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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2017

Qiongwei Ye and Baojun Ma

Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insight and analysis into E-commerce in China and how it has revolutionized and continues to…

Abstract

Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insight and analysis into E-commerce in China and how it has revolutionized and continues to revolutionize business and society. Split into four distinct sections, the book first lays out the theoretical foundations and fundamental concepts of E-Business before moving on to look at internet+ innovation models and their applications in different industries such as agriculture, finance and commerce. The book then provides a comprehensive analysis of E-business platforms and their applications in China before finishing with four comprehensive case studies of major E-business projects, providing readers with successful examples of implementing E-Business entrepreneurship projects.

Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insights and analysis into how E-commerce has revolutionized and continues to revolutionize business and society in China.

Details

Internet+ and Electronic Business in China: Innovation and Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-115-7

Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2017

Qiongwei Ye and Baojun Ma

Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insight and analysis into E-commerce in China and how it has revolutionized and continues to…

Abstract

Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insight and analysis into E-commerce in China and how it has revolutionized and continues to revolutionize business and society. Split into four distinct sections, the book first lays out the theoretical foundations and fundamental concepts of E-Business before moving on to look at internet+ innovation models and their applications in different industries such as agriculture, finance and commerce. The book then provides a comprehensive analysis of E-business platforms and their applications in China before finishing with four comprehensive case studies of major E-business projects, providing readers with successful examples of implementing E-Business entrepreneurship projects.

Internet + and Electronic Business in China is a comprehensive resource that provides insights and analysis into how E-commerce has revolutionized and continues to revolutionize business and society in China.

Details

Internet+ and Electronic Business in China: Innovation and Applications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-115-7

Abstract

Details

The Emergence of Teacher Education in Zambia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-560-9

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Amir Hosein Keyhanipour, Behzad Moshiri, Maryam Piroozmand, Farhad Oroumchian and Ali Moeini

Learning to rank algorithms inherently faces many challenges. The most important challenges could be listed as high-dimensionality of the training data, the dynamic nature of Web…

Abstract

Purpose

Learning to rank algorithms inherently faces many challenges. The most important challenges could be listed as high-dimensionality of the training data, the dynamic nature of Web information resources and lack of click-through data. High dimensionality of the training data affects effectiveness and efficiency of learning algorithms. Besides, most of learning to rank benchmark datasets do not include click-through data as a very rich source of information about the search behavior of users while dealing with the ranked lists of search results. To deal with these limitations, this paper aims to introduce a novel learning to rank algorithm by using a set of complex click-through features in a reinforcement learning (RL) model. These features are calculated from the existing click-through information in the data set or even from data sets without any explicit click-through information.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed ranking algorithm (QRC-Rank) applies RL techniques on a set of calculated click-through features. QRC-Rank is as a two-steps process. In the first step, Transformation phase, a compact benchmark data set is created which contains a set of click-through features. These feature are calculated from the original click-through information available in the data set and constitute a compact representation of click-through information. To find most effective click-through feature, a number of scenarios are investigated. The second phase is Model-Generation, in which a RL model is built to rank the documents. This model is created by applying temporal difference learning methods such as Q-Learning and SARSA.

Findings

The proposed learning to rank method, QRC-rank, is evaluated on WCL2R and LETOR4.0 data sets. Experimental results demonstrate that QRC-Rank outperforms the state-of-the-art learning to rank methods such as SVMRank, RankBoost, ListNet and AdaRank based on the precision and normalized discount cumulative gain evaluation criteria. The use of the click-through features calculated from the training data set is a major contributor to the performance of the system.

Originality/value

In this paper, we have demonstrated the viability of the proposed features that provide a compact representation for the click through data in a learning to rank application. These compact click-through features are calculated from the original features of the learning to rank benchmark data set. In addition, a Markov Decision Process model is proposed for the learning to rank problem using RL, including the sets of states, actions, rewarding strategy and the transition function.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2015

Vimala Balakrishnan, Kian Ahmadi and Sri Devi Ravana

– The purpose of this paper is to improve users’ search results relevancy by manipulating their explicit feedback.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve users’ search results relevancy by manipulating their explicit feedback.

Design/methodology/approach

CoRRe – an explicit feedback model integrating three popular feedback, namely, Comment-Rating-Referral is proposed in this study. The model is further enhanced using case-based reasoning in retrieving the top-5 results. A search engine prototype was developed using Text REtrieval Conference as the document collection, and results were evaluated at three levels (i.e. top-5, 10 and 15). A user evaluation involving 28 students was administered, focussing on 20 queries.

Findings

Both Mean Average Precision and Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain results indicate CoRRe to have the highest retrieval precisions at all the three levels compared to the other feedback models. Furthermore, independent t-tests showed the precision differences to be significant. Rating was found to be the most popular technique among the participants, producing the best precision compared to referral and comments.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that search retrieval relevance can be significantly improved when users’ explicit feedback are integrated, therefore web-based systems should find ways to manipulate users’ feedback to provide better recommendations or search results to the users.

Originality/value

The study is novel in the sense that users’ comment, rating and referral were taken into consideration to improve their overall search experience.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2008

Seda Ozmutlu and Gencer C. Cosar

Identification of topic changes within a user search session is a key issue in content analysis of search engine user queries. Recently, various studies have focused on new topic…

Abstract

Purpose

Identification of topic changes within a user search session is a key issue in content analysis of search engine user queries. Recently, various studies have focused on new topic identification/session identification of search engine transaction logs, and several problems regarding the estimation of topic shifts and continuations were observed in these studies. This study aims to analyze the reasons for the problems that were encountered as a result of applying automatic new topic identification.

Design/methodology/approach

Measures, such as cleaning the data of common words and analyzing the errors of automatic new topic identification, are applied to eliminate the problems in estimating topic shifts and continuations.

