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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1951

E.B. Rawlins

The modern diesel engine in its many designs and types presents varied problems to the lubrication engineer.

Abstract

The modern diesel engine in its many designs and types presents varied problems to the lubrication engineer.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Michail Toanoglou, Samiha Chemli and Marco Valeri

It became a fact, and the world's countries went under confinement due to the pandemic of the Covid19. There are severe impacts on tourism with the supply chain…

Abstract

Purpose

It became a fact, and the world's countries went under confinement due to the pandemic of the Covid19. There are severe impacts on tourism with the supply chain experiencing a full pause. This research investigates the influence of governance, media coverage, crisis severity, former travel practice and Covid-19 incidences on the perceived risk related to travel and tourism during the pandemic and in cross-countries.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected the data from a sample of 1845 individuals from more than 12 countries and four continents representing quarantined and most impacted areas in the world in March and April 2020. A multilevel linear model was applied to predict the perceived risk across countries as a level 2 research unit.

Findings

The finding confirms the clustering in the data with media coverage, governance and crisis growth affecting the outcome. There are cross-level interaction effects, as the growth rate of the pandemic per country and media coverage impact tourists' perception of risk. Finally, there are lower-level direct effects, with lower-level variables affecting tourists' perceived risks.

Research limitations/implications

The survey is randomly administered online due to the nearly complete quarantine implemented in the studied areas. Besides, and considering the latter, the responses might have been subjective due to the non-containment of the crisis by the study's time, directing to possible alteration of feelings and responses from respondents. This leads to suggest a future extension of this research, similarly, post-crisis.

Originality/value

This research pinpointed the impacts of predictors, concerning the countries' level, during the crisis phase on the perceived risk. Therefore, it gives insights into professional bodies on future concerns to be considered during the recovery phase.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Binashi Kumarasiri and Piumi Dissanayake

It is no surprise that garbage is not garbage for some. It is money. This is why garbage has been overestimated to a point that money allocated for waste-to-energy (WtE…

Abstract

Purpose

It is no surprise that garbage is not garbage for some. It is money. This is why garbage has been overestimated to a point that money allocated for waste-to-energy (WtE) projects feed individual pockets. Many countries have already adapted WtE as a successful solution for both energy and waste crisis. Although in Sri Lanka six WtE projects were promised, the government abruptly decided that it would not have any more projects other than the two plants that were under construction. The purpose of this paper is to analyse barriers to the implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory case study was selected as the research strategy to achieve the research aim. In total, two WtE megaprojects, which have been initiated implementation in Sri Lanka, were used as cases. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews with four personnel from each case and four government officials were used as the data collection technique. Data analysis was carried out using code-based content analysis. The barriers were extracted through analysis of case findings using an abductive analysis. The strategies to mitigate identified barriers were formulated based on attributes highlighted through case study findings and further validated through the opinions of three experts.

Findings

Barriers were analysed using the PESTEL framework to get ample insight into barriers that impact on the implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka. Less support from the government due to their less awareness on WtE, high investment and operational cost, lack of expert knowledge on WtE technologies in Sri Lanka, absence of a proper regulatory framework for implementation WtE technologies, lengthy process and delay in getting approvals from government process, poor attitudes of public and their protests due to the less awareness on WtE are the foremost barriers identified in this study. Further, strategies were proposed based on the empirical research findings to overcome barriers to facilitate the successful implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka.

Research limitations/implications

So far only two WtE megaprojects have been initiated the implementation in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the scope of the study was limited only to those projects. Moreover, the type of waste considered in this study is municipal solid waste (MSW), which has become a bigger problem in Sri Lanka.

Originality/value

The current study unveils an analysis of barriers for implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka, including strategies for mitigating identified barriers. The findings would enable relevant stakeholders, i.e. policymakers, industry practitioners, investors, government bodies and researchers to make informed decisions on implementation of WtE projects and thereby promote successful implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

GLENVILLE RAWLINS

A firm is technically efficient when it produces the maximum level of output for a given level of input on the assumption that technology is fixed. Although the above…

Abstract

A firm is technically efficient when it produces the maximum level of output for a given level of input on the assumption that technology is fixed. Although the above definition of technical efficiency has been around for decades, economists have, for the most part, been estimating average production functions (i.e. production functions that assume that all firms are technically efficient except for random noise), and then proceeding to make inferences regarding the potential of firms from this average production function.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Hua Jiang and Yi Luo

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model examining how three influential organizational factors – authentic leadership, transparent organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a model examining how three influential organizational factors – authentic leadership, transparent organizational communication, and employee engagement – are linked to employee trust.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted an online survey on a random sample of 391 employees across different industry sectors in the USA.

