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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Cristina Escobar, Zein Kallas and José M. Gil

Important socioeconomic changes have been undergone due to the international economic crisis. In Catalonia (Spain), political changes towards independentism also occurred…

Abstract

Purpose

Important socioeconomic changes have been undergone due to the international economic crisis. In Catalonia (Spain), political changes towards independentism also occurred within the same period. The purpose of this paper is to explore the consumers’ wine preferences in Catalonia in two different scenarios. In particular, the authors have focussed the interest in those preferences regarding the regional origin of the wine.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were elicited from two identical discrete choice experiments performed in two times: before (2008) and during the economic crisis (2010) in Catalonia, Spain.

Findings

The results imply that the external common circumstances may have had a homogenising influence in consumer choices by decreasing the level of randomness of consumers’ selection. Consumers’ preferences for a Catalan origin were enhanced during the crisis, while price became the most important attribute.

Research limitations/implications

Ideally, the participants involved in both experiments would have been the same. Unfortunately, this was not possible to maintain and it is one of the limitations of this study. The authors are also aware that other non-controlled variables may have also played a role and the conclusions that are driven should be taken carefully.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature of the discrete choice modelling using the recently developed Generalized Multinomial Logit Model. To the knowledge this is the first application in the literature of wine preferences to measure the impact of the contextual changes (economic and political) in Catalonia (Spain).

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Elina Kallas and Eve Parts

The present paper aims to identify a set of cognitive and contextual characteristics that explain entrepreneurial intentions, actions and venture creation, thereby…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to identify a set of cognitive and contextual characteristics that explain entrepreneurial intentions, actions and venture creation, thereby covering three successive stages of becoming an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on entrepreneurship data from a self-reported online survey (n = 1,492) gathered among the Estonian population in 2017. The authors use an exploratory factor analysis to reduce initial survey responses about the external environment into latent factors. Linear regression models are applied to predict the determinants of entrepreneurial intention and actions, whereas the logit model is applied to find out the determinants of being or not being an entrepreneur.

Findings

Younger people, respondents with vocational education and the unemployed have a higher intention to start up. Men are more active than women in the second stage of taking real action, whereas middle-aged respondents and managers are less active. In the final stage of enterprise creation, men become more likely entrepreneurs, whereas younger people and those who do not have higher education become less likely entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial attitudes and competencies as preconditional factors of entrepreneurial readiness have a positive effect in all three stages. The role of motivation appeared to be controversial – it has a weak positive effect on the intention stage but a strong negative effect on the action stage, becoming insignificant in the final stage of becoming an entrepreneur. In the final stage, taking real action has the strongest positive effect. Regarding differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs have a more positive perception of the business environment and the ease of doing business, including the simplicity of entrepreneurship-related legislation. On the other hand, entrepreneurs are more skeptical about the availability of financial resources, and they perceive public attitudes and the role of entrepreneurs in a society less positively.

Research limitations/implications

As data of this study originates from a survey, the sample may not represent the whole population. This might limit the extent to which the conclusions of this study can be generalized. Also, the study’s data do not enable us to consider all potential factors that may affect entrepreneurial intention, action and venture creation. For example, the authors do not consider the effect of income or differences between opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship because of data limitations.

Practical implications

This study focuses on environmental obstacles and individual restrictions that are important in different stages of becoming an entrepreneur. In terms of policy implications, providing better financing opportunities both from private and public institutions and keeping entrepreneurship legislation simple and transparent have the utmost importance in increasing the share of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship-related benefits in society. The younger population’s high entrepreneurial intentions should be transferred more effectively into real actions toward starting up, paired with supportive entrepreneurship education.

Social implications

The study results show that developing positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and providing relevant competencies through the education system are relevant factors in all stages of becoming an entrepreneur, thus enabling entrepreneurial activities in society.

Originality/value

First, the authors investigate the factors of entrepreneurship separately during the three stages in the journey of becoming an entrepreneur, starting from intentions, followed by preparation actions and finalized by real enterprise creation. Second, the analysis of this study is based on the original Environment-Readiness Entrepreneurship Intention model, which emphasizes the role of the external environment in entrepreneurial processes. Ten factors of the external environment are extracted using exploratory analysis instead of using three traditional predefined factors of the economic, political and socio-cultural environment. Third, our focus on Estonia broadens the knowledge about entrepreneurship in the Central and Eastern European region in general and in the Baltic region, more specifically.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Zein Kallas, Martin Federico Alba, Karina Casellas, Miriam Berges, Gustavo Degreef and José M. Gil

The development of the short food supply chain (SFSC) is one of the issues of the current agri-food systems. Consumers are re-connecting the food they eat with the farming…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of the short food supply chain (SFSC) is one of the issues of the current agri-food systems. Consumers are re-connecting the food they eat with the farming process and are increasingly asking for fresh, seasonal and traceable food products from known producer source. The purpose of this paper is to analyse consumers’ opinions towards the SFSC and willingness to pay (WTP) for local honeys in Mar del Plata, Argentina before and after a hedonic evaluation test.