Findings

The findings show that the resulting errors of automatic new topic identification have a pattern, and further research is required to improve the performance of automatic new topic identification.

Originality/value

Improving the performance of automatic new topic identification would be valuable to search engine designers, so that they can develop new clustering and query recommendation algorithms, as well as custom‐tailored graphical user interfaces for search engine users.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Cheng-Jye Luh, Sheng-An Yang and Ting-Li Dean Huang

– The purpose of this paper is to estimate Google search engine’s ranking function from a search engine optimization (SEO) perspective.

7068

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate Google search engine’s ranking function from a search engine optimization (SEO) perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposed an estimation function that defines the query match score of a search result as the weighted sum of scores from a limited set of factors. The search results for a query are re-ranked according to the query match scores. The effectiveness was measured by comparing the new ranks with the original ranks of search results.

Findings

The proposed method achieved the best SEO effectiveness when using the top 20 search results for a query. The empirical results reveal that PageRank (PR) is the dominant factor in Google ranking function. The title follows as the second most important, and the snippet and the URL have roughly equal importance with variations among queries.

Research limitations/implications

This study considered a limited set of ranking factors. The empirical results reveal that SEO effectiveness can be assessed by a simple estimation of ranking function even when the ranks of the new and original result sets are quite dissimilar.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that web marketers should pay particular attention to a webpage’s PR, and then place the keyword in URL, the page title, and snippet.

Originality/value

There have been ongoing concerns about how to formulate a simple strategy that can help a website get ranked higher in search engines. This study provides web marketers much needed empirical evidence about a simple way to foresee the ranking success of an SEO effort.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Clemens Schefels and Roberto V. Zicari

An important issue in the management of a web‐based user community, where users are registered to a web portal, is to identify patterns of users' interest. In this context, the…

Abstract

Purpose

An important issue in the management of a web‐based user community, where users are registered to a web portal, is to identify patterns of users' interest. In this context, the users' feedback plays a major role. The purpose of this paper is to define a novel framework analysis for managing the feedback given by registered visitors of a web site.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a new technique to integrate the feedback explicitly given by users into already existing user profiles. The authors introduce the novel concepts of scope, filtering, and relevance profiles for managing users' feedback. The new concept of Relevance Profile (RP) is defined.

Findings

Using the framework, the authors were able to discover patterns of usage of registered users of a web site.

Practical implications

The practical applicability of the approach is validated by a use case study showing how the framework can be used with a real web site. The authors used Gugubarra as a reference system, a prototype for creating and managing web user profiles, developed by the DBIS group at the Goethe‐University of Frankfurt.

Originality/value

A new way to integrate the user feedback into interest profiles and a novel framework to analyze and discover patterns of interests are presented. The paper is an extended version (more than 50 per cent novel material) of a previous paper presented at the iiWAS2010 conference.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Isabella Peters and Wolfgang G. Stock

Many Web 2.0 services (including Library 2.0 catalogs) make use of folksonomies. The purpose of this paper is to cut off all tags in the long tail of a document‐specific tag…

3273

Abstract

Purpose

Many Web 2.0 services (including Library 2.0 catalogs) make use of folksonomies. The purpose of this paper is to cut off all tags in the long tail of a document‐specific tag distribution. The remaining tags at the beginning of a tag distribution are considered power tags and form a new, additional search option in information retrieval systems.

Design/methodology/approach

In a theoretical approach the paper discusses document‐specific tag distributions (power law and inverse‐logistic shape), the development of such distributions (Yule‐Simon process and shuffling theory) and introduces search tags (besides the well‐known index tags) as a possibility for generating tag distributions.

Findings

Search tags are compatible with broad and narrow folksonomies and with all knowledge organization systems (e.g. classification systems and thesauri), while index tags are only applicable in broad folksonomies. Based on these findings, the paper presents a sketch of an algorithm for mining and processing power tags in information retrieval systems.

Research limitations/implications

This conceptual approach is in need of empirical evaluation in a concrete retrieval system.

Practical implications

Power tags are a new search option for retrieval systems to limit the amount of hits.

Originality/value

The paper introduces power tags as a means for enhancing the precision of search results in information retrieval systems that apply folksonomies, e.g. catalogs in Library 2.0 environments.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Maayan Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Judit Bar-Ilan and Mark Levene

One of the under-explored aspects in the process of user information seeking behaviour is influence of time on relevance evaluation. It has been shown in previous studies that…

5818

Abstract

Purpose

One of the under-explored aspects in the process of user information seeking behaviour is influence of time on relevance evaluation. It has been shown in previous studies that individual users might change their assessment of search results over time. It is also known that aggregated judgements of multiple individual users can lead to correct and reliable decisions; this phenomenon is known as the “wisdom of crowds”. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether aggregated judgements will be more stable and thus more reliable over time than individual user judgements.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study two simple measures are proposed to calculate the aggregated judgements of search results and compare their reliability and stability to individual user judgements. In addition, the aggregated “wisdom of crowds” judgements were used as a means to compare the differences between human assessments of search results and search engine’s rankings. A large-scale user study was conducted with 87 participants who evaluated two different queries and four diverse result sets twice, with an interval of two months. Two types of judgements were considered in this study: relevance on a four-point scale, and ranking on a ten-point scale without ties.

Findings

It was found that aggregated judgements are much more stable than individual user judgements, yet they are quite different from search engine rankings.

Practical implications

The proposed “wisdom of crowds”-based approach provides a reliable reference point for the evaluation of search engines. This is also important for exploring the need of personalisation and adapting search engine’s ranking over time to changes in users preferences.

Originality/value

This is a first study that applies the notion of “wisdom of crowds” to examine an under-explored in the literature phenomenon of “change in time” in user evaluation of relevance.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

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