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Article

Walaa M. Abd El-Gawad, Nivin M. Ahmed, Mohamed M. Selim, E. Hamed and Eglal R. Souaya

In recent years, zeolites have been highlighted as a new component in many industrial applications owing to their unique properties. The purpose of this study is to apply…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, zeolites have been highlighted as a new component in many industrial applications owing to their unique properties. The purpose of this study is to apply three prepared types of zeolites Na-X, Na-Y and hydroxysodalite (Na-HS) in anticorrosive paint formulations to be evaluated as a partial replacement to zinc phosphate in anticorrosive paint formulations to protect carbon steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The three types of zeolites were characterized using different instrumental analysis such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Evaluation of zeolites was done using American society for material and testing. Then, they were incorporated in paint formulations based on medium oil-modified soya-bean dehydrated castor oil alkyd resin in the presence and absence of zinc phosphate. Their corrosion behavior was estimated using both immersion test and electrochemical impedance measurements in 3.5% NaCl.

Findings

Generally, the prepared zeolites exhibited good corrosion protection performance, but in presence of zinc phosphate the performance was better. This proves that, zeolites by themselves can resist corrosion but not efficiently, while in presence of zinc phosphate and owing to a synergistic effect between them, the performance was better. This opens the way to partial replacement of zinc phosphate with another safer and cheaper ingredient, which is zeolite.

Practical implications

The three zeolites can be applied in many industries besides the paint industry, such as reinforcing filler in rubber, plastics and ceramic composites, also can be applied in paper filling, paper coatings and electrical insulation.

Originality/value

The three zeolites are environmentally friendly materials that can partially replace other expensive anticorrosive pigments (e.g. zinc phosphate).

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Kapil Bhardwaj and Mayank Srivastava

This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for four-lobe memristor (FLM) element. The four-lobe memristive behaviour can be used in realization of hyperchaotic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a mathematical model for four-lobe memristor (FLM) element. The four-lobe memristive behaviour can be used in realization of hyperchaotic oscillators and implementation of multi-bit memories. For verification of the developed mathematical framework, two FLM circuit emulators have been presented using VDCC and IC LM13700, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model for FLM has been developed in which, the condition for the existence of symmetrical four lobes, instances and coordinates of the end points of lobes has been derived and presented. Using this mathematical framework, a FLM emulator based on VDCC has been developed. To validate the possibility of practical implementation of FLM concept, an IC LM13700-based circuit has also been developed. The workability of VDCC based circuit has been verified by running simulations in PSPICE environment using CMOS VDCC model. Similarly, the behaviour of LM13700 IC-based circuit has been confirmed by SPICE model of LM13700 IC.

Findings

It has been shown mathematically that under certain conditions, third-order flux dependent equation of memductance can be used to generate four lobes on the transient v-i plane. Also, two FLM emulators without using any voltage multiplier circuit/IC have been reported.

Originality/value

From the best knowledge of the authors, there are no such FLM emulators that have been reported in literature so far, which operates at practical operating frequencies.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Eric Deakins, Stuart Dillon, Hamed Al Namani and Chao (Kevin) Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to provide a picture of (local) e‐government impact and development philosophy in China, New Zealand, Oman, and the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a picture of (local) e‐government impact and development philosophy in China, New Zealand, Oman, and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument was used to collect data from policymakers in 114 civil service organisations in four countries during 2007.

Findings

Policymakers in every country report only low‐medium levels of agreement that their e‐government initiatives had yielded significant benefits for organisations and citizens alike over a broad range of performance measures concerning service quality, citizen satisfaction, productivity, and management effectiveness. In interactions with stakeholders that are both directive and maintain control over citizens, policymakers also favour the provision of online services that offer ever increasing amounts of information, rather than collaborative service channels that engage citizens in local decision making.

Research limitations/implications

Less than a 100‐percent response rate gives an incomplete snapshot of the e‐government scene in the four countries studied. Also, a lack of understanding of some key e‐government issues plus cultural response bias may have led to erroneous/biased responses.

Practical implications

In an era in which public sector organisations worldwide are under pressure to demonstrate success in service delivery and organisational performance, policymakers do not perceive online services as an opportunity to reduce the costs of physical infrastructure or to improve democracy via shared decision‐making. Thus, further erosions of trust and participation in democracy may continue unless citizens are given similar choices in the democratic system to those they have in their everyday lives.