Findings

Authentic leadership, transparent organizational communication, and employee engagement directly and significantly influenced the level of trust that employees have toward their organizations. Authentic leadership indirectly impacted employee engagement through transparent organizational communication. Authentic leadership also indirectly affected employee trust via the presence of transparent organizational communication and employee engagement.

Practical implications

The study informs communication managers and organizational leaders with the importance of integrating authentic leadership and transparent communication skills, strategies, and tactics in various training and mentoring workshops. Creating a motivating, nurturing, and transparent organizational environment contributes to employee engagement and trust.

Originality/value

This study examines the drivers of employee trust by testing the effects of employee engagement, authentic leadership, and transparent organizational communication.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1917

In the House of Lords on the 13th November last the Earl of MEATH asked whether it was a fact, as stated in the public Press, that the leaflet of the Board of Agriculture…

Abstract

In the House of Lords on the 13th November last the Earl of MEATH asked whether it was a fact, as stated in the public Press, that the leaflet of the Board of Agriculture recommending the use of glucose, salicylic acid, and a coal‐tar product known as saccharin, or saxin, as sugar substitutes in jam had been condemned by the Kensington Public Health Committee on the ground of possible danger to health, and whether the Public Analyst told the Committee that glucose was liable to contamination with arsenic, that salicylic acid was a dangerous drug, which should only be administered under medical direction, and that the use of saccharin, except under medical supervision, had been recently prohibited in America, and was entirely prohibited in France in certain commodities, including preserves; and if the facts were as stated, what steps the Government proposed to take to warn the public against the use of these drugs in the preservation of food. The Duke of MARLBOROUGH, the Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Agriculture, is reported to have replied that the opinion of expert chemists had been taken on the matters raised in the question. They had reported “that glucose had long been used in the manufacture of jam and for other food purposes, that its value as a food was well recognised, that its manufacture in this country was in the hands of a few firms, and that samples were systematically tested for arsenic at Government Laboratories.” Continuing, his Grace observed that “samples of foreign glucose were also taken for examination on importation. In no case did the arsenic exceed one‐hundredth of a grain per pound of glucose, the point below which the Royal Commission on Arsenical Poisoning had reported that no action should be taken under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts. Manufacturers exercised great care to secure freedom from arsenic. Further, the Board of Agriculture had suggested that, as glucose was sold for human food, it came within the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, and was subject to public analytical examination. The public was therefore doubly safeguarded. The leaflet did not refer to the use of salicylic acid in jam making, but to its use for sterilising the paper covers on the pots. The Committee of the Local Government Board which was appointed in 1899 to inquire into the use of preservatives in food had placed a limit of one grain of the acid per pound in the case of solids and of one grain per pint in the case of liquids. The amount used for the paper covers of jam pots was not nearly one grain per pound of jam. The use of coal tar for sweetening was not advocated, and was not referred to in the leaflet. It had, however, been suggested that saccharin or saxin could be used in place of cane sugar where cane sugar was not obtainable. Saccharin underwent no change in and was not absorbed by the body. The Department had no precise knowledge of the reasons which had led to the alleged prohibition of the use of saccharin in America and France. It would appear, however, that the prohibition if it existed, was due to fiscal reasons.” After the delivery of this statement the Earl of MEATH is reported to have said it would relieve a great many minds to hear that in the opinion of eminent chemists there was no danger in using the substances in question. He hoped the public would no longer be afraid to use them.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 19 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2020

Toby Hopp and Jolene Fisher

When it comes to tactics that organizational communicators can undertake to elicit positive gains with stakeholders, transparent communication ranks high on lists proposed…

Abstract

Purpose

When it comes to tactics that organizational communicators can undertake to elicit positive gains with stakeholders, transparent communication ranks high on lists proposed by both the scholarly and trade literatures. However, little is known about why such communication tactics are effective on a psychological level. Thus, this study aims to propose and test a psychological model of transparent communication effectiveness in the context of proactive, socially responsible brand communication. The model was based on three propositions: (1) transparent communication offers audiences an important opportunity to learn more about organizational functioning, (2) learning elicits an organizationally relevant positive affective state and (3) positive affect facilitates a robust relationship between perceived learning outcomes and positive evaluation of the organization.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an experiment to test the hypothesized model.

Findings

Support was found for the proposed model. Specifically, the data indicated that the use of transparent massaging elicited higher levels of perceived learning. Perceived learning was associated with positive brand-relevant affect. Finally, positive brand relevant-affect predicted positive summary brand evaluation.