Design/methodology/approach

In an incentive compatible approach, using real purchasing scenarios, two non-hypothetical discrete choice experiments were applied, accounting for the impact of the SFSC understanding and hedonic evaluation on consumers’ WTP.

Findings

Results showed that consumers’ WTP, a premium for local honey products, is conditioned to specific quality cues and the global sensory acceptance. Consumers with high level of agreement with the social and environmental roles of the SFSC were more quality demanding and exhibited higher WTP towards the locally produced honeys. The development of local market by re-connecting producers and consumers, allowing for in-site tasting, has a strong implication for the structure of the honey added-value chain due to the potential role that may play in satisfying consumers’ preference and needs.

Originality/value

The authors measured consumers’ opinions towards the SFSC and analyse their impact on consumer WTP for honey product by including real purchasing scenarios and hedonic evaluation test, to reduce the hypothetical bias of the traditional surveys. Questionnaires were completed in a controlled laboratory environment for with real product and real money.

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Yasmina Baba, Zein Kallas and Carolina Realini

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the appropriateness of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to measure consumers’ acceptance and preference for eggs enriched…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the appropriateness of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to measure consumers’ acceptance and preference for eggs enriched with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids as a health claim and to compare its results with the traditional nine-point hedonic scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The AHP was used as a multi-criteria decision analysis. Data were obtained from a face-to-face questionnaire completed by 122 consumers in a controlled environment in Cataluña (Spain).

Findings

Results showed the capacity of the AHP to analyse consumers’ acceptance and preferences. An agreement between the AHP and the nine-point scale was found showing that n-3 enriched eggs had lower flavour acceptance, conventional eggs had higher yolk colour acceptance, and conventional and the free-range eggs had similar and higher odour acceptance than the other egg types. The most important attributes that determine preferences for egg purchase were the type and the egg price followed by the origin and the egg size.

Research limitations/implications

The AHP approach seems to be a reliable tool to evaluate consumers’ hedonic preferences. However, further testing on other food products with larger sample size is needed.

Originality/value

The AHP methodology has been widely used in many fields in the last decades, but to the knowledge, not in the sensory field. In the Spanish market, studies that analyse consumers’ preferences and acceptance of eggs are scarce, and new insights are needed particularly regarding n-3 enriched eggs.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

E. Kallas

Abstract

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Adam Fremeth, Brian Kelleher Richter and Brandon Schaufele

Campaign contributions are typically seen as a strategic investment for firms; recent empirical evidence, however, has shown few connections between firms’ contributions…

Abstract

Campaign contributions are typically seen as a strategic investment for firms; recent empirical evidence, however, has shown few connections between firms’ contributions and regulatory or performance improvements, prompting researchers to explore agency-based explanations for corporate politics. By studying intrafirm campaign contributions of CEOs and political action committees (PACs), we investigate two hypotheses related to public politics and demonstrate that strategic and agency-based motivations may hold simultaneously. Exploiting transaction-level data, with over 6.8 million observations, we show that (i) when PACs give to specific candidates, executives give to the same candidates, especially those who are strategically important to the firm; and (ii) when executives give to candidates who are not strategically important, PACs give to the same candidates potentially due to agency problems within the firm.

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Mustafa Turkyilmazoglu

This paper aims to revisite the traditional Adomian decomposition method frequently used for the solution of highly nonlinear extended surface problems in order to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to revisite the traditional Adomian decomposition method frequently used for the solution of highly nonlinear extended surface problems in order to understand the heat transfer enhancement phenomenon. It is modified to include a parameter adjusting and controlling the convergence of the resulting Adomian series.

Design/methodology/approach

It is shown that without such a convergence control parameter, some of the published data in the literature concerning the problem are lacking accuracy or the worst is untrustful. With the proposed amendment over the classical Adomian decomposition method, it is easy to gain the range of parameters guaranteeing the convergence of the Adomian series.

Findings

With the presented improvement, the reliable behavior of the fin tip temperature and the fin efficiency of the most interested from practical perspective are easily predicted.