Originality/value

The paper is undertaken at the local level of government and in a diverse range of countries where the political, social, economic, and cultural environments can differ markedly. It evaluates the significance of key e‐government issues in Western, Arabic, and Eastern contexts, enabling international comparisons to be made across these cultural settings. Impacts of the e‐government initiatives on organisations and citizens are presented and compared; and policymaker attitudes to new technology having the potential to enhance the democratic process are presented.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article

Kapil Bhardwaj and Mayank Srivastava

The purpose of the paper is to report an emulation configuration of a three pinch-off memristor (TPM), whose transient characteristics consist three cross-over points on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to report an emulation configuration of a three pinch-off memristor (TPM), whose transient characteristics consist three cross-over points on the voltage-current plane, which is dissimilar to a conventional memristor. These characteristics can be very useful in memristor-based multi-bit memory devices and hyperchaotic oscillators.

Design/methodology/approach

The work describes the Mathematical framework for TPM and a circuit emulator based on the derived conditions. The configuration is based on five operational transconductance amplifier (OTAs) and four grounded passive elements. After which, we have verified its operation using personal simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis simulation environment. Finally, the implementation of OTA-based TPM using commercial integrated circuit (IC) LM13700 has also been presented.

Findings

It has been shown that a flux-dependent memductance expression of cubic order can show three intersections on the VI contour under certain parameter related constraints. Moreover, the OTA-based emulator reported in the work is very compact in nature because of the no use of external multiplier IC/circuitry, which has been popular in previous emulators.

Originality/value

For the first time, a multiple cross-over memristor emulator has been reported which can operate under practical operating conditions such as at practical operating frequencies and sinusoidal excitation.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article

Rakesh Belwal, Rahima Al Shibli and Shweta Belwal

Within a larger mandate of reviewing the key global trends concerning consumer protection in the electronic commerce (e-commerce) literature, this study aims to study the…

Abstract

Purpose

Within a larger mandate of reviewing the key global trends concerning consumer protection in the electronic commerce (e-commerce) literature, this study aims to study the legal framework concerning e-commerce and consumer protection in the Sultanate of Oman and to analyse the current regulations concerning e-commerce and consumer protection.

Design/methodology/approach

This study followed the normative legal research approach and resorted to the desk research process to facilitate content analysis of literature containing consumer protection legislation and regulatory provisions in Oman in particular and the rest of the world in general.

Findings

The study reveals that consumer protection initiatives in Oman are well entrenched for offline transactions, but are relatively new and limited for e-commerce. In spite of the promulgation of consumer protection laws, electronic transaction law and cybercrime law, consumer protection measures for e-commerce in Oman do not address a large number of the global concerns necessary to build consumer confidence and trust in the online environment.

Research limitations/implications

There is a dearth of information concerning Oman on this topic in the extant literature. The research also witnessed the lack of empirical data on the issue of consumer protection and e-commerce in Oman that offer a detailed database of consumer complaints and associated outcomes.

Practical implications

The mechanism of consumer protection in electronic transactions is not robust in many countries. Because of the lack of comprehensive and robust legislation, consumers remain vulnerable in the online contractual purchase process. Moving beyond the fragmented legislation, many countries are currently mulling an all-comprehensive e-commerce law, implications of this paper will help the policymakers in identifying the focus areas.

Social implications

Consumer protection is a burning global issue in this era of consumerism. It is important to build consumer trust, transparency and integrity of transactions to reduce the risk and uncertainties of purchase.

Originality/value

Consumer protection studies conducted in the context of Oman, hitherto, deal more with data protection and dispute resolution mechanisms, and less with legal provisions, regulations and consumer confidence. The study shares newer insights based on a systematic review of legal and business databases. It is the first study of its kind in the context of Oman and the Middle East in general.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article

Mervyn K. Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and structure of Islamic investment funds and evaluate their governance.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and structure of Islamic investment funds and evaluate their governance.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology employed is the conceptual framework of Islamic economics.

Findings

It is found that Islamic investment funds have grown rapidly this decade: in Malaysia alone, the number of shari'a‐compliant funds has grown from 17 in 2000 to 149 in 2008, and at a global level there are 650 funds in operation. However, the industry has developed in a particular way, by focusing on negative screens, and removing from investments those activities deemed to be unacceptable to Islamic precepts, rather than pursuing as well the implementation of other aspects of the Islamic ethos.