Originality/value

Taken as a whole, the current findings inform theorizing on transparent organizational and brand communication by describing the foundational roles played by perceived knowledge gain and positive affect in encouraging positive message-related outcomes.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Taylor Jing Wen, Jo-Yun Li and Baobao Song

This study situates in the context of Chipotle's food safety issue and seeks to understand how their primary customers perceive their crisis response messages after…

Abstract

Purpose

This study situates in the context of Chipotle's food safety issue and seeks to understand how their primary customers perceive their crisis response messages after learning of the outbreaks. The current study incorporates the framework of situational crisis communication theory (SCCT; Coombs, 2007) and public segmentation model (Rawlins, 2006) to understand the effectiveness of crisis response messages. It aims to examine the role of public segmentation in situational crisis communication and investigate the effects of three crisis response strategies according to SCCT on different public segments.

Design/methodology/approach

The SCCT provides guidelines for understanding the effectiveness of different crisis response strategies. The current study showcases the importance of public segmentation in the SCCT model through the lens of stakeholder theory. A 3 (crisis response strategy: deny, diminish, rebuild) × 4 (public segment: advocate, dormant, adversarial, apathetic) factorial experiment was conducted.

Findings

The findings suggest that advocate public expressed more positive evaluation about the company when exposed to rebuild and deny strategies. Both dormant and adversarial stakeholders reported positive responses on rebuild and diminish strategies. However, no difference was found among apathetic public.

Originality/value

The researchers attempt to make a modest contribution in this direction by reporting results from an empirical experiment that examined the effects of crisis response strategies on different public segments. The findings suggest an effective message tailoring approach to target different public segments. Thus, the results of this study are expected to benefit relevant corporations and public relations practitioners.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

Young Kim

The purpose of this paper is to explore the organizational effectiveness of internal crisis communication within the strategic management approach, whether it enhanced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the organizational effectiveness of internal crisis communication within the strategic management approach, whether it enhanced voluntary and positive employee communication behaviors (ECBs) for sensemaking and sensegiving. By doing so, this study provides meaningful insight into: new crisis communication theory development that takes a strategic management approach, emphasizing employees’ valuable assets from an organization, and effective crisis communication practice that reduces misalignment with employees and that enhances voluntary and positive ECBs for the organization during a crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted a nationwide survey in the USA among full-time employees (n=544). After dimensionality check through confirmatory factor analysis, this study tested hypothesis and research question by conducting ordinary least squares multiple regression analyses using STATA 13.

Findings

This study found that strategic internal communication factors, including two-way symmetrical communication and transparent communication, were positive and strong antecedents of ECBs for sensemaking and sensegiving in crisis situations, when controlling for other effects. The post hoc analysis confirmed theses positive and strong associations across different industry areas.

Originality/value

This study suggests that voluntary and valuable ECBs can be enhanced by listening and responding to employee concerns and interests; encouraging employee participation in crisis communication; and organizational accountability through words, actions and decisions during the crisis. As a theoretical implication, the results of this study indicate the need for crisis communication theories that emphasize employees as valuable assets to an organization.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Nekehia T. Quashie, Julian G. McKoy Davis, Douladel Willie-Tyndale, Kenneth James and Denise Eldemire-Shearer

Purpose: Grandparents are common providers of childcare within the Caribbean region. Yet research on the implications of grandparent caregiving for older adults…

Abstract

Purpose: Grandparents are common providers of childcare within the Caribbean region. Yet research on the implications of grandparent caregiving for older adults’ well-being is limited. This study examined gender differences in the relationship between grandparent caregiving and the life satisfaction of older adults in Jamaica.

Methodology: Using a sample of 1,622 grandparents 60 years and older drawn from the 2012 study “The Health and Social Status of Older Jamaicans,” we estimated binary logistic regression models to examine the association between the frequency of grandparent caregiving and the life satisfaction of grandparents.

Findings: Grandmothers were more likely than grandfathers to provide care. We did not find a statistically significant gender difference in the life satisfaction of caregiving grandparents. Yet, gender differences in the patterns of association between grandparent caregiving and life satisfaction were evident. Among grandmothers, both occasional and regular caregiving was associated with higher life satisfaction relative to non-caregivers. Among grandfathers, however, only regular caregiving was positively associated with life satisfaction.

Originality: This is the first population-based study within the Caribbean to examine gendered patterns of grandparent caregiving and the association with grandparents’ well-being. The findings of this study suggest that grandparent caregiving is beneficial to the well-being of older Jamaican men and women. This study challenges assumptions of gender norms that typically do not position men to be involved in caregiving roles, and to derive satisfaction from such roles, within Caribbean households. The authors suggest more attention should be given to interventions to encourage men to be actively involved in family caregiving.

Details

Aging and the Family: Understanding Changes in Structural and Relationship Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-491-5

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