its effects, and the mechanisms through which such effects occur. Despite this work, its findings and the subsequent conclusions that can be drawn are complex. A number of questions regarding the what, why, when and how of diversity still remain. This chapter provides an overview and assesses the state of the field to highlight important areas for future research that can advance our understanding of the meaning, import, operation and consequences of diversity in organizations. It draws attention to overarching topics within the diversity literature, such as the conceptualization of diversity, theoretical perspectives, diversity management, and system approaches to the phenomenon, underscoring conclusions that can be drawn from such work. More importantly, it identifies gaps in each of these areas as well as points of integration to offer directions for future research.

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Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-489-1

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