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This review integrates and builds linkages among existing theoretical and empirical literature from across disciplines to further broaden our understanding of the…
This review integrates and builds linkages among existing theoretical and empirical literature from across disciplines to further broaden our understanding of the relationship between inequality, imprisonment, and health for black men. The review examines the health impact of prisons through an ecological theoretical perspective to understand how factors at multiple levels of the social ecology interact with prisons to potentially contribute to deleterious health effects and the exacerbation of race/ethnic health disparities.
This review finds that there are documented health disparities between inmates and non-inmates, but the casual mechanisms explaining this relationship are not well-understood. Prisons may interact with other societal systems – such as the family (microsystem), education, and healthcare systems (meso/exosystems), and systems of racial oppression (macrosystem) – to influence individual and population health.
The review also finds that research needs to move the discussion of the race effects in health and crime/justice disparities beyond the mere documentation of such differences toward a better understanding of their causes and effects at the level of individuals, communities, and other social ecologies.
Disability and participation: assessing employment and education outcomes in the National Health Interview Survey (2010)
Disclaimer: The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent or reflect the views of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Applying an intersectional approach to the analysis of nationally representative population data collected through the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), this…
Applying an intersectional approach to the analysis of nationally representative population data collected through the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), this chapter attempts to address the congruence between functional status (disability) and other relevant socio-demographic background variables (gender, race, self-reported health status, etc.) that may potentially result in disparate access to education and employment.
Disability is defined and measured using the six American Community Survey (ACS) disability questions. Disability, intersectionality, and equalization of opportunities are assessed in a representative sample of the U.S. adult population as measured on the 2010 NHIS. Data on approximately 32,000 adults age 18 years and over are used to explore, using multivariate techniques, the intersection between disability, age, gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, health insurance, and reported health status, and education and employment outcomes.
The results presented describe a disparity in outcomes of education and employment between disabled and nondisabled adults when controlling for several important background and socio-demographic variables. Exploring the relationships between these variables provides a richer understanding of disability as it exists within the social world.
In order to further improve our understanding of the population dynamics of disability, disability data must be routinely incorporated into national statistics programs. The ACS questions provide a common approach to the definition and measurement of disability within the Federal Statistical System.
Nearly 200m people in the world experience considerable functioning difficulties. Also, more than three-fourth of the population aged 50 years and over is suffering from…
Nearly 200m people in the world experience considerable functioning difficulties. Also, more than three-fourth of the population aged 50 years and over is suffering from some kind of disability in India, China, Ghana, Russia, Mexico and South Africa. Despite the compelling nature of this issue, evidence on socioeconomic disparity in the occurrence of disability is lacking throughout the world and particularly in the aforementioned countries. The purpose of this paper is twofold – first, to examine the socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of disability in the selected countries; and second, to investigate the cross-country differentials in the prevalence of disability by socioeconomic characteristics.
The authors use data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa during 2007–2010. Disability scores have been constructed using Item Response Theory Partial Credit Model based on eight health and functioning domains. Bivariate analysis, concentration curves, concentration indices and multivariate regressions have been used in the analysis presented in this paper.
The authors find that the prevalence of disability varied considerably across sociodemographic groups. Moreover, this variation is not uniform across all countries. Also, age, Sex, work status, years of schooling and economic status emerged out as significant predictors of disability among the studied countries.
This is perhaps the first study which examines the socioeconomic inequality in disability conceptualized in a comprehensive manner among older adults spread across low to upper middle income countries. The alarming level of prevalence of disability among sociodemographic disadvantage groups calls for immediate attention in terms of detailed study of risk factors, effective policy and timely intervention.