Originality/value

The conclusion reached is that, if the Islamic investment fund industry is to provide more completely for the religious and financial aspirations of investors, it needs to go beyond the negatives and to also accentuate the positive and, drawing upon Islamic governance guidelines, actively seek out investments that have a positive impact on society and the environment and promote the welfare of the community. These issues hitherto have been largely unexplored.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article

Andrew Robertson

The innovation process is not homogeneous, but highly variable according to industrial sector and the level of abstraction of the innovation itself. This level of…

Abstract

The innovation process is not homogeneous, but highly variable according to industrial sector and the level of abstraction of the innovation itself. This level of abstraction from existing products while not precisely measurable, can be graded, thus giving some guidance as to the probability of success according to the size of investment and the risk involved. The complexity of the new product and its technological level (the monograph confines the argument to product innovation) will also determine how the innovating organisation handles the innovation. Much research has now been done into the innovation process, and some of the leading projects and their findings are analysed. Supporting the basic argument there are two case histories, one of a successful scientific instrument, together with reference to an unsuccessful attempt to launch it, and one of a failure with a new material, in spite of highly successful technology.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

Mohamed E. Bayou and Alan Reinstein

The product‐mix decision has received considerable attention in management accounting and economics literatures. However, many studies in these literatures are…

Abstract

The product‐mix decision has received considerable attention in management accounting and economics literatures. However, many studies in these literatures are contradicting, inconclusive and lack rigorous analysis of this complex decision. They seek to develop weights for the products in the product mix based on one objective, to maximize the firm’s profit ability. But before developing these weights, the studies must first rank these products, Ranking is a complex endeavor since it is often driven by a multitude of hierarchical financial and non‐financial goals and objectives. Ranking is also difficult due to the use of complex concepts such as time, uncertainty, cost and interdependencies between accounting systems and manufacturing systems and among the products of the product mix. These concepts are inherently fuzzy and coextensively applied often with a confluence of variables operating simultaneously. This paper applies an advanced mathematical model to account for the product mix decision. The model combines the powers of fuzzy‐set theory (Zadeh, 1965) and the analytic hierarchy process (Saaty, 1978). The fuzzy‐analytic‐hierarchical process (FAHP), developed by de Korvin and Kleyle (1999), is sufficiently powerful to account for the ambiguous variables and the web of prioritized strategies and goals of cost leadership, product differentiation, financial objectives of earnings, cash flows and market share and non financial goals such as tradition and owners’ convictions and philosophies underlying the ranking of the products in the product mix. By way of example, the paper applies the FAHP model to rank order four products subject to these strategies and goals.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Sihem Kherraf, Emna Zouaoui and Mohamed Salah Medjram

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitive action of some green leaves on Monel 400 alloy in acidic media.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitive action of some green leaves on Monel 400 alloy in acidic media.

Design/methodology/approach

Green leaves of Mespilus japonica, Ricinus communis L and Vitis vinifera were immersed in methanol solutions, separately, and filtrated after 48 h of immersion; the obtained filtrates were examined as corrosion inhibitors of Monel 400 alloy in hydrochloric acid solution (1.0M HCl). The performance of these inhibitors was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization. The effect of temperature on corrosion behavior of Monel 400 was also studied.

Findings

The results obtained showed that all tested inhibitors performed as good corrosion inhibitors. The inhibition process is attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitors on Monel surface. The adsorption behavior was found to follow Langmiur isotherm. The inhibition efficiencies of extracts increased with increasing the concentration of each inhibitor and deceased with increasing the temperature.

Practical implication These inhibitors could have application in industries where hydrochloric solutions were used to remove the surface impurities of Monel 400.

Originality/value

This paper helps to find new corrosion inhibitors that are safe and eco-friendly.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Sara Hamed and Noha El‐Bassiouny

The aim of this paper is to identify the different values that were communicated through the visuals of the Egyptian revolution of January 25th, 2011 with reflections on…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to identify the different values that were communicated through the visuals of the Egyptian revolution of January 25th, 2011 with reflections on those that were communicated historically in Germany to highlight how these visuals can act as tools of informal education and social marketing campaigns to citizens of a country.

Design/methodology/approach

The current research paper takes a qualitative exploratory approach. The method that was utilized is content analysis, with the sub‐method used to analyze the content of the street visuals being semiotic analysis.

Findings

The main social and religious values communicated between citizens in Egypt and Germany were about freedom, peace, unity, and victory. These street visuals help in communicating social and religious values to citizens of a country at the time of the revolution and recording them keeps their messages for future generations to come. Accordingly, these visuals help in informally educating citizens and act as social marketing campaigns from and to the people.

Research limitations/implications

The results here should not be regarded as conclusive results as they are of a qualitative nature and should be followed and tested by future quantitative research.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this research paper is to fill the gap in literature by blending all the different research domains about informal education research, social marketing, graffiti and street art papers, and the historical revolution accounts. There was no prior research conducted with either a similar aim or under all these previous domains.

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