Originality/value

The relevant future studies involving the fin problems covering many physical nonlinear properties must be properly treated as guided in this paper, while the Adomian decomposition method is adopted for the solution procedure.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2019

Marcelo Royo Vela and Leonardo Ortegon-Cortazar

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to provide empirical evidence of the relationship between specific sensory motivations (i.e. flavor) and the development of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to provide empirical evidence of the relationship between specific sensory motivations (i.e. flavor) and the development of preference for food, beverages or brands by preteen consumers; and second, to compare the three age groups within the concrete operations stage toward the hypothesis contrast that states that the higher the cognitive development, the more recognized and recalled a brand will be.

Design/methodology/approach

The research techniques implemented were observation (exploratory phase) and personal survey using a paper and pencil questionnaire. The food products and beverages, brands, jingles and isotypes used were based on a convenience sample of 131 lunch boxes. A sample of 682 preteens aged 6–11 in the concrete operation stage obtained by convenience and snowball sampling participated.

Findings

When choosing one product or brand over the other, the results highlight flavor as compared with other more secondary sensory motivations, and there are clear differences between the younger and older age groups. In respect of advertising recall and brand recognition, the older age group shows higher frequencies of correct jingle-brand and isotype-brand association.

Originality/value

Despite product and brand consumption in the child segment relevance further motivational research is needed to identify the factors that influence preferences. The results obtained show that there are preferences and motives for product consumption that can be attributed to the functioning of the senses by the preteen consumer as well as differences within the concrete operations stage.

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Luis Lisandro Lopez Taborda, Heriberto Maury and Jovanny Pacheco

There are many investigations in design methodologies, but there are also divergences and convergences as there are so many points of view. This study aims to evaluate to…

Abstract

Purpose

There are many investigations in design methodologies, but there are also divergences and convergences as there are so many points of view. This study aims to evaluate to corroborate and deepen other researchers’ findings, dissipate divergences and provide directing to future work on the subject from a methodological and convergent perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes the previous reviews (about 15 reviews) and based on the consensus and the classifications provided by these authors, a significant sample of research is analyzed in the design for additive manufacturing (DFAM) theme (approximately 80 articles until June of 2017 and approximately 280–300 articles until February of 2019) through descriptive statistics, to corroborate and deepen the findings of other researchers.

Findings

Throughout this work, this paper found statistics indicating that the main areas studied are: multiple objective optimizations, execution of the design, general DFAM and DFAM for functional performance. Among the main conclusions: there is a lack of innovation in the products developed with the methodologies, there is a lack of exhaustivity in the methodologies, there are few efforts to include environmental aspects in the methodologies, many of the methods include economic and cost evaluation, but are not very explicit and broad (sustainability evaluation), it is necessary to consider a greater variety of functions, among other conclusions

Originality/value

The novelty in this study is the methodology. It is very objective, comprehensive and quantitative. The starting point is not the case studies nor the qualitative criteria, but the figures and quantities of methodologies. The main contribution of this review article is to guide future work on the subject from a methodological and convergent perspective and this article provides a broad database with articles containing information on many issues to make decisions: design methodology; optimization; processes, selection of parts and materials; cost and product management; mechanical, electrical and thermal properties; health and environmental impact, etc.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Ching‐Wen Lin and Hsiao‐Chen Chang

The paper aims to explore the adoption attitudes of internal and external motivations by multinational enterprises (MNEs) concerning transfer pricing manipulation and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore the adoption attitudes of internal and external motivations by multinational enterprises (MNEs) concerning transfer pricing manipulation and to discuss on pricing strategies of MNEs under different motives of transfer pricing manipulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper conducts literature reviews regarding motives of transfer pricing manipulation and then conducts questionnaire survey and expert interview to select and generalize the transfer pricing manipulation decision making. Analytic network process (ANP) is then applied to obtain factors' weights and model construction.

Findings

The paper finds that tax minimization is no longer the focus of transfer pricing manipulation strategies of Taiwanese MNEs, and their real concerns are winning maximum economic profits, enhancing the competitiveness of the enterprise, and effectively repatriating profits to parent companies in order to facilitate greater economic profits.

Research limitations/implications

It is found from the model that most of the transfer pricing manipulation motives are based on low‐price strategies, which circumvent the exchange rate risks of low quotes. A possible reason is that current business operational patterns that have been limited to the electronic industry adopt the quantity‐based pricing strategy of “narrow profit margin and large volume.” However, the transfer pricing manipulation has great influence on the financial structures of the enterprises. The enterprises, as a result, must understand and reinforce the working of pricing transfer manipulation in the business development.

Originality/value

The paper collects questionnaires and investigation results from experts and scholars and uses ANP to construct a complete pricing strategic decision‐making model that may be taken by actual MNEs under different motives, in order to provide reference to MNEs when making transfer pricing manipulation strategies.